Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 37 years (captivity) Observations: One wild born animal was about 37 years old and still alive in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Untitled

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Hylobates means "dweller in the trees".

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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Behavior

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Kloss' gibbons are known for their magnificent vocal communication. Females tend to have the most distinctive calls with a slow rise and fall, interrupted by a trill sequence. Male calls consist of moans and "quiver-hoots". Males will sing solos from 10 minutes up to 2 hours in both the pre- and post-dawn hours. Often, breeding pairs form duets together 2 to 3 hours after dawn, with the female's contribution lasting about 15 minutes. Occasionally, the young will join in the duet of their parents. It has been hypothesized that the duets are a means of intimidating neighbors to defend their territory and/or as a way to maintain social organization. Studies have shown that both males and females can be identified by the individuality of their calls, with each animal having its own unique voice.

Kloss' gibbons also use chemical, tactile, and visual modes of communication. Social grooming is an important form of social bonding and facial and body gestures are important ways of communicating among gibbons. Another important interaction is play behavior centered on the infant.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: duets ; choruses

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status

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The IUCN lists H. klossii as vulnerable due to the extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat. The status of H. klossii is threatened because of an increased human population, hunting, and deforestation. CITES lists H. klossii on their Appendix I list.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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There are no known negative impacts of Kloss' gibbons.

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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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Kloss' gibbons are a potential source of ecotourism dollars, as well as being important parts of a healthy ecosystem from which humans benefit.

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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Kloss' gibbons act as important seed dispersers in their forest ecosystems.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Trophic Strategy

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Kloss' gibbons are primarily frugivorous, preferring to eat fruits with high sugar content, such as figs, 72 percent of the time. They will also consume flowers, eggs, small vertebrates, and insects 25 percent of the time. This species tends to spend time apart from members of its own group while feeding -- up to 50 meters at times. In the wild, Kloss' gibbons have been observed to spend a large amount of feeding time searching for arthropods.

Animal Foods: birds; mammals; amphibians; reptiles; eggs; insects

Plant Foods: leaves; fruit; flowers

Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore )

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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Distribution

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Kloss' gibbons, Hylobates klossi, are found in Siberut, Sipura, North Pagai, and South Pagai in the Mentawai Islands, western Sumatra, and Indonesia.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Habitat

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Kloss' gibbons can be found in the upper canopy of semi deciduous monsoon forests and tropical evergreen forests.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Life Expectancy

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The lifespan of Kloss' gibbons may be as long as 25 years. Other members of the genus Hylobates are known to live upwards of 44 years in captivity.

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
25 (high) years.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
37 (high) years.

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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Morphology

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Hylobates klossii has long forearms for brachiation. These tail-less, slender primates have dense, glossy, black hair with buttock pads and a large throat sac located under the chin. The throat sac helps to enhance their calls. Females are slightly larger than males, with males weighing about 5.6 kg and females weighing about 5.9 kg. Head and body length ranges from 440 mm to 635 mm.

Average mass: 5.7 kg.

Range length: 440 to 635 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: female larger

Average mass: 5900 g.

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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Predators of Kloss' gibbons include leopards, snakes, and large birds of prey. Their social system means that many individuals are vigilant and will warn other members of the troup of impending danger.

Known Predators:

  • leopards (Panthera pardus)
  • large snakes (Serpentes)
  • large birds of prey (Falconiformes)
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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Reproduction

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Kloss' gibbons are monogamous. Mated pairs of males and females, with their young, form the basic social unit.

Mating System: monogamous

The gestation period of H. klossii lasts 7 to 8 months, with one infant born every 2 to 3 years. Weaning occurs early in the second year of life. Kloss' gibbons reach sexual maturity at 6 to 7 years of age. Young do not usually disperse from their family unit until they reach late adolescence. The testicular sac in males is covered by short, sparse hairs. In females, the labia majora is prominent, making it difficult to distinguish males from females in the field.

Breeding interval: One infant is born every 2 to 3 years to an individual female.

Breeding season: These animals breed throughout the year.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 7 to 8 months.

Range weaning age: 24 (high) months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 6 to 7 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 6 to 7 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous

Average number of offspring: 1.

Males and females participate in caring for the young. Around the time of adolescence, males and females will disperse from their parent's group. Often parents will assist dispersing adolescents in obtaining territory by accompanying the young into new territory and threatening those occupying the new area.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); post-independence association with parents; extended period of juvenile learning

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Marcoux, A. 2004. "Hylobates klossii" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hylobates_klossii.html
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Alix Marcoux, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Biology

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Kloss's gibbon is an arboreal species, spending most of its time in the canopy. They are active in the day (2) and get around by swinging from branch-to-branch, their long hands forming perfect hooks for grasping the branches (5). They live in groups, consisting of a breeding pair and their offspring, with social grooming helping to maintain bonds (5). These groups defend a territory, with loud bouts of singing serving to proclaim ownership (2). Neighboroughing males chorus before dawn and females after dawn with a 50 second great call (6). As young males and females reach sexual maturity they will leave the family group, with the aim of finding a mate and establishing a new group (5). These gibbons feed mainly on fruit, but will also take flowers and some invertebrates to supplement the diet (5). Males and females form monogamous pairs. A single young is produced after a gestation period of seven to eight months. There is typically a gap of two to three years between each birth (2).
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Conservation

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Kloss's gibbon is listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), which prohibits international trade in this species (3).
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Description

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Both male and female Kloss's gibbons have short, black hair throughout their lives. The chest is broad and the limbs are long (4), which aids in swinging from branch-to-branch, a form of locomotion known as 'brachiation' (5). The thumbs and big toes are also very long, and there is webbing between the digits of the hands and feet (4). There is a sac below the throat which is used to produce calls (5). The muzzle is relatively short, and the hair on the crown lies flat; in infants, however, this hair is erect (4).
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Habitat

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Inhabits tropical rainforest (2) and monsoon forest (5).
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Range

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Found on North and South Pagi, Sipora and Siberut, islands in the Mentawai group, West Sumatra in Indonesia (2).
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Status

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Classified as Vulnerable (VU A1c+2c, B1+2ac) on the IUCN Red List 2004 (1). Listed in Appendix I of CITES (3).
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Threats

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The main threat facing these gibbons is habitat destruction and degradation caused by human activities in the area (1). Hunting is also a problem, which worsens as habitat destruction continues, as it allows greater access into the forest (2).
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Kloss's gibbon

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Kloss's gibbon (Hylobates klossii), also known as the Mentawai gibbon or the bilou, is an endangered primate in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae. It is identifiable in that it is all black,[3] resembling the siamang with its black fur, but is considerably smaller and lacks the siamang's distinctive throat pouch. Kloss's gibbon reaches a size 17 to 25 inches (44 to 63 cm) and weigh at most 13 pounds (6 kg). As is the case for all gibbons, they have long arms and no tail.

Kloss's gibbon exclusively lives on the Mentawai Islands that lie to the west of Sumatra.[1] It is a diurnal inhabitant of the rain forest that hangs in the trees from its long arms and rarely comes to the ground. Like all species of gibbons it lives together in pairs that stake out a territory from approximately 49 to 74 acres (20 to 30 hectares) of size. This area is defended vehemently against other gibbons. Its diet consists mainly of fruits, occasionally also eating different plant parts, bird eggs, insects and small vertebrates.

The singing of the female Kloss's gibbon is considered the most beautiful of all the gibbons' songs. Unlike most other gibbon species (except for the Javan silvery gibbon, Hylobates moloch), Kloss's gibbon males and females do not sing duets. Males typically sing in the hour before sunrise, while an all-female chorus occurs after sunrise. The singing of the gibbons serves to warn off other animals from their territory, and possibly to strengthen the family bonds.

The reproductive cycle of Kloss's gibbon is similar to that of other gibbons. Every two to three years the female may give birth to a single young (with a gestation period of seven months). The young is weaned in the middle of its second year, and is fully mature in about seven years. Their life expectancy is about 25 years in the wild, and up to 40 years in captivity.

References

  1. ^ a b Groves, C. P. (2005). "Order Primates". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ Liswanto, D.; Whittaker, D.; Geissmann, T.; Whitten, T. (2020). "Hylobates klossii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T10547A17967475. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  3. ^ Kloss Gibbon at the zoo

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Kloss's gibbon: Brief Summary

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Kloss's gibbon (Hylobates klossii), also known as the Mentawai gibbon or the bilou, is an endangered primate in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae. It is identifiable in that it is all black, resembling the siamang with its black fur, but is considerably smaller and lacks the siamang's distinctive throat pouch. Kloss's gibbon reaches a size 17 to 25 inches (44 to 63 cm) and weigh at most 13 pounds (6 kg). As is the case for all gibbons, they have long arms and no tail.

Kloss's gibbon exclusively lives on the Mentawai Islands that lie to the west of Sumatra. It is a diurnal inhabitant of the rain forest that hangs in the trees from its long arms and rarely comes to the ground. Like all species of gibbons it lives together in pairs that stake out a territory from approximately 49 to 74 acres (20 to 30 hectares) of size. This area is defended vehemently against other gibbons. Its diet consists mainly of fruits, occasionally also eating different plant parts, bird eggs, insects and small vertebrates.

The singing of the female Kloss's gibbon is considered the most beautiful of all the gibbons' songs. Unlike most other gibbon species (except for the Javan silvery gibbon, Hylobates moloch), Kloss's gibbon males and females do not sing duets. Males typically sing in the hour before sunrise, while an all-female chorus occurs after sunrise. The singing of the gibbons serves to warn off other animals from their territory, and possibly to strengthen the family bonds.

The reproductive cycle of Kloss's gibbon is similar to that of other gibbons. Every two to three years the female may give birth to a single young (with a gestation period of seven months). The young is weaned in the middle of its second year, and is fully mature in about seven years. Their life expectancy is about 25 years in the wild, and up to 40 years in captivity.

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