Biology

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This species feeds on both plant and animal matter with a rasping tongue known as a radula, which can leave distinctive feeding marks behind (7). It can even attack newts, small fishes, and water beetle larvae and may occasionally be cannibalistic, eating smaller great pond snails (3). It lays large gelatinous egg-masses on weeds and other objects in the pond (6). These egg masses measure between 5 and 6 cm in length (5), and can contain as many as 50-120 eggs (6). The size to which a specimen will grow is dependent upon the volume of water in the pond; individuals grow larger in big ponds. Young specimens are slender and have more translucent shells than mature snails (6). Great pond snails often come to the surface to take in air into a respiratory cavity. When the pond becomes covered in ice, or when the snails move to deeper water in winter, they are able to take in oxygen from the water through the skin. The wide tentacles play a key role in the intake of oxygen; the surface of the tentacles is covered in tiny hair-like structures known as 'cilia' which function to increase their surface area, thus increasing the intake of air (4).
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Conservation

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No conservation action has been targeted at this species.
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Description

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This species is the largest pond snail in Britain (1). It has a shiny yellowish brown shell, with a tall, slender and pointed spire (2). The shell walls are delicate and fairly transparent; they have fine markings, more prominent growth lines and variable dents on the surface (2). This snail's body is yellowish grey in colour, with a large head and long, flattened tentacles (3).
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Habitat

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Found in still or slow-moving waters where there is plenty of aquatic vegetation (2). As the specific part of the Latin name, stagnalis suggests, this species prefers stagnant water (6).
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Range

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This pond snail is common in England but becomes scarce in Wales and Scotland. The distribution may be affected by the introduction of this species to garden ponds (1). Elsewhere, it is found throughout Europe, northern Asia and North America (2).
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Status

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Common and widespread in England, scarce in Scotland and Wales (2).
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Threats

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Not currently threatened.
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Brief Summary

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Great pond snails have lungs and need to surface regularly and take a breath. They eat just about anything they run into, even their own excrement. That sounds disgusting, but it means that they only waste 15% of what they eat. A pig wastes 6 times as much with its excrement! Pond snails are both male and female simultaneously and mate with another snail or with itself. The chains of eggs are attached to the underside of drifting leaves. After 10 days, the small snails hatch.
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Lymnaea stagnalis

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Lymnaea stagnalis, better known as the great pond snail, is a species of large air-breathing freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Lymnaeidae.

Limnaea stagnalis var. baltica Lindström, 1868: synonym of Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Distribution

The distribution of this species is Holarctic. It is widely distributed, and is common in many countries and islands including: Belgium, British Isles: Great Britain and Ireland, Canada (Alberta province, Ottawa valley), Cambodia, Czech Republic[3] – least concern (LC),[4] Germany – distributed in whole Germany but in 2 states in red list (Rote Liste BRD),[5] Netherlands,[6] Poland, Russia, Slovakia,[3] Sweden (Skåne), Switzerland, Ukraine. United States (Utah) – Lymnaea stagnalis appressa.[7]

Shell description

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A shell of Lymnaea stagnalis

For terms see gastropod shell The height of an adult shell of this species ranges from 45–60 mm. The width of an adult shell ranges from 20–30 mm. (34) mm.

The 40–50 x 22–30 mm. (median) shell has 4.5–6 weakly convex whorls. The upper whorls are pointed, the last whorl is suddenly inflated, so that its diameter is more than a continuous increase of that of the upper whorls. The umbilicus is closed. Shells are brown in colour.[8]

Nervous system

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The dissected central ring ganglia of Lymnaea stagnalis. Scale bar is 1 mm.
LBuG and RBuG: left and right buccal ganglia
LCeG and RCeG: left and right cerebral ganglia
LPeG and RPeG: left and right pedal ganglia
LPIG and RPIG: left and right pleural ganglia
LPaG and RPaG: left and right parietal ganglia
VG: visceral ganglion.

Lymnaea stagnalis is widely used for the study of learning, memory and neurobiology.[9]

Lymnaea stagnalis has a relatively simple central nervous system (CNS) consisting of a total of ~20,000 neurons, many of them individually identifiable, organized in a ring of interconnected ganglia. Most neurons of the Lymnaea stagnalis central nervous system are large in size (diameter: up to ~100 μm), thus allowing electrophysiological dissection of neuronal networks that has yielded profound insights in the working mechanisms of neuronal networks controlling relatively simple behaviors such as feeding, respiration, locomotion, and reproduction. Studies using the central nervous system of Lymnaea stagnalis as a model organism have also identified novel cellular and molecular mechanisms in neuronal regeneration, synapse formation, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory formation, the neurobiology of development and aging, the modulatory role of neuropeptides, and adaptive responses to hypoxic stress.[9]

Habitat

This large snail lives only in freshwater: it prefers slowly running water, and standing water bodies.

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Lymnaea stagnalis in typical mating position of this species. The top snail is performing the male role (sperm donor), its white preputium (penis-carrying organ, Pp) can be seen inserted under the shell of the sperm recipient, where the female opening is located. During insemination, sperm (from the seminal vesicles) and seminal fluids (from the prostate gland) are transferred. Since these are simultaneous hermaphrodites, sexual roles can be swapped immediately afterwards.[10]

Life cycle

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Eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis

Lymnaea stagnalis is a simultaneously hermaphroditic species and can mate in the male and female role, but within one copulation only one sexual role is performed at a time.[11] Lymnaea stagnalis perform more inseminations in larger groups and prefer to inseminate novel over familiar partners. Such higher motivation to copulate when a new partner is encountered is known as the Coolidge effect and has been demonstrated in hermaphrodites firstly in 2007.[11]

Parasites

Lymnaea stagnalis is an intermediate host for:

Other parasites of Lymnaea stagnalis include:

Lymnaea stagnalis has been experimentally infected with Elaphostrongylus rangiferi.[15]

References

This article incorporates CC-BY-2.0 text from references[9][11] and CC-BY-2.5 text from the reference[10]

  1. ^ Seddon, M.B.; Van Damme, D. & Cordeiro, J. (2017). "Lymnaea stagnalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T155475A42428297.en.old-form url
  2. ^ Linnaeus C. (1758) Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edition. Vermes. Testacea: 700–781. Holmiae. (Salvius).
  3. ^ a b (in Czech) Horsák M., Juřičková L., Beran L., Čejka T. & Dvořák L. (2010). "Komentovaný seznam měkkýšů zjištěných ve volné přírodě České a Slovenské republiky. [Annotated list of mollusc species recorded outdoors in the Czech and Slovak Republics]". Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, Suppl. 1: 1–37. PDF.
  4. ^ Juřičková L., Horsák M. & Beran L. (2001) "Check-list of the molluscs (Mollusca) of the Czech Republic". Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 65: 25–40.
  5. ^ Glöer P. & Meier-Brook C. (2003) Süsswassermollusken. DJN, 134 pp., p. 109, ISBN 3-923376-02-2.
  6. ^ (in Dutch) Lymnaea stagnalis — Anemoon
  7. ^ "Lymnaea stagnalis". Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. Archived from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  8. ^ Animalbase (Welter-Schultes)
  9. ^ a b c Feng Z-P., Zhang Z., Kesteren R. E. van, Straub V. A., Nierop P. van, Jin K., Nejatbakhsh N., Goldberg J. I., Spencer G. E., Yeoman M. S., Wildering W., Coorssen J. R., Croll R. P., Buck L. T., Syed N. I. & Smit A. B. (23 September 2009) "Transcriptome analysis of the central nervous system of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis". BMC Genomics 10: 451. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-451
  10. ^ a b Koene J. M., Sloot W., Montagne-Wajer K., Cummins S. F., Degnan B. M., Smith J. S., Nagle G. T. & Maat A. ter (2010). "Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite". PLoS ONE 5(4): e10117. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010117.
  11. ^ a b c Koene J. M. & Maat A. T. (6 November 2007) "Coolidge effect in pond snails: male motivation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite". BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 212. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-212
  12. ^ Kudlai O. S. (2009). "The discovery of the intermediate host for the trematode Moliniella anceps (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) in Ukraine". Vestnik zoologii 43(4): e-11–e-13. doi:10.2478/v10058-009-0014-x.
  13. ^ Leicht K. & Seppälä O. (2014). "Infection success of Echinoparyphium aconiatum (Trematoda) in its snail host under high temperature: role of host resistance". Parasites & Vectors 7:192. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-192.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Soldanova M., Selbach C., Sures B., Kostadinova A. & Perez-del-Olmo A. (2010). "Larval trematode communities in Radix auricularia and Lymnaea stagnalis in a reservoir system of the Ruhr River". Parasites & Vectors 2010, 3: 56. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-3-56.
  15. ^ Skorping A. (1985). "Lymnea stagnalis as experimental intermediate host for Elaphostrongylus rangiferi". Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde 71: 265–270.

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Lymnaea stagnalis: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Lymnaea stagnalis, better known as the great pond snail, is a species of large air-breathing freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Lymnaeidae.

Limnaea stagnalis var. baltica Lindström, 1868: synonym of Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

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