Description

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An abundant bushland Hyperolius from West Africa and western Cameroun. Males medium-sized (24–31 mm), females large, (30–40 mm) with a long pointed snout. Phase F with a dense, uniform green dorsum. Ventrum yellow. No dark lateral pigmentation. Pupil horizontal.

Three subspecies were established by Schiøtz (1967), of which only two have been named:
1. Hyperolius c. concolor. – phase J. with an indistinct hourglass pattern or longitudinal stripes but without a distinct light canthal and dorsolateral stripe.
Distributed from eastern Sierra Leone to western Togo.

2. Hyperolius c. ibadanensis Schiøtz 1967. – Many of the males have a distinct light canthal and dorsolateral line.
Found in Nigeria and also, according to Amiet (1978), in the vicinity of Mamfe, Cameroun.

3. Hyperolius concolor ssp. – Apparently no males with distinct light canthal line.
Occurs in South-east Nigeria east of Cross River and adjacent Cameroun.

The tadpole, with the usual dentition, has a dark stripe laterally from the root of the tail one-fourth to one-third towards the tip of the tail.

This species shows developmental changes in patterning, with two phases, J (juveniles and many mature males) and F (mature females and some mature males). All newly metamorphosed individuals are phase J, which is normally brownish to green with paired light dorsolateral lines, or an hourglass pattern. All females, and some males, develop into phase F before the first breeding season. Phase F is often colorful and variable, showing the diagnostic color characteristics for the species or subspecies. Either well-defined morphs may be present, or graded variation.

Hyperolius concolor is probably closely related to H. balfouri, H. kivuensis and H. tuberilinguis and the four species are sometimes regarded as belonging to one superspecies (Schiøtz 1975).

This account was taken from "Treefrogs of Africa" by Arne Schiøtz with kind permission from Edition Chimaira publishers, Frankfurt am Main.

Reference

Amiet, J.-L. (). ''A propos d'Hyperolius platyceps Boulenger, H. kuligae Mertens et H. adametzi Ahl (Amphibiens Anoures).'' Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun, , -.

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Distribution and Habitat

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A typical bushland form, abundant and conspicuous on open localities in the forest belt and in gallery forests far up in the savanna. Found from eastern Sierra Leone to western Cameroun.

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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

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The call is a succession of brief, hard non-melodic clicks. Sonograms show that the voice is often a double click, but the two elements follow so fast that the audible impression is of a single, rather coarse click.

The eggs are unpigmented and the jelly milky.

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Hyperolius concolor

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Hyperolius concolor, also known as the variable reed frog or Hallowell's sedge frog, is a species of frog in the family Hyperoliidae. It occurs in West and Middle Africa.[1][2][3][4]

Distribution

Hyperolius concolor is known from eastern Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, and western Cameroon (here listed from west to east).[1][2][4]

Taxonomy

Hyperolius concolor was described in 1884 by Edward Hallowell based on material collected from Liberia. A large number of species described in later years have been brought into synonymy with it.[2] One subspecies, Hyperolius concolor ibadanensis Schiøtz, 1967 from Nigeria and Cameroon, is recognized, in addition to the nominotypical subspecies[2][3][4] and one unnamed subspecies, the latter also from Nigeria and Cameroon.[3][4]

Description

Hyperolius concolor is a medium to large-sized member of its genus, with males measuring 24–31 mm (0.94–1.22 in) and females about 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) in snout–vent length. The snout is long and pointed. The pupil is horizontal. There are two colour phases. All juveniles and many mature males display phase "J", which is normally brownish to green in colour and shows paired light dorsolateral lines or an hourglass pattern. All females, and some males, develop into phase "F" prior to the first breeding season. This phase is often colourful and variable, with uniformly green dorsum, yellow ventrum, and no dark lateral pigmentation. Also intermediate forms are found.[3][4]

Male advertisement call is a succession of brief, hard and non-melodic "clicks".[3][4]

Habitat and conservation

Hyperolius concolor occurs in forest clearings and degraded forest, and in cultivated land, secondary brush, and gallery forests in savanna; it avoids closed forest habitats. Breeding takes place in small (even putrid) pools and marshes. The eggs are laid on folded leaves above water; the tadpoles fall into the water and continue their development there.[1]

It is an abundant species that is probably increasing because its habitat is increasing, even though it could locally suffer from habitat loss. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade, but not at levels that would pose a threat. It occurs in many protected areas.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2013). "Hyperolius concolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T56127A18373673. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-2.RLTS.T56127A18373673.en.
  2. ^ a b c d Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Hyperolius concolor (Hallowell, 1844)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Hyperolius concolor (Hallowell, 1844)". African Amphibians. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Hyperolius concolor". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
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Hyperolius concolor: Brief Summary

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Hyperolius concolor, also known as the variable reed frog or Hallowell's sedge frog, is a species of frog in the family Hyperoliidae. It occurs in West and Middle Africa.

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