Description of Acremonium

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Acremonium species are filamentous, cosmopolitan fungi commonly isolated from plant debris and soil. They have hyaline, septate hyphae which are usually very fine and narrow. Vegetative hyphae often form hyphal ropes. Unbranched, solitary, erect phialides are formed directly on the hyphal tips, on the hyphal ropes, or on both. The phialides are separated from hyphae by a septum and taper towards their apices. At the apices of the phialides are the hyaline conidia 2-3x4-8 microns in size. They usually appear in clusters, in balls or rarely as fragile chains. The conidia are bound by a gelatinous material. They may be single or multicellular, fusiform with a slight curve or resemble a shallow crescent. These structural properties of conidia vary depending on the species. Acremonium falciforme usually produces crescentic, nonseptate conidia. Sometimes, 2- or 3-celled conidia may also be observed. Acremonium kiliense, on the other hand, has short straight conidia and the conidia of Acremonium recifei are usually crescentic and nonseptate.The sexual state of Acremonium is not well-defined. The genus has about 100 species, but three species in particular have been associated with infections of people causing eumycotic white grain mycetoma, and more rarel onychomycosis, keratitis, endophthalmitis, endocarditis, meningitis, peritonitis, and osteomyelitis. This fungus is known to cause opportunistic infections in immuno-compromised patients, such as bone marrow transplant recipients. The U.S. Government's Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA] lists the following as the health effects of Acremonium mold: Allergen, Irritant, Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Dermatitis. The taxonomy is debated. Original description by Link in Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, Magazin 3: 15 (1809). Many species originally described under the genus name Cephalosporium.
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Acremonium

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Acremonium is a genus of fungi in the family Hypocreaceae. It used to be known as Cephalosporium.

Description

Acremonium species are usually slow-growing and are initially compact and moist. Their hyphae are fine and hyaline, and produce mostly simple phialides. Their conidia are usually one-celled (i.e. ameroconidia), hyaline or pigmented, globose to cylindrical, and mostly aggregated in slimy heads at the apex of each phialide.

Epichloë species are closely related and were once included in Acremonium,[1] but were later split off into a new genus Neotyphodium,[2] which has now been restructured within the genus Epichloë.[3]

Clinical significance

The genus Acremonium contains about 100 species, of which most are saprophytic, being isolated from dead plant material and soil. Many species are recognized as opportunistic pathogens of man and animals, causing eumycetoma, onychomycosis, and hyalohyphomycosis. Infections of humans by fungi of this genus are rare,[4] but clinical manifestations of hyalohyphomycosis caused by Acremonium may include arthritis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, endocarditis, pneumonia, cerebritis, and subcutaneous infection.[5]

The cephalosporins, a class of β-lactam antibiotics, were derived from Acremonium. It was first isolated as an antibiotic by the Italian pharmacologist Giuseppe Brotzu in 1948.

Species

See also

References

  1. ^ Morgan-Jones, G.; Gams, W. (1982). "Notes on hyphomycetes. XLI. An endophyte of Festuca arundinacea and the anamorph of Epichloe typhina, new taxa in one of two new sections of Acremonium". Mycotaxon. 15: 311–318. ISSN 0093-4666.
  2. ^ Glenn AE, Bacon CW, Price R, Hanlin RT (1996). "Molecular phylogeny of Acremonium and its taxonomic implications" (PDF). Mycologia. 88 (3): 369–383. doi:10.2307/3760878. JSTOR 3760878.
  3. ^ Leuchtmann, A.; Bacon, C. W.; Schardl, C. L.; White, J. F.; Tadych, M. (2014). "Nomenclatural realignment of Neotyphodium species with genus Epichloë" (PDF). Mycologia. 106 (2): 202–215. doi:10.3852/13-251. ISSN 0027-5514. PMID 24459125. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
  4. ^ Fincher, RM; Fisher, JF; Lovell, RD; Newman, CL; Espinel-Ingroff, A; Shadomy, HJ (November 1991). "Infection due to the fungus Acremonium (cephalosporium)". Medicine. 70 (6): 398–409. doi:10.1097/00005792-199111000-00005. PMID 1956281.
  5. ^ Kiwan, Elias N.; Anaissie, Elias J. "Hyalohyphomycosis (Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium and Others)". Retrieved 2019-08-30.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl "Acremonium". Encyclopedia of Life.

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Acremonium: Brief Summary

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Acremonium is a genus of fungi in the family Hypocreaceae. It used to be known as Cephalosporium.

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