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Economic Significance

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Like the genus Convovulus, this genus contains species that are often significant weeds in agricultural fields but which are sometimes cultivated for ornamental purposes.

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Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, sometimes shrub-like or woody. Stems usually twining or prostrate, sometimes erect. Pseudostipules sometimes present. Leaves variable. Flowers axillary, solitary or in few-many-flowered cymes, sometimes in pseudoheads or enclosed in an involucre. Peduncles and pedicels usually present. Corolla usually actinomorphic, only slightly lobed. Sepals 5, usually unequal. Stamens 5, usually unequal, inserted near base of corolla tube. Ovary 2-3-4- or rarely 5-locular; style filiform. Stigmas 2, spherical. Capsule spherical to ovoid, dehiscent and 3-10-valved. Seeds usually 4, glabrous, pubescent or long-hairy.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Ipomoea Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/genus.php?genus_id=1186
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Ipomoea

provided by wikipedia EN

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Ipomoea transvaalensis - MHNT

Ipomoea (/ˌɪpəˈmə, -p-/[3][4]) is the largest genus in the flowering plant family Convolvulaceae, with over 600 species. It is a large and diverse group, with common names including morning glory, water convolvulus or kangkung, sweet potato, bindweed, moonflower, etc.[5]

Their most widespread common name is morning glory, but some species in related genera bear that same common name and some Ipomea species are known by different common names. Those formerly separated in Calonyction[6] (Greek καλός kalós "good" and νύξ, νυκτός núx, nuktós, "night") are called moonflowers.[5] The generic name Ipomoea is derived from the Greek ἴψ, ἰπός (íps, ipós), meaning "woodworm", and ὅμοιος (hómoios), meaning "resembling". It refers to their twining habit.[7] The genus occurs throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and comprises annual and perennial herbaceous plants, lianas, shrubs, and small trees; most of the species are twining climbing plants.

Uses and ecology

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Whitestar potato, Ipomoea lacunosa

Human uses of Ipomoea include:

My pistol may snap, my mojo is frail
But I rub my root, my luck will never fail
When I rub my root, my John the Conquer root
Aww, you know there ain't nothin' she can do, Lord,
I rub my John the Conquer root

As medicine and entheogen

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Ergonovine (ergometrine)

Humans use Ipomoea spp. for their content of medical and psychoactive compounds, mainly alkaloids. Some species are renowned for their properties in folk medicine and herbalism; for example, Vera Cruz jalap (I. jalapa) and Tampico jalap (I. simulans) are used to produce jalap, a cathartic preparation accelerating the passage of stool. Kiribadu ala (giant potato, I. mauritiana) is one of the many ingredients of chyawanprash, the ancient Ayurvedic tonic called "the elixir of life" for its wide-ranging properties.

The leaves of I. batatas are eaten as a vegetable, and have been shown to slow oxygenation of LDLs, with some similar potential health benefits to green tea and grape polyphenols.[11]

Other species were and still are used as potent entheogens. Seeds of Mexican morning glory (tlitliltzin, I. tricolor) were thus used by Aztecs and Zapotecs in shamanistic and priestly divination rituals, and at least by the former also as a poison, to give the victim a "horror trip" (see also Aztec entheogenic complex). Beach moonflower (I. violacea) was also used thusly, and the cultivars called 'Heavenly Blue', touted today for their psychoactive properties, seem to represent an indeterminable assembly of hybrids of these two species.

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Ergine (D-lysergic acid amide)

Ergoline derivatives (lysergamides) are probably responsible for the entheogenic activity. Ergine (LSA), isoergine, D-lysergic acid N-(α-hydroxyethyl)amide and lysergol have been isolated from I. tricolor, I. violacea and/or purple morning glory (I. purpurea); although these are often assumed to be the cause of the plants' effects, this is not supported by scientific studies, which show although they are psychoactive, they are not notably hallucinogenic. Alexander Shulgin in TiHKAL suggests ergonovine is responsible, instead. It has verified psychoactive properties, though as yet other undiscovered lysergamides possibly are present in the seeds.

Though most often noted as "recreational" drugs, the lysergamides are also of medical importance. Ergonovine enhances the action of oxytocin, used to still post partum bleeding. Ergine induces drowsiness and a relaxed state, so might be useful in treating anxiety disorder. Whether Ipomoea species are useful sources of these compounds remains to be determined. In any case, in some jurisdictions, certain Ipomoea are regulated, e.g. by the Louisiana State Act 159, which bans cultivation of I. violacea except for ornamental purposes.

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Vera Cruz jalap (I. purga) from Köhler's Medicinal Plants

Pests and diseases

Many herbivores avoid morning glories such as Ipomoea, as the high alkaloid content makes these plants unpalatable, if not toxic. Nonetheless, Ipomoea species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of certain Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). For a selection of diseases of the sweet potato (I. batatas), many of which also infect other members of this genus, see List of sweet potato diseases.

Pollination

The species of Ipomoea interfere with each others' pollination. Pollen from different species compete in each other's reproductive processes, imposing a fitness cost.[12]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Genus: Ipomoea L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Archived from the original on 2010-05-28. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
  2. ^ "Ipomoea L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  3. ^ "Ipomoea". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2016-01-21.
  4. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  5. ^ a b Gunn, Charles R. (1972). "moonflower". Brittonia. 24 (2): 150–168. doi:10.2307/2805866. JSTOR 2805866. S2CID 44714712.
  6. ^ Gunn, Charles R. (1972). "Calonyction". Brittonia. 24 (2): 150–168. doi:10.2307/2805866. JSTOR 2805866. S2CID 44714712.
  7. ^ Austin, Daniel F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press. p. 365. ISBN 978-0-8493-2332-4.
  8. ^ Vijayan Namboothiri, Mini. 'Dashapushpam'- through the looking glasses of Science and Religion. ISBN 978-620-0-31860-2. OCLC 1197284682.
  9. ^ Uthaman, Ashly; Nair, Sreesha N (2017). "A Review on Ten Sacred Flowers in Kerala: Dasapushpam". Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 10 (5): 1555. doi:10.5958/0974-360x.2017.00274.8. ISSN 0974-3618.
  10. ^ Massachusetts Institute of Technology Summer Institute in Materials Science and Material Culture: Rubber Processing in Ancient Mesoamerica. Retrieved 2007-NOV-22.
  11. ^ Nagai, Miu; Tani, Mariko; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Iizuka, Maki; Saita, Emi; Toyozaki, Miku; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Kondo, Kazuo (2011). "Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves suppressed oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro and in human subjects". J Clin Biochem Nutr. 48 (3): 203–8. doi:10.3164/jcbn.10-84. PMC 3082074. PMID 21562639.
  12. ^ Weber, Marjorie G.; Strauss, Sharon Y. (2016). "Coexistence in Close Relatives: Beyond Competition and Reproductive Isolation in Sister Taxa". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. Annual Reviews. 47 (1): 359–381. doi:10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-112414-054048. ISSN 1543-592X.

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Ipomoea: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
 src= Ipomoea transvaalensis - MHNT

Ipomoea (/ˌɪpəˈmiːə, -poʊ-/) is the largest genus in the flowering plant family Convolvulaceae, with over 600 species. It is a large and diverse group, with common names including morning glory, water convolvulus or kangkung, sweet potato, bindweed, moonflower, etc.

Their most widespread common name is morning glory, but some species in related genera bear that same common name and some Ipomea species are known by different common names. Those formerly separated in Calonyction (Greek καλός kalós "good" and νύξ, νυκτός núx, nuktós, "night") are called moonflowers. The generic name Ipomoea is derived from the Greek ἴψ, ἰπός (íps, ipós), meaning "woodworm", and ὅμοιος (hómoios), meaning "resembling". It refers to their twining habit. The genus occurs throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and comprises annual and perennial herbaceous plants, lianas, shrubs, and small trees; most of the species are twining climbing plants.

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