Behavior

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There is little information available on interspecific communication in R. pumilio. Dwarf little fruit bats are microchiropteran bats that use echolocation calls to navigate and find food (Fenton, 1992). Olfaction is probably also an important mode of perception and communication, as many species of fruit bats use olfaction to locate food and communication among mammals is often primarily through olfaction.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; echolocation ; chemical

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Craig, K. 2006. "Rhinophylla pumilio" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinophylla_pumilio.html
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Kristy Craig, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Conservation Status

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Rhinophylla pumilio is common throughout its geographical range. It is classified as lower risk/least concern by the IUCN red list of threatened species.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Craig, K. 2006. "Rhinophylla pumilio" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinophylla_pumilio.html
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Benefits

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There is no evidence that Rhinophylla pumilio negatively effects humans.

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Craig, K. 2006. "Rhinophylla pumilio" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinophylla_pumilio.html
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Benefits

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There is little information available on how Rhinophylla pumilio benefits humans.

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Craig, K. 2006. "Rhinophylla pumilio" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinophylla_pumilio.html
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Kristy Craig, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Associations

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Dwarf little fruit bats are mostly frugivorous and are important seed and pollen dispersers (Fenton, 1992).

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds; pollinates

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Craig, K. 2006. "Rhinophylla pumilio" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinophylla_pumilio.html
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Kristy Craig, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Trophic Strategy

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Dwarf little fruit bats have a variable diet that consist of small seeded understory and mid-canopy fruits. They occasionally eat the pollen of flowers, such as the flowers of Vismia duckei, Philodendron billietae, and Cecropis disphylla (Rhinehart and Kunz, 2006).

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit; pollen

Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore )

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Craig, K. 2006. "Rhinophylla pumilio" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinophylla_pumilio.html
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Kristy Craig, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Distribution

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Rhinophylla pumilio occurs in the Amazon Basin and the Guianas (Emmons, 1990). It can be found in Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, and Peru (Rinehart and Kunz, 2006).

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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Craig, K. 2006. "Rhinophylla pumilio" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinophylla_pumilio.html
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Kristy Craig, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Habitat

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In Venezuela, R. pumilio is associated with moist areas and structured, tropical evergreen forests (Eisenberg and Redford, 1999). In French Guiana and southeastern Brazil, R. pumilio is found in primary and mature secondary lowland forest. In Amazonian Brazil R. pumilio is found in a wide variety of habitats including primary forest, forest fragments, and savannas.

Range elevation: 10 to 1,400 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; rainforest

Other Habitat Features: riparian

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Craig, K. 2006. "Rhinophylla pumilio" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinophylla_pumilio.html
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Kristy Craig, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Life Expectancy

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Life expectancy of Rhinophylla pumilio is not known.

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Craig, K. 2006. "Rhinophylla pumilio" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinophylla_pumilio.html
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Kristy Craig, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Morphology

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Rhinophylla pumilio is commonly known as dwarf little fruit bats or Peter's little fruit bats. Females are slightly larger than males with an average weight of 10.4 g in females and 9.4 g in males. Fur color is unicolored gray or brown to the base with slightly darker hair tips (Emmons, 1990). Head to body length averages 50 mm in females and 48.3 mm in males (Eisenberg and Redford, 1999). Wing color is dark to blackish, contrasting with the lighter metacarpals and phalanges (Rinehart and Kunz, 2006). Average forearm length in females is 35 mm and 34.7 mm in males. Average hind foot length for females is 10.77 mm and 10.33 mm in males. The ears are rounded, shorter than the head, and are a pinkish brown color (Rinehart and Kunz, 2006). Average ear length for females is 15.81 mm and 16.33 mm in males (Eisenberg and Redford, 1999). The tragus extends one-third of the length of the ear and is small and broad.

Dwarf little fruit bats have no external tail. The calcar is 5 mm in length and is distinct. The noseleaf is well developed, with a length twice its width. The tragus can reach well beyond the eye to the center of the forehead when flattened.

The dental formula is i 2/2, c 1/1, p 2/2, m 3/3, totaling 32 teeth. The medial upper incisors are notched and are larger than the outer incisors. The lower incisors contrast in size, the medial being larger and having a trilobed cutting edge . The two lower premolars are similar in form to the 3 lower molars.

Rhinophylla pumilio can be distinguished from Carollia species by the absence of a tail and reduced uropatagium. Rhinophylla pumilio can also be distinguished from other Rhinophylla species by incisor shape. The upper medial incisor is notched on cutting edge of R. pumilio and R. fischerae, whereas the cutting edge is uninterrupted in R. alethina. Rhinophylla pumilio also has a distinct lateral cingular style which is absent in R. fischerae and R. alethina. Rhinophylla pumilio is distinguished from other Rhinophylla species by the absence of conspicuous, stiff hairs along the distal edge of the uropatagium and a shorter calcar.

Range mass: 7 to 13 g.

Range length: 43 to 58 mm.

Average basal metabolic rate: 1.96ml cm3.O2/g/hr.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

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Craig, K. 2006. "Rhinophylla pumilio" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinophylla_pumilio.html
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Kristy Craig, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
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Associations

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Rhinophylla pumilio is subject to predation by squirrel monkeys. Squirrel monkeys have learned how to prey on tent making bats regardless of roost protection. Dwarf little fruit bats roost in small groups under tents made of leaves and stems. They use the vibration of the leaves to alert them of predator presence. Squirrel monkeys will scout the leaves from below, grabbing bats and knocking some to the ground.

Known Predators:

  • squirrel monkeys (Saimiri)
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Craig, K. 2006. "Rhinophylla pumilio" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinophylla_pumilio.html
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Reproduction

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The mating system of R. pumilio has not been studied in detail. Dwarf little fruit bats have been found roosting in groups of one male to two to three females, suggesting polygyny.

Mating System: polygynous

There is little available information on the reproductive behavior of R. pumilio. Pregnant and lactating females have been captured in March, May, June, July, August, September November, and December (Rinehart and Kunz 2006). As in other bat species, females give birth to one young per year.

Breeding interval: Dwarf little fruit bats breed once yearly.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

There is little available information on the parental involvement of Rhinophylla pumilio. However, as in all bat species, females invest a significant proportion of their energy into gestation and lactation of their single offspring each year.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female)

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Craig, K. 2006. "Rhinophylla pumilio" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rhinophylla_pumilio.html
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Dwarf little fruit bat

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The dwarf little fruit bat (Rhinophylla pumilio) is a species of leaf-nosed bat from South America.[2]

Description

As its name implies, the dwarf little fruit bat is a relatively small bat. Adults are just 4 to 6 cm (1.6 to 2.4 in) in head-body length, and weigh only 7 to 14 g (0.25 to 0.49 oz). Females are slightly larger, on average, than males. The fur is generally drab, being brown or reddish-brown across the entire body, although the individual hairs have white roots. The ears are rounded and hairless, with a relatively small tragus, and are pinkish-brown in colour. The bats have a prominent nose-leaf, which, when flattened, easily extends to the animal's forehead.[3]

The wing membranes are blue, and contrast with the bony parts of the wing, which have a distinct white colour. They extend all the way to the base of the toes, and the uropatagium reaches to mid-way along the lower leg. There is no tail, a feature which distinguishes these bats from the otherwise similar short-tailed fruit bats that inhabit the same region. A further distinguishing feature is the shape of a series of protuberances found on the chin of both groups; in dwarf little fruit bats, the central bump is triangular, rather than circular, and is flanked by fleshy pads, rather than by a V-shaped pattern of smaller nodules.[3]

Distribution and habitat

Dwarf little fruit bats are found in across much of northern South America east of the Andes, from northern Bolivia, through eastern Peru and Ecuador, across northeastern and Amazonian Brazil, and into southern Colombia and Venezuela, and throughout the Guianas.[1] They are widespread, and generally present in large numbers where they are found, preferring primary forest below 1,400 m (4,600 ft), but are also sometimes found in more disturbed habitats, including plantations and pastures, and in open savannah.[3][4]

No subspecies are recognized.

Biology and behaviour

Dwarf little fruit bats are exclusively herbivorous, eating a wide range of fruits, including Philodendron, matico, arum, and figs. They help to disperse the seeds of some these fruits, which pass unharmed through their digestive tracts,[3] and have also been observed to eat pollen from some plants.[5]

They are nocturnal, spending the day in tent-like roosts constructed from the leaves of Philodendron and similar plants, typically 1.5 to 15 m (4 ft 11 in to 49 ft 3 in) above the ground. The roosts are temporary, with the bats moving every few days, and are found in small groups, occupied by a single male and up to three females. The bats are most active immediately after dusk and before dawn, foraging in the mid-canopy and forest understory, and covering an area of 5 to 15 ha (12 to 37 acres) each night. Pregnant females have been captured at most times of the year, suggesting the bats have little, if any, defined breeding season. The female gives birth to a single young.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b Sampaio, E.; Lim, B. & Peters, S. (2008). "Rhinophylla pumilio". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 13 September 2009.old-form url
  2. ^ Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  3. ^ a b c d e Rinehart, J.B.; Kunz, T.H. (2006). "Rhinophylla pumilio". Mammalian Species. 791: Number 791: pp. 1–5. doi:10.1644/791.1.
  4. ^ Simmons, N.B.; Voss, R.S. (1998). "The mammals of French Guiana: a Neotropical lowland rainforest fauna. Part 1. Bats". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 237: 1–219.
  5. ^ Buzato, S.; Franco, A.L.M. (1992). "Tetrastylis ovalis: a second case of bat-pollinated passionflower (Passifloraceae)". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 181 (3–4): 261–267. doi:10.1007/BF00937450. S2CID 24179467.
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Dwarf little fruit bat: Brief Summary

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The dwarf little fruit bat (Rhinophylla pumilio) is a species of leaf-nosed bat from South America.

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