dcsimg

Untitled

provided by Animal Diversity Web

L. saxatilis excretes a hard, disk-shaped pellet following foraging. This can be used to identify if it has been foraging in a particular area.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

L. saxatilis perceives the world through multiple forms of communication. However, since L. saxatilis is solitary when not mating, the communication is not used to enforce social hierarchy. Individuals are vocal and will emit loud squeals in the instance that they are either wounded or distressed. They also produce a characteristic loud chirping sound if they are disturbed when they are in an open habitat during the night. Less commonly it has been noted that members of the genus Lepus will use their voice when neither distressed nor wounded.

Other forms of communication are not known for L. saxatilis. Close relatives in the genus Lepus communicate through the thumping of their feet. This method of communication is known as drumming. Also all members of the family Leporidae, of which L. saxatilis is a member, have scent glands that produce characteristic scents used for territory marking and sexual identification. Just how relevant these latter two forms of communication are in L. saxatilis is not known.

Tactile communication likely occurs in this species between rivals in competition for mates. Males and females share some tactile communication during mating, as do mothers with their young.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: vibrations

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; vibrations ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

L. saxatilis is not listed as endangered and its population remains widespread throughout Africa.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Although L. saxatilis provides no immediate threat to humans, when threatened it will kick with its hind legs and bite. However this bite is not venomous. Although hot overtly dangerous to humans, L. saxatilis is an agricultural pest. It often inhabits agriculturally developed areas and forages on the surrounding grass and growing vegetation, sometimes negatively affecting crops.

Negative Impacts: injures humans (bites or stings); crop pest

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

L. saxatilis is not of much economic importance for the human population. However, many human populations use members of the genus Lepus as a food source, and it is likely that local people probably eat these hares occasionally. Its fur is of minimal value, but it is sometimes used within the lining of various garments including gloves.

Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

L. saxatilis has multiple roles within the ecosystem. It is responsible for a minimal amount of soil aeration, as it helps to break up the ground and redistribute the soil when creating its forms. It influences vegetational growth, and serves as prey for larger animals.

L. saxatilis also serves as a host for multiple flea and lice species. The most common of these species is Ctenocephalides felis damarensis whose population peaks from August to October and is at its lowest from February to April.

Ecosystem Impact: soil aeration

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Multiple fleas and lice species with the predominant species being Ctenocephalides felis damarensis
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

L. saxatilis is primarily a folivore. It has a preference for the green grass that grows during the wetter and cooler climates. However it will also eat the leaves, stems and rhizomes of grass that grows during dryer climate periods. Members of the genus Lepus will occasionally indulge in shrub bark if there is no other food source available. It is not known how common this is in L. saxatilis.

L. saxatilis is nocturnal, and therefore does the majority of its foraging either during or after sunset. It has occasionally been seen foraging during the early mornings or afternoons when the sky is overcast, but this is less frequent.

Plant Foods: leaves; wood, bark, or stems

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Lepus saxatilis is native to the continent of Africa, and there have been no reported attempts to introduce it into other areas. It is primarily found throughout Southern Africa and Namibia, with the exception of the Namib Desert. L. saxatilis has also been found in other African locations, including Nigeria extending westward to Southwest Mauritana and Senegal, Southeast Ethiopia, Uganda, most of Kenya, Angola, Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. All of these African countries fall within the Ethiopian Biogeographic Range.

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

L. saxatilis is found at elevations of 1220 to 1830 m above sea level. The species is primarily found in the savanna woodland and scrub areas of Africa. It is usually not found in forests, deserts, or grasslands. However it occasionally can be found foraging at night in the open grasslands. L.saxatilis is also successful in agriculturally developed areas where it positions itself near growing crops, or in areas of bush regeneration.

L. saxatilis is found throughout the regions of South Africa and Namibia. Here there is both a tropical climate (Namibia) and a sub-tropical climate stretching between 22 to 34 degrees southern latitude (South Africa).

Range elevation: 1220 to 1830 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; chaparral ; scrub forest

Other Habitat Features: agricultural

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

L. saxatilis frequently does not survive its first year. Although details of its lifespan are limited, close relatives within the genus Lepus have been know to live up to five years in the wild. However, in captivity, members of the genus have a longer lifespan, which ranges between six years and seven years.

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
5 (high) years.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
7 (high) years.

Typical lifespan
Status: wild:
0 to 5 years.

Typical lifespan
Status: captivity:
6 to 7 years.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

L. saxatilis can be identified by its complex fur coloration pattern. Its dorsal fur is grizzled gray and often has tiny black spots, while its ventral fur is white. It has a multicolored tail that is black on top and white underneath. It has lighter fur on the sides of its face and around its eyes. Many have a white patch of fur on their forehead. L. saxatilis also has a patch of reddish-brown fur behind its ears. All of its body hair has a soft texture.

L. saxatilis exhibits a large range in both its body size and mass. Length ranges from 45 cm to 65 cm, and mass ranges from 1500 g to 4500 g. This range in body size follows a geographic pattern, such that there is a decrease in body size when moving from the North to the South of its range. This same geographic pattern can be observed with ear length. In any particular area, females typically have a larger body length and mass than do males.

L. saxatilis has long ears. Furthermore, its hind legs are much longer than its forelegs, and its hind feet have a lighter fur color than its forefeet. All of its feet are heavily furred.

Range mass: 1.5 to 4.5 kg.

Range length: 45 to 65 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: female larger

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

L. saxatilis spends its day in a self-built form and has multiple methods for avoiding detection by predators. It sits snugly in its form with its ears folded backwards and its head pulled into its body to prevent detection. It is further camouflaged by its cryptic coloration. While in its form, L. saxatilis remains almost perfectly motionless because any movement may attract the attention of a nearby predator.

When confronted by a predator, L. saxatilis will continue to remain motionless in its form until the last possible moment. At this point it will rapidly take off. It attempts to lose its predator by moving rapidly in a zigzag pattern. If the predator catches it, the hare will emit a loud squeal that is a sign of distress. Once it has been caught, its only defense mechanisms are to kick with its hind legs or to bite its predator. Side-striped jackals Canis adustus are a common predator to L. saxatilis in which the above interaction is commonly seen.

L. saxatilis also suffers from flea and lice infestation. It is not known if it employs any defense mechanisms against these pests. Primarily the flea infestations are by Ctenocephalides felis damarensis which peaks from August to October and has its lowest presence from February to April.

Known Predators:

  • side-striped jackals (Canis adustus)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

This species is apparently polygynous. L. saxatilis is normally solitary. However, when a female is experiencing oestrus, multiple males will often remain near her. Little research has been done regarding the interactions of these males. However, males of other species in the genus Lepus engage in competition that often involves boxing with their forefeet and/or kicking with their hindfeet. Frequently competition between males is so intense that the female over which they are competing is injured.

Mating System: polygynous

L. saxatilis breeds throughout the year, despite frequent droughts and dry conditions. Its peak-breeding season is during the African summer (from September to February) when the climate is warmer and wetter. Fertilization is internal, and the gestation period lasts an average of 42 days. A female may give birth to 1 to 3 young, with the mean number being 1.6. Females more frequently give birth to triplets following rainy seasons rather than dry seasons.

The leverets are born with all of their hair and their eyes open. The average mass at birth is 115 grams. Shortly after birth, a young L. saxatilis will be capable of moving around and providing for itself. There is little parental care, and it is usually limited to a single suckling period during the night. This occurs each night until the leverets are weaned, however the number of days it takes for the leverets to be weaned is not known. No nest is made for the leverets. Although many leverets will not survive their first year, the ones that do survive will be sexually mature after this year.

Breeding interval: These animals breed aseasonally, so in theory should be capable of producing young approximately every three months.

Breeding season: Mating occurs aseasonally.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 3.

Average number of offspring: 1.6.

Range gestation period: 35 to 42 days.

Average gestation period: 42 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous

L. saxatilis exhibits very low levels of parental investment. L. saxatilis gives birth to young that are fully haired, have open eyes, and are developed enough to take care of themselves shortly after birth. The exact time of independence is not known. Parents of this species do not provide protection, resources or learning experiences for their young. They do not even provide the leverets with nests! All parental care is limited to a short period of suckling during the night. This occurs each night until the leverets are weaned, however the number of days until weaning is not known. As far as is known, only females provide parental care in this species.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; precocial ; female parental care ; pre-fertilization (Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lepus_saxatilis.html
author
Aimee Kushnereit, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
author
Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Scrub hare

provided by wikipedia EN

The scrub hare (Lepus saxatilis) is one of two subspecies of hares found in southern Namibia, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho.[2][3] Although it is listed as a least concern species, the population has been declining and is expected to decline by 20% over the next 100 years.[4]

Description

The scrub hare has a very distinct coloration. On the dorsal side of the hare, the fur is grizzled-gray with small black spots.[2][5] The ventral side of the fur is all white.[2] Scrub hares have a small, stubby tail with the topside being black and the underside being white.[5] What makes "Lepus saxatilis" different from the other subspecies is the patch of red-brown fur it has behind its ears.[2] They have long ears that are normally perched up that are gray, and together with its tail make it most visible when it is running from predators.[5]

The scrub hare has a very large range in its body size and body mass compared to most animals.[2] Its length ranges from about 45–65 centimeters (18–26 inches), and its mass ranges from about 1.5–4.5 kg (3.3–9.9 lb).[2][6] This large range is specific to the scrub hare because of its different geographical ranges.[2] Hares that live in more southern latitudes decrease in body size and those that live in more northern latitudes have larger body sizes.[2] Females are typically larger than males.[7]

Geographic distribution

The scrub hare is endemic to southern Africa. They are most commonly found in southern Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho.[2][3] However, they have been spotted in southeast Ethiopia, southwest Mauritania, Senegal, Uganda, Kenya, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique.[2] However, the scrub hare is not found in the Namib desert.[6]

Habitat

Scrub hares are normally found at higher elevations at about 1220 m to 1830 m.[2] They are primarily found in scrub, tall grasslands and savanna woodlands.[2][5] However, at night they can be seen in open grasslands.[2] They are never seen in forests or deserts.[5] They have also been known to adapt to agriculturally developed lands.[3]

They are also found throughout two different biomes, tropical and sub-tropical.[2] This gives them a temperature range of about 22 to 35 °C (72 to 95 °F).[2]

Ecosystem roles

The scrub hare has many roles in the ecosystem. They are responsible for a small amount of soil aeration, which helps redistribute the soil when they are creating their indentations and their forms.[2] An indentation or form is when the hare burrows itself into the ground so that an ‘indent’ forms where it perfectly molds to their body. They also are prey for other animals.[2] They are also a host for many types of fleas and lice.[2] The predominant flea parasite species that can be found on the scrub hare is the Ctenocephalides felis damarensis.[2]

Behavior

The scrub hare is a solitary creature.[2] The sexes are only seen together for mating purposes.[2][3] They are also nocturnal and are seen foraging at night.[2] However, if the weather is overcast, they will come out earlier.[2] During the day they create a small indent in the ground and lie flat in a motionless form with their ears tucked back to their shoulders.[2] As long as they remain motionless, predators cannot detect them because their coloration blends in with the scrubland and vegetation.[2]

Diet

The scrub hare is an herbivore and eats mostly green grasses.[2][5] During times of drought when green grass is less prevalent, they will indulge in leaves, stems, and rhizomes of grass.[7] When even those are hard to come by they will eat shrub bark to survive.[2]

Reproduction

They are polygynous.[2] When a female is experiencing oestrus, many males will surround her in hopes to mate with her.[2] To win the female over, the males will usually compete through ‘boxing’ with their forefeet or kicking with their hind legs.[2] Sometimes the female even gets injured during these fights because the competition is so fierce between the males.[2]

They can breed throughout the year, but their peak season is during the summer months of September to February.[2] The gestation period is about 42 days and a female gives birth anywhere from 1 to 3 ‘leverets’ at a time.[6] They can have as many as 4 litters per year.[6] It has also been proven that a female is more likely to give birth to triplets after a rainy season.[5] However, their peak time for births is during the summer.[7] The average age for a male and female to reach reproduction age is 1 year.[2]

Parenting style

Mothers invest little time with parenting for their young.[2] The young are born fully haired, open-eyed, and are basically developed enough to take care of themselves.[7] Although the time until independence is unknown, parents do not provide protection or resources and give them no learning experience.[2] There is some suckling at night, but it does not last for many days.[2]

Lifespan

Many scrub hares do not even survive their first year. However, they have been noted that in the wild, these hares survive about 5 years.[2] In captivity, they have lived to be between 6 and 7.[2]

Threats

Conservation status

As of now the scrub hare is listed as a least concern animal and is widespread in southern Africa.[2] Within the next 100 years, their population is estimated to decrease a further 20%.[4]

Predation

The scrub hare does have a few known predators. One of the most pronounced predators is the side-striped jackal, Canis adustus.[2] Another known predator is the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus.[5] Some less prominent predators are predatory birds and the caracal, Caracal caracal.[6] The scrub hare does not have a large defense against predators. Its most notable is the coloring of its fur.[2] It can act as a camouflage against rugged terrain. When a predator is near, it remains completely motionless, hoping it is not spotted. But at the last possible moment when the predator is near, the scrub hare uses its long hind legs to jump and run away as fast as it can.[2] It runs in a zigzagged formation in hopes it will be difficult for the predator to catch it.[2][5] However, when it is caught it makes a loud squeal for distress and its last line of defense is to kick or bite, which is usually unsuccessful.[2]

Human pressures

Habitat fragmentation, commercial plantations and development threaten the species because it destroys their habitats and leaves them exposed to predators.[3] Hunting is also becoming an issue for the scrub hare.[3] Many local people hunt the hare for food and sometimes create gloves out of their soft, warm fur.[2] There has been a distinct population decline due to hunting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.[3]

References

  1. ^ Collins, K.; Kryger, U.; Matthee, C.; Keith, M. & van Jaarsveld, A. (2008). "Lepus saxatilis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T41285A10433476. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T41285A10433476.en. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar Kushnereit, A. 2004. "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Red List of Threatened Species 2015. "Lepus saxatilis" (Savannah Hare, Scrub Hare) (On-line), SSC Web.
  4. ^ a b African Sky Safaris and Tours: Kruger National Park Mammals (On-line) web.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kruger National Park. Scrub Hare (On-line) Web.
  6. ^ a b c d e Hamerton, Denise, Biodiversity Explorer. "Lepus saxatilis" (Scrub Hare) (On-line) Web.
  7. ^ a b c d Mitchell, C, Ultimate Field Guide 2015. Scrub Hare - "Lepus saxatilis" (On-line) web.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Scrub hare: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The scrub hare (Lepus saxatilis) is one of two subspecies of hares found in southern Namibia, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho. Although it is listed as a least concern species, the population has been declining and is expected to decline by 20% over the next 100 years.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN