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Comprehensive Description

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Phyllonorycter apparella (Herrich-Schäffer)

Tinea apparella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855:334.

Lithocolletis atomariella Zeller, 1875:350.—Walsingham, 1889:54.—Riley, 1891:108 [Lithocolletes (sic)].—Dyar, 1903:556 [Lithocolletes (sic)].—Freeman, 1970:272. [New synonymy.]

Lithocolletis apparella (Herrich-Schäffer).—Heinemann and Wocke, 1877: 694.—Staudinger and Rebel, 1901:216.—Spuler, 1910:418.—Meyrick, 1912a:38; 1912b:9.—Petersen, 1927:172.—Lhomme, 1963:1032.—Szöcs, 1977:253.—Kuznetzov, 1981:288.

Lithocolletis populiella Busck, 1903:770 [not Braun, 1908].—Dyar, 1904: 937.

Lithocolletis tremuloidiella Braun, 1908a:102; 1908b:317; 1914:115, 153.—Meyrick, 1912a:9; 1912b:37.—Barnes and McDunnough, 1917:187.—Ely, 1918:64.—McDunnough, 1939:96.—Freeman, 1970:275.—Brower, 1984: 41. [New synonymy.]

Lithocolletis salicifoliella Martin, 1956:155 [in part, not Chambers, 1871].—Watson, 1956:168.—Alberts, 1989:1.—Auerbach, 1991:1599.—Auerbach and Alberts, 1992:1.—Auerbach and Fleischer, 1992:201.

Phyllonorycter apparella (Herrich-Schäffer).—Bradley et al., 1969:31.—Buhl et al., 1984:6.—Buszko, 1987:640; 1996:51.—Kuznetzov and Baryshnikova, 1998:29.

Lithocolletis ontario Freeman, 1970:273. [New synonymy.]

Phyllonorycter atomariella (Zeller).—Davis, 1983:10.

Phyllonorycter ontario (Freeman).—Davis, 1983:10.

Phyllonorycter tremuloidiella (Braun).—Davis, 1983:10.—Maier and Davis, 1989:17.

ADULT (Figure 27).—Length of forewing: 3.6–4.8 mm. Small, slender wing moths with bronzy brown forewings partially traversed by usually five, rarely four, mostly oblique white costal bands and usually five, highly variable, white dorsal bands. Valvae of male genitalia symmetrical, tapering to an acute, sinuate apex.

Head: Vertex rough, usually with equal mixture of white and brown piliform scales, sometimes entirely white; frons smooth, with broad, Iustrous white scales often lightly suffused with brown. Antenna light brown to gray; each scale dark at apex fading to nearly white at base; a single row of scales encircling each segment; length three-fourths to four-fifths that of forewing. Labial palpus same color as frons.

Thorax: Dorsum usually white, irrorated with dark brownish tipped scales, occasionally entirely white. Venter white. Forewing variable, pale reddish to bronzy brown with typically five, rarely four, white costal bands and four to five dorsal bands extending mostly obliquely midway across wing as in Figure 27; all white bands edged internally by dark brown scales except slender tornal band that possesses a dark costal margin that forms an elongate apical spot; basal transverse white band highly variable, often confluent with basal two dorsal bands, white bands frequently irrorated slightly with dark brown scales. Fringe pale gray. Hindwing and fringe uniformly pale gray. Legs grayish brown dorsally, white ventrally; apices of tibial and tarsal segments slightly paler.

Abdomen: Grayish brown dorsally, white ventrally; conspicuous sex-scaling absent. Female with A7 moderately well sclerotized and tubular. Eighth sternum (Figure 235) of male elongate with mostly parallel margins then abruptly narrowing to minutely bidentate caudal apex.

Male Genitalia (Figures 233, 234, 335–337): Vinculum broadly V-shaped. Transtilla relatively slender. Valva symmetrical, elongate and very slender, tapering to an acute, sinuate apex; apical process with a minute, slit-like, subapical pore (Figure 337). Annellus completely membranous. Aedoeagus slender, relatively short, approximately 0.7× the length of the eighth sternum.

Female Genitalia (Figures 423, 424): Accessory bursa with relatively short duct (approximately 0.33× the length of ductus bursae), arising from a short, enlarged, unsclerotized common duct (antrum) immediately anterior to ostium. Signum a single, elliptical, lightly sclerotized disk bearing a symmetrical pair of minute papillae.

EGG (Figures 1–6).—Flat type, approximately 0.3 mm long (excluding fringe), 0.19 mm wide, and 0.14 mm deep. Upper side chorion finely reticulate and papillate (Figure 2). Aeropyles usually present at intersections of low ridges. Underside smooth (Figure 3), lightly cemented to host leaf. Division of upper and lower chorion surfaces sharply defined by broad, circumferential fringe of thin, irregular tissue (Figures 1, 3); maximum width of fringe 0.06 mm. Two micropyles present at anterior pole immediately above fringe (Figures 4–6), located on ridges of sharply defined network of ~8–10 irregular, cellular partitions (Figures 5, 6).

LARVA (Figures 42–84).—Similar to P. nipigon. Length of largest third instar 3.3 mm; head width 0.31 mm. Fifth instar: Length of largest larva 6.4 mm; head width 0.41 mm. A1, A2, and P1 arising distant from adfrontal suture (Figure 79). Apical spines of hypopharynx (Figure 58) reduced. Prothorax with D1 anterior to D2. Crochets on A3–A5 with 4–6 hooks in caudal row and 5–7 hooks in a sinuate anterior row.

LARVAL MINE (Figure 18).—As illustrated.

PUPA (Figures 69–77).—Maximum length 4.5 mm; width 1.0 mm. Vertex with triangular, dorsally flattened cocoon cutter with minutely serrated, lateral ridges (Figures 69, 70). Forewing extending to caudal margin of A6. Hindleg extending to anterior margin of A8. Dorsum of A2–A8 almost completely covered with dense concentration of short, scattered spines (Figures 72); intersegmental surfaces as in Figure 73. Caudal half of sternum A7 with a median, triangular raised area bearing usually 4 small, stout spines laterally (accessory cremaster; Figure 71). Cremaster consisting of a terminal, widely separated pair of short, broad-based spines (Figures 75–77). A9 with sternum sharply indented to A10 (Figure 74).

TYPES.—Not examined, Frankfurt a. M., Germany, deposition unknown (apparella H.-S.). Lectotype, (referred to as type by Freeman, 1970:275), Kaslo, B.C., Canada, USNM (tremuloidiella Braun). Lectotype (referred to as type by Freeman, 1970:272), , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, USNM (atomariella Zeller). Holotype, , Simcoe, Ont., Canada, CNC (ontario Freeman).

HOSTS (Table 1).—In North America, Populus tremuloides Michx., is the most frequently encountered host, with P. grandidentata Michx., and P. canescens (Alt.) J.E. Smith also being mined (Braun, 1908a). Populus balsamifera L., P. deltoides Marsh., and Salix sp. serve as hosts much less frequently. In the Palearctic region, Populus alba L., P. nigra L., P. tremula L., and Salix species have been reported as foodplants.

PARASITOIDS (Table 2).—Braconidae: Apanteles ornigus Weed, Apanteles sp., Pholetesor sp., probably salicifoliella (Mason); Eulophidae: Chrysocharis sp., Cirrospilus cinctithorax (Girault), Cirrospilus sp., Closterocerus tricinctus (Ashmead), Closterocerus sp., near trifasciatus, Horismenus fraternus (Fitch), Pediobius sp., Pnigalio flavipes (Ashmead), Pnigalio tischeriae (Ashmead) (regarded by some as a junior synonym of Pnigalio flavipes), Pnigalio near proximus (Ashmead), Pnigalio sp., Sympiesis conica (Provancher), Sympiesis sp., Tetrastichus sp.; Ichneumonidae: Alophosternum foliicola (Cushman), Diadeg-ma sp., stenosomus complex, Scambus decorus (Whalley); Pteromalidae: Pteromalus sp. (most records from Auerbach (1991), in which a few records may pertain only to Phyllonorycter nipigon).

FLIGHT PERIOD.—Mid-July to late November; bivoltine (Maier and Davis, 1989).

DISTRIBUTION (Map 1).—Generally holarctic, from western Europe (but absent from Great Britain) to the Balkans, north to Finland and west to central Asia. Widely distributed in North America, from New Mexico, Ohio, and southern Maryland, north to central Alaska and Ontario.

MATERIAL EXAMINED.—CANADA: ALBERTA: Bruderheim: 1, 1, 22–25 Aug 1986, Populus tremuloides (CNC). Drumheller, 2361 ft (726 m): 2, 3, mine: 24 Aug 1982, e. 29 Aug–3 Sep 1982 [e.=emerged], G. Deschka, mine in Populus tremuloides, zucht nr. 1694 (GD). Edmonton, Winterburn Road: 8, 15, 17 Apr–9 May 1983, G. Braybrook (CNC); 1, 17 Apr 1983, slide 31133 (USNM). Elk Island Nat. Park: 3, 11, mine: 30–31 Aug 1982, e. 2–10 Sep 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Populus tremuloides, zucht nr. 1702, slide GD 1770 (GD). Red Deer, 853 m: 12, 13, mine: 27 Aug 1982, e. 29 Aug–11 Sep 1982, mine in Populus tremuloides, zucht nr. 1696, slide GD 1767A (GD). Sturgeon Lake: 2, 4, mine 16 Jul 1982, e. 24 Jul-2 Aug 1982, G. Deschke, mine in Populus tremuloides, zucht nr. 1657 (GD). BRITISH COLUMBIA: Clinton, 887 m: 8, 6, mine: 11 Aug 1982, e. 2–10 Aug 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Populus tremuloides, zucht nr. 1678, slide GD 1761 (GD). Golden, 784 m: 2, 2, mine: 17 Aug 1982, e. 20–29 Aug 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Populus tremuloides, zucht nr. 1684, slide GD 1763 (GD). Hazelton, 320 m: 26, 35, mine: 16 Jul 1979, e. 9–17 Aug 1979, G. Deschka, mine in Populus tremuloides, zucht nr. 1438, slide GD 1517 (GD). Iskut: 1, 2, 22 Aug 1994, Populus trichocarpa Torr. and A. Gray (CNC, USNM). Kalso: 1 (holotype, slide USNM 17098), 3, 4 (paralectotypes, slides 17098, 17466, 18038, 20485, 22736, 30395, 30396), J.W. Cockle, 3, 16 Aug 1903, slide USNM 22737 (USNM). Kamloops: 1, 2, 27–30 Aug 1937, J. Jacob, on Populus tremuloides, CNC slide MIC 2248 (CNC). Manson Creek: 1, 4 Aug 1967, 2, 8 Aug 1967, Freeman and Lewis, trembling aspen, slides CNC 2886, GD 1321 (CNC, GD). Muncho Lake, 817 m: 1, mine: 3 Aug 1982, e. 14 Aug 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Salix, zucht nr. 1671, slide GD 1759 (GD). Narcasli: 1, 31 Jul 1967, Freeman and Lewis, trembling aspen (GD). Penticton, Shingle Creek: 1, 1, 7–20 Sep 1934, A. Gartrell, Populus, CNC slide MIC 2247 (CNC). Prince George, 567 m: 3, 1, mine: 8 Aug 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Populus tremuloides, zucht nr. 1674, slide GD 1760 (GD). MANITOBA: Aweme: 1, 30 Aug 1920, N. Criddle, slide DRD 3830 (CNC). 8.5 mi [13.6 km] west of Jct. 1 and 11: 1, 26 Jul 1989, e. 9 Aug 1989, S. Passoa, Populus tremuloides, slide USNM 30764 (USNM). NOVA SCOTIA: Barrington: 2, 1 Sep 1973, G. Lewis, Populus tremuloides, 73–20 (CNC). ONTARIO: Ackray: 1, 9 Jul 1954, trembling aspen (GLFC); 1, 1, 9 Aug 1954, trembling aspen (USNM). Bells Corners: 1, 22 Jul 1955, G. Lewis, Populus tremuloides, 55–78, CNC slide MIC 2226 (CNC). Cochrane: 2, 5, 8–9 Aug 1967, G. Lewis, Populus tremuloides, 67-44, CNC slides MIC 2238, 2239 (CNC). Deux Rivieres: 1, 8 Aug 1967, G. Lewis, Populus tremuloides, 67–49, CNC slide MIC 2240 (CNC). Foleyet: 1, 25 Aug 1965, Populus tremuloides, CNC slide MIC 2296 (CNC). Ft. William: 1, 11 Aug 1963, Populus, CNC slide MIC 2241 (CNC). Kapuskasing: 2, Farquier, Populus tremuloides (CNC); 3, 5, 25–29 Aug 1965, C. Miller, Populus tremuloides, CNC slides MIC 2234–2236 (CNC). Kaweme: 1, 3, 17 Jul 1954, trembling aspen (GLFC). Peterboro[ugh]: 1, 2 Oct 1967, T. Freeman, Populus tremuloides, slide CNC 2875 (CNC). Raith: 6, 9, 26–31 Jul 1955, A. Klots, mine on Populus tremuloides (AMNH, USNM). Sault Ste. Marie: 5, 10–12 Jul 1954, J. Martin, trembling aspen (GLFC); 2, 2, 17 Jul 1954, J. Martin, trembling aspen, slides USNM 31160, 31161 (USNM). Shebandowan: 1, 4 Aug 1967, G. Lewis, Populus tremuloides (CNC). Simcoe: 1, 1, 14–15 Sep 1965, T. Freeman, Populus tremuloides, 65-83, slide CNC 2878 (CNC). Sioux Lookout: 2, T. Freeman, Populus tremuloides, 67-48 (CNC). Sparrow Lake: 3, e. 22 Jul 1926, Populus tremuloides, A. Braun, B. 1251, slide DRD 3822 (ANSP). Thunder Bay, Hills Block Cons. Forest: 3, 2, 27–30 Aug 1981, J. Wales (CNC). Thunder Bay, Sibley Prov. Park: 9, 11, 20–25 Aug 1982, J. Landry, Populus tremuloides leaf mines (CNC); 1, same data, slide USNM 31134 (USNM). QUEBEC: Gaspe Peninsula, Routhierville: 2, e. 2 Sep 1956, A. Braun, Salix sp., B.2243, slide DRD 3824 (ANSP). SASKATCHEWAN: Dore Lake: 21, 22, 25 Aug 1967, Freeman and Lewis, Populus tremuloides, 67-59, CNC 2879–2882 (CNC). Prince Albert: 1, 1 Aug 1967, Freeman and Lewis, Populus tremuloides, 67-25, CNC slide MIC 2245 (CNC). YUKON: Stewart Crossing: 7, 31, 30 Jul 1982, e. 18–26 Aug 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Populus tremuloides, zucht nr. 1664, slides GD 1750, 1753 (GD). Stewart River banks, near Stewart Crossing: 1, 5, mine: 30 Jul 1982, e. 11–22 Jul 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Salix sp., zucht nr. 1668, slide GD 1754 (GD). 8 km east of Watson Lake, 685 m: 20, 21, mine: 20 Jul 1982, e. 2–8 Aug 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Populus tremuloides, zucht nr. 1664, slide GD 1754 (GD). UNITED STATES: ALASKA: Cooper Landing: 1, 11 May 1994, K. Zogas, Populus glauca Haines, slide USNM 31583 (USNM). Destruction Bay, Kluane Lake: 3, 6, mine: 11 Jul 1979, e. 23 Aug–3 Sep 1979, G. Deschka, mine in Populus tremuloides, zucht nr. 1459, slide GD 1527 (GD). 12 mi [19.2 km] SW of Fairbanks: 3, mine: 31 Jul 1979, e. 11 Aug 1979, G. Deschka, mine in Populus balsamifera, zucht nr. 1452, slide GD 1523. Talmeta Pass, 3000 ft [915 m], east of Chikaloon: 2, 4, mine: 8 Aug 1979, e. 19–27 Aug 1979, G. Deschka, mine, Populus tremuloides, zucht nr. 1657 (GD). COLORADO: Long Peaks, 9000 ft [2744 m]: 4, 5, e. 1 Aug–27 Sep 1919, A. Braun, Populus tremuloides, B.102.2 (ANSP); 2, e. 28–31 Aug 1919, A. Braun, B.102.2 (CNC); 4, 8, e. 31 Aug 1919, A. Braun, slides USNM 18048, 28931 (USNM). CONNECTICUT: Hartford Co., Southington: 1, 8 Jul 1980, C. Maier, Populus tremuloides, slide DRD 3565 (CTM). Litchfield Co., Goshen: 8, 1, 26 Aug 1981, C. Maier, Populus tremuloides (CTM); 1, 26 Aug 1981, C. Maier, slide USNM 30817 (USNM). DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA [Washington]: 2, 1, 1894, C.V. Riley, Populus tremuloides (BMNH). IDAHO: Kootenai Co., Coeur d'Alene: 13, 15, 27 Aug 1919, J. Everden, e. 9 Sep 1919, Populus trichocarpa, USNM slide 31703 (USNM). Latah Co., Moscow: 4, 7, 10 Jul 1985, M. Furniss, Populus tremuloides, slide 28498 (USNM). MAINE: York Co., near Kittery: 2, mine: 20 Sep 1986, Populus tremuloides, lab reared (CTM). MARYLAND: Prince Georges Co., Cedarville State Forest, vicinity of Cedarville Lake: 4, 5, 11 Sep 1994, e. 20–27 Sep 1994, D.R. Davis, Populus grandidentata, DRD 1516 (USNM). MASSACHUSETTS: Barnstable Co., Barnstable: 1, 19 Aug 1952, C. Kimball, slide 28439 (USNM). Middlesex Co., Cambridge: 1 (lectotype, L. atomariella), slide USNM 32139 (CNC 2601) (USNM). MICHIGAN: Gogebic Co., Watersmeet: 1, 5 Aug 1963, aspen (USNM). Iron Co., Iron River: 1, 5 Aug 1963, aspen (USNM). Oakland Co., Clarkston, 4920 Pelton Road: 1, 3, mine: 15 Jul 1990, C. Maier, Populus tremuloides, lab reared (CTM, USNM). MINNESOTA: Clearwater Co., Itasca State Park: 3, 3, e. Aug 1992, M. Auerbach, ex Populus grandidentata, slide 31181 (USNM); 3, 3, e. Aug 1992, M. Auerbach, ex Populus tremuloides, slide 31183 (USNM). NEW MEXICO: Los Alamos Co., Bandelier National Monument, 7500 ft [2287 m]: 5, 7, 53 larvae, 3 pupae 18 Jul 1980, e. 1–8 Aug 1980, 2, 2, Aug 1979, W. Pippin, aspen, slides USNM 21367, 30474–30476 (USNM). NEW YORK: Essex Co., Saramac Lake: 1, 12 Jul 1988, e. 17 Jul 1988, DLW 88 H 25, Populus tremuloides (DLW). Madison Co., Tuscarora Lake: 5, 5, 3–9 Jul 1975, E. Jäckh, Populus tremuloides (GD, USNM). Monroe Co.: 1, 5 May 1949, C. Kimball, slide 28438 (USNM). Onondaga Co., Radisson: 8, 10, 3–14 Jul 1977, E. Jäckh, Populus tremuloides (GD, USNM). St. Lawrence Co., Oak Point: 1, 3, 1–2 Aug 1983, e. 8–9 Aug 1983, D. Wagner, JAP No. 83H25, Populus sp., slide DRD 3736 (DLW). Tompkins Co., Dryden: 2, 3 Oct 1960, R. Hodges, slide USNM 17025 (USNM). OHIO: Hamilton Co., Cincinnati: 2, 13 Apr–3 May 1906, A. Braun (ANSP); 2, 2, e. 2–4 Jul 1907, A. Braun, Populus balsamifera candicans Aiton (ANSP); 2, e. 13–14 Jul 1917, A. Braun, on Populus canescens (ANSP); 1, 27 Jul 1911, A. Braun (ANSP); 1, 27 Jul 1911, A. Braun, slide DRD 3823 (ULK); 1, e. 16 Aug 1917, A. Braun, on Populus canescens, slide CNC 2 (CNC); 2, 1, 16 Sep 1906, A. Braun, on Populus (ANSP); 1, 1, 8 Oct 1904, A. Braun, slide DRD 3823 (ANSP); 1, 2, 1–15 Nov 1903, A. Braun (ANSP); 1, 4 Aug 1907, on Populus canescens; 1, 2, e. 14 Aug 1917; 1, 2, 16 Aug 1917; 1, 27 Aug 1911; 3, 1, 2 Oct 1909; 1, 9 Oct 1906; 1, 15 Nov 1903; 1, 20 Nov 1904; 1, 22 Nov 1916, A. Braun, slides USNM 30377, 30378, 30398, 30399 (USNM). Highland Co., Ft. Hill: 1, e. 22 Sep 1965, A. Braun, Populus grandidentata, B.2411, slide DRD 3826 (ANSP). VERMONT: Chittenden Co., South Burlington: 1, Jun 1987, e. DOA 7 Jul 1987, DLW 87F27, Populus tremuloides, slide 3774 (DLW); 1, 1, 25/30 Jun 1987, e. Jul 1987, DLW 87F110, Populus grandidentata, slide 3781 (DLW); 2, 27 Jul 1988, e. 20 Sep 1988, DLW 88H94, Populus deltoides, slide 3780 (DLW). VIRGINIA: Fairfax Co., Springfield, Accotink Creek: 1, 7, mine: 22 Jul 1975, e. 23 Jul–2 Aug 1975, G. Deschka, mine in Populus grandidentata, zucht nr. 1097 (GD).


MAP 1.—Distribution of Phyllonorycter apparella and P. latus.
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bibliographic citation
Davis, Donald R. 2001. "Biology and Systematics of the North Phyllonorycter Leafminers on Salicaceae, with a Synoptical Catalogue of the Palearctic Species Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-89. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.614

Phyllonorycter apparella

provided by wikipedia EN

The aspen leaf blotch miner moth (Phyllonorycter apparella) is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is found in most of Europe (except the British Isles, the Iberian Peninsula, the Balkan Peninsula, and the Mediterranean islands). It is also present in Turkey and North America.

Phyllonorycter apparella3.jpg
Phyllonorycter apparella1.jpg

The wingspan is 8.5–10 mm. There is one generation per year.

The larvae feed on Populus canescens and Populus tremula. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine has the form of a lower-surface tentiform mine with one or two strong folds. Each mine has one larva, and each leaf may have up to 26 mines. The frass is clumped in a corner of the mine. Pupation takes place in the mine in a white cocoon.

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Phyllonorycter apparella: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The aspen leaf blotch miner moth (Phyllonorycter apparella) is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is found in most of Europe (except the British Isles, the Iberian Peninsula, the Balkan Peninsula, and the Mediterranean islands). It is also present in Turkey and North America.

Phyllonorycter apparella3.jpg Phyllonorycter apparella1.jpg

The wingspan is 8.5–10 mm. There is one generation per year.

The larvae feed on Populus canescens and Populus tremula. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine has the form of a lower-surface tentiform mine with one or two strong folds. Each mine has one larva, and each leaf may have up to 26 mines. The frass is clumped in a corner of the mine. Pupation takes place in the mine in a white cocoon.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
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