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Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Trees, shrubs or herbs (Dorstenia only), dioecious or monoecious; sap milky, very occasionally watery (e.g. in Ficus capreifolia). Stipules present. Leaves alternate, rarely subopposite or subwhorled. Inflorescence unisexual or bisexual. Male flowers: tepals 2-6 perianth 0; stamens 1-4. Female flowers: tepals 2-6 perianth 0; pistil 1; stigmas 1 or 2.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Moraceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=142
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Moraceae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plants comprising about 38 genera and over 1100 species.[2] Most are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, less so in temperate climates; however, their distribution is cosmopolitan overall. The only synapomorphy within the Moraceae is presence of laticifers and milky sap in all parenchymatous tissues, but generally useful field characters include two carpels sometimes with one reduced, compound inconspicuous flowers, and compound fruits.[3] The family includes well-known plants such as the fig, banyan, breadfruit, mulberry, and Osage orange. The 'flowers' of Moraceae are often pseudanthia (reduced inflorescences).

Historical taxonomy

Formerly included within the now defunct order Urticales, recent molecular studies have resulted in the family's placement within the Rosales in a clade called the urticalean rosids that also includes Ulmaceae, Celtidaceae, Cannabaceae, and Urticaceae. Cecropia, which has variously been placed in the Moraceae, Urticaceae, or their own family, Cecropiaceae, is now included in the Urticaceae.[4]

Dioecy (having individuals with separate sexes) appears to be the primitive state in Moraceae.[5] Monoecy has evolved independently at least four times within the family.

Characteristics

Flowers

The flowers are often small, with single whorled or absent perianth. Most flowers have either petals or sepals, but not both, known as monochlamydeae, and have pistils and stamens in different flowers, known as diclinous. Except for Brosimum gaudichaudii and Castilla elastica, the perianth in all species of the Moraceae contain sepals. If the flower has an inflexed stamen, then pollen is released and distributed by wind dispersal; however, if the stamen is straight, then insect pollination is most likely to occur. Insect pollination occurs in Antiaropsis, Artocarpus, Castilla, Dorstenia, Ficus, and Mesogyne[6]

Leaves

The leaves are much like the flowers when analyzing diversity. The leaves can be singly attached to the stem or alternating, they may be lobed or unlobed, and can be evergreen or deciduous depending on the species in question.[7] The red mulberry can host numerous leaf types on the same tree. Leaves can be both lobed and unlobed and appear very different, but coexist on the same plant.[8]

Fruits and seeds

Plant species in the Moraceae are best known for their fruits. Overall, most species produced a fleshy fruit containing seeds. Examples include the breadfruit from Artocarpus altillis, the mulberry from Morus rubra, and the jackfruit from Artocarpus heterophyllus.[5][9]

Distribution

Moraceae can be found throughout the world with a cosmopolitan distribution, thought to be due to the breakup of Gondwana during the Jurassic period.[10] The majority of species originate in the Old World tropics, particularly in Asia and the Pacific islands[11]

Phylogeny

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest these relationships:[4][5][9][12]

   

Urticaceae (outgroup)

  Moraceae   Artocarpeae    

Batocarpus

   

Clarisia

       

Artocarpus

     

Parartocarpus

   

Prainea

        Moreae

Sorocea

     

Bagassa

       

Milicia

   

Streblus

       

Morus

   

Trophis

              Maclureae

Maclura

    Dorstenieae

Fatoua

       

Broussonetia

   

Malaisia

         

Bleekrodea

   

Sloetia

     

Trilepisium

       

Utsetela

   

Dorstenia

       

Brosimum

   

Trymatococcus

   

Helianthostylis

              Ficeae

Ficus

Castilleae Antiaropsineae  

Sparattosyce

   

Antiaropsis

    Castillineae    

Antiaris

   

Mesogyne

       

Naucleopsis

     

Perebea

   

Pseudolmedia

     

Maquira

     

Helicostylis

     

Poulsenia

   

Castilla

                         

Tribes and genera

The Moraceae comprise:[13]

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
  2. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  3. ^ Judd WS, Campbell CS, Kellogg EA, Stevens PF, Donoghue MJ (2008). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. pp. 1–620. ISBN 978-0-878-93407-2.
  4. ^ a b Sytsma KJ, Morawetz J, Pires C, Nepokroeff M, Conti E, Zjhra M, Hall JC, Chase MW (2002). "Urticalean rosids: Circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnLF, and ndhF sequences" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 89 (9): 1531–1546. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.9.1531. PMID 21665755.
  5. ^ a b c Datwyler SL, Weiblen G (2004). "On the origin of the fig: Phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from ndhF sequences". American Journal of Botany. 91 (5): 767–777. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.5.767. PMID 21653431.
  6. ^ Leite VG, Mansano VF, Teixeira SP (2018). "Floral Development of Moraceae species with emphasis on the perianth and androecium". Flora. 240 (Flora): 116–132. doi:10.1016/j.flora.2018.01.009.
  7. ^ Khyade VB. (2016). "Mulberry Family (Moraceae) - FLowers, Fruits and Leaves". Science J Rank.
  8. ^ TWC Staff (2018). "Morus rubra (Red Mulberry)". Wildflower.org.
  9. ^ a b Clement WL, Weiblen GD (2009). "Morphological evolution in the mulberry family (Moraceae)". Systematic Botany. 34 (3): 530–552. doi:10.1600/036364409789271155.
  10. ^ "Gondwana". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  11. ^ Zerega NJC, Clement WL, Datwyler SL, Weiblen GD." (2005). "Biogeography and Divergence times in the mulberry family (Moraceae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (2): 402–416. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.418.1442. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.07.004. PMID 16112884.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ Zerega NJ, Clement WL, Datwyler SL, Weiblen GD (2005). "Biogeography and divergence times in the mulberry family (Moraceae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (2): 402–416. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.418.1442. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.07.004. PMID 16112884.
  13. ^ Hepworth C. (2018). "Moraceae - The Mulberry Family". Florida Fruit Geek.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)

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Moraceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plants comprising about 38 genera and over 1100 species. Most are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, less so in temperate climates; however, their distribution is cosmopolitan overall. The only synapomorphy within the Moraceae is presence of laticifers and milky sap in all parenchymatous tissues, but generally useful field characters include two carpels sometimes with one reduced, compound inconspicuous flowers, and compound fruits. The family includes well-known plants such as the fig, banyan, breadfruit, mulberry, and Osage orange. The 'flowers' of Moraceae are often pseudanthia (reduced inflorescences).

" Ficus retusa (Moraceae) in Bagh-e-Jinnah, Lahore
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