dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

provided by AnAge articles
Maximum longevity: 26.4 years (wild)
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
editor
de Magalhaes, J. P.
partner site
AnAge articles

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Breeding starts in March and April. Nearly all first-year females attempt to nest and older females usually return to their nesting areas of previous years and very frequently use an old nest site, or at least nest within 100 yards of an old nest site. The nest consists of a scrape on the ground, concealed among vegetation, sometimes in tree-cavities or crotches and lined with plant matter and down. Eggs are deposited in the nest at the approximate rate of one per day, and clutch sizes generally average between 9 and 10 eggs, with smaller clutches typical of first-year females. The time at which pair bonds are broken varies somewhat, with males typically remaining with their females about two weeks into the incubation period. Male participation in the brood rearing has not been reported. The incubation period is about 27 days. A fairly high rate of nest destruction is done by crows and racoons (Norman and Winston 1996). The first broods hatch in early May and peak hatch is in early June (Longcore, et al 1998). Young are mobile 1-3 hours after hatching. The female-brood pair bond lasts 6-7 weeks (Ehrlich, et al 1988).

Average eggs per season: 9.5.

Average time to hatching: 27 days.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Average time to hatching: 28 days.

Average eggs per season: 9.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
365 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
365 days.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Byerly, T. 2000. "Anas rubripes" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Anas_rubripes.html
author
Tracy Byerly, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Byerly, T. 2000. "Anas rubripes" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Anas_rubripes.html
author
Tracy Byerly, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Not globally threatened.

The population of the Black Duck in the 1950's was around 2 million and since then has been on a steady decrease. Today the population has been calculated to be around 50,000. Causes of decline are unknown, but probably related to habitat loss, deterioration of water and food supplies, intense hunting pressure, and competition and hybridization with Mallards (Hoyo, et al 1992).

US Migratory Bird Act: protected

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Byerly, T. 2000. "Anas rubripes" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Anas_rubripes.html
author
Tracy Byerly, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The Black Duck is an important waterfowl of North American hunters and has been for many years.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Byerly, T. 2000. "Anas rubripes" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Anas_rubripes.html
author
Tracy Byerly, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The American Black Duck eats seeds and vegetative parts of aquatic plants and crop plants. They also consume a rather high proportion of invertebrates (insects, molluscs, crustaceans) in spring and summer. They feed by grazing, probing, dabbling or upending in shallow water. They occasionally dive (Hoyo, et al 1992).

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Byerly, T. 2000. "Anas rubripes" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Anas_rubripes.html
author
Tracy Byerly, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Anas rubripes breeds from Manitoba southeast to Minnesota, east through Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and in the forested portions of eastern Canada to nortern Quebec and northern Labrador. The black duck winters in the southern parts of its breeding range and south to the Gulf Coast, Florida, and Bermuda (Mcauley, et al 1998).

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Byerly, T. 2000. "Anas rubripes" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Anas_rubripes.html
author
Tracy Byerly, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

The Black Duck during the breeding season prefers a variety of fresh and brackish waters in a forest environment. These include: alkaline marshes, acid bogs and muskegs, lakes, ponds, and stream margins, as well as tidewater habitats such as bays and estuaries. The most favored areas are brackish estuarine bays with extensive adjacent agricultural lands. Outside of the breeding season the duck lives on large, open lagoons and on the coast, even in rough sea waters (Merendino and Ankney, 1994).

The northernmost breeders descend to lower latitudes to winter on the Atlantic seaboard of North America, usually as far south as Texas. Some reports have been made of observation of Black Ducks in Korea, Puerto Rico, and Western Europe, where some have stayed for an extended period of time (Hoyo, et al 1992).

Habitat Regions: temperate ; freshwater

Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; rivers and streams; coastal

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Byerly, T. 2000. "Anas rubripes" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Anas_rubripes.html
author
Tracy Byerly, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
317 months.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Byerly, T. 2000. "Anas rubripes" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Anas_rubripes.html
author
Tracy Byerly, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Males in breeding plumage have a buffy head that is heavily streaked with black, especially through the eye and on the tip of the head. The upperparts, including the tail and wing are blackish brown. The underparts feathers are dark sooty brown, with pale reddish and buff margins. The secondaries are iridescent blueish purple, with a black subterminal border and a narrow white tip, sometimes not present. The tertials are glossy black next to the speculum, but otherwise are gray to blackish brown, and the underwing surface is silvery white. The iris is brown, the bill is greenish yellow to bright yellow, with a black nail, and the feet and legs are orange red. Females also have a greenish to olive-colored bill, with small black spotting, and dusky to olive-colored legs and feet. Juveniles resemble adults, but are more heavily streaked on the breast and underparts, since these feathers have broader buff margins but darker tips. In the field the Black Duck has a body shaped like a Mallard. In flight, Black Ducks appear to be nearly black, with an underwing coloration that is in contrast with the rest of their plumage (Johngard, 1978).

Range mass: 1160 to 1330 g.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average basal metabolic rate: 3.6076 W.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Byerly, T. 2000. "Anas rubripes" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Anas_rubripes.html
author
Tracy Byerly, Southwestern University
editor
Stephanie Fabritius, Southwestern University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Anas rubripes

provided by DC Birds Brief Summaries

At close range, the American Black Duck may be identified by its dark color, dull-yellow bill, and white under-wing patches. However, due to its large size (20-25 inches) and familiar oval-shaped body, the American Black Duck is often mistaken at a distance for the more ubiquitous Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Separating American Black Ducks from the Mallards has become increasingly difficult as Mallards have begun to interbreed with this species, producing hybrids with characteristics intermediate to those of the two parent species. Male and female pure-bred American Black Ducks are similar to one another in all seasons. The American Black Duck breeds across northeastern North America from the eastern edge of the Great Plains east to the Atlantic coast and from the Hudson Bay south to the Mid-Atlantic region. Northern populations migrate south in winter, when they may be found in the southeast and along the Ohio River Valley. Populations in the northeastern United States and in the Mid-Atlantic region migrate short distances (if at all), and this species may be found all year in these areas. American Black Ducks breed along lakes, streams, and in freshwater and saltwater marshes. Similar habitats are utilized by this species in winter. Most hybrids occur where appropriate habitats for American Black Ducks overlap with those of Mallards, especially in more built-up areas. Like the Mallard, this species is a generalist feeder, eating grasses and aquatic plants, seeds, grains, insects, mollusks, crustaceans, and fish. American Black Ducks are often found floating on the water’s surface, occasionally dabbling (submerging their head and chest while their legs and tail stick out of the water) to find food. These ducks are also capable of taking off directly from the water. They may also be found on land, where they may be observed walking, or in the air, where they may be observed making swift and direct flights between bodies of water. Small numbers of American Black Ducks may be looked for among larger flocks of Mallards. This species is most active during the day.

Threat Status: Least Concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Smithsonian Institution
author
Reid Rumelt

Anas rubripes

provided by EOL authors

At close range, the American Black Duck may be identified by its dark color, dull-yellow bill, and white under-wing patches. However, due to its large size (20-25 inches) and familiar oval-shaped body, the American Black Duck is often mistaken at a distance for the more ubiquitous Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Separating American Black Ducks from the Mallards has become increasingly difficult as Mallards have begun to interbreed with this species, producing hybrids with characteristics intermediate to those of the two parent species. Male and female pure-bred American Black Ducks are similar to one another in all seasons. The American Black Duck breeds across northeastern North America from the eastern edge of the Great Plains east to the Atlantic coast and from the Hudson Bay south to the Mid-Atlantic region. Northern populations migrate south in winter, when they may be found in the southeast and along the Ohio River Valley. Populations in the northeastern United States and in the Mid-Atlantic region migrate short distances (if at all), and this species may be found all year in these areas. American Black Ducks breed along lakes, streams, and in freshwater and saltwater marshes. Similar habitats are utilized by this species in winter. Most hybrids occur where appropriate habitats for American Black Ducks overlap with those of Mallards, especially in more built-up areas. Like the Mallard, this species is a generalist feeder, eating grasses and aquatic plants, seeds, grains, insects, mollusks, crustaceans, and fish. American Black Ducks are often found floating on the water’s surface, occasionally dabbling (submerging their head and chest while their legs and tail stick out of the water) to find food. These ducks are also capable of taking off directly from the water. They may also be found on land, where they may be observed walking, or in the air, where they may be observed making swift and direct flights between bodies of water. Small numbers of American Black Ducks may be looked for among larger flocks of Mallards. This species is most active during the day.

References

  • American Black Duck (Anas rubripes). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.
  • Anas rubripes. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.
  • Longcore, Jerry R., Daniel G. Mcauley, Gary R. Hepp and Judith M. Rhymer. 2000. American Black Duck (Anas rubripes), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/481
  • eBird Range Map - American Black Duck. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-4.0
copyright
Smithsonian Institution
bibliographic citation
Rumelt, Reid B. Anas rubripes. June-July 2012. Brief natural history summary of Anas rubripes. Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
author
Robert Costello (kearins)
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Associated Plant Communities

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
NO-ENTRY


REFERENCES :
NO-ENTRY
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
American black duck
black duck
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Conservation Status

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info for the term: competition

The black duck is on The Blue List of the Audobon Society [15]. It is
declining rapidly due to many factors. There is no conclusive evidence
to determine the exact cause of the decline, although competition and
hybridization with the mallard as well as overhunting have been blamed
most frequently [3,10,13].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Cover Requirements

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info for the terms: cover, hardwood

During the nesting season American black ducks use wooded areas more
than other dabbling ducks do. However, because they seem to use a wide
variety of habitats, it is difficult to determine specific requirements
on a broad scale [13]. For brood rearing, American black ducks use
emergent wetlands, marshes, flooded hardwood areas, sloughs, creeks, or
ponds [6]. During winter they usually gather on large bodies of water
or on coastlines where there is abundant plant food [13].

American black ducks use coastal areas or ice-free areas on winter range
for feeding. They need protection from winter storms; this can be
provided by open water or high banks along open water or large
esturaries [9]. A mix of marine and estuarine habitats offers the
greatest variety of food and cover, although specific data is
unavailable. For detailed information on habitat suitablity index
models for winter American black ducks refer to Lewis and Garrison [9].
Others have detailed information on determining suitable nesting and
brood-rearing habitat [6].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
The Americanw black duck inhabits primarily the eastern North American
seaboard but can be found inland as far as Texas in the south and
Saskatchewan in the north. It ranges from the northern peninsula of
Quebec to southern Florida [10]. It breeds in northern Canada and the
United States, is a year-round resident in the central states, and
winters from southern Illinois south to Florida [13].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Food Habits

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
Aquatic invertebrates are the major food for nesting females and young
American black ducks [13]. Other foods include upland grasses, crops
such as blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), oats, buckwheat, corn, and
potatoes. They also eat clams, mussels, some fish, eelgrass (Aostera
marina), wigeongrass (Ruppia maritima), cordgrass (Spartina spp.),
wildrice (Zizania aquatica), pondweed (Potamogeton spp.), arrowhead
(Sagittaria spp.), burreed (Sparganium spp.), bulrush (Scirpus spp.),
sedge (Carex spp.), and the seeds of oaks (Quercus spp.), baldcypress
(Taxodium distichum), tupelo (Nyssa spp.), and buttonbush (Cephalanthus
spp.) [9,13].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat-related Fire Effects

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
No information is available on the specific effects of fire on American
black ducks nor on their behavior following fire. However, specific
information regarding important plant species in American black duck
habitat is available through this database. Refer to species such as
Phragmites, Carex, Scirpus, Eleocharis, and Spartina.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: swamp

1 Jack pine
5 Balsam fir
12 Black spruce
13 Black spruce - tamarack
16 Aspen
17 Pin cherry
18 Paper birch
24 Hemlock - yellow birch
38 Tamarack
63 Cottonwood
87 Sweet gum - yellow-poplar
88 Willow oak - water oak - diamondleaf oak
89 Live oak
91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak
92 Sweetgum - willow oak
93 Sugarberry - American elm - green ash
94 Sycamore - sweetgum - American elm
95 Black willow
96 Overcup oak - water hickory
100 Pondcypress
101 Baldcypress
102 Baldcypress - tupelo
103 Water tupelo - swamp tupelo
104 Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay
107 White spruce
201 White spruce
202 White spruce - paper birch
203 Balsam poplar
204 Black spruce
251 White spruce - aspen
252 Paper birch
253 Black spruce - white spruce
254 Black spruce - paper birch
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES10 White-red-jack pine
FRES11 Spruce-fir
FRES14 Oak-pine<
FRES15 Oak-hickory
FRES16 Oak-gum-cypress<
FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood
FRES18 Maple-beech-birch
FRES19 Aspen-birch
FRES24 Hemlock-Sitka spruce
FRES39 Prairie
FRES41 Wet grasslands
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the terms: bog, forest

K073 Northern cordgrass prairie
K078 Southern cordgrass prairie
K090 Live oak - sea oats
K091 Cypress savanna
K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
K094 Conifer bog
K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest
K097 Southeastern spruce - fir forest
K098 Northern floodplain forest
K099 Maple - basswood forest
K100 Oak - hickory forest
K101 Elm - ash forest
K103 Mixed mesophytic forest
K106 Northern hardwoods
K107 Northern hardwoods - fir forest
K108 Northern hardwoods - spruce forest
K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
K112 Southern mixed forest
K113 Southern floodplain forest
K114 Pocosin
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
The American black duck is being replaced by the mallard as the most
important nesting species along the East Coast of North America [4].
Because they use a variety of habitats, it may be best to determine what
areas are used locally and then protect and enhance those areas [6].
Some techniques for improving and creating brood-rearing habitat include
establishing stands of known foods, flooding wetland areas 2 to 24
inches (5-61 cm) deep, and creating visual isolation between feeding
areas to protect against predators [6]. To create nesting habitat
construct level ditches, pits, small dams for runoff ponds, or blast
potholes. For more detailed information refer to Kirby [6].


REFERENCES :
NO-ENTRY
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals

AL
AR
CT
DE
FL
GA
IL

IN
IA
KS
KY
LA
ME
MD

MA
MI
MN
MS
MO
NH
NJ

NY
OH
OK
OR
PA
RI
SC

TN
TX
UT
VT
VA
WV
WI





NB
NF
NT
NS
ON
PE
PQ
SK

license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Predators

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
Humans are the most significant predator of the American black duck
[13]. Other predators include cats (Felidae) and dogs (Canidae); skunks
and weasels (Mustelidae); ravens and crows (Corvidae); opossum
(Didelphis virginiana), raccoon (Procyon lotor), snakes, turtles, and
fish [6].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Preferred Habitat

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info for the terms: hardwood, tree

American black ducks prefer coastal brackish marshes and bays with
adjacent agricultural lands [9]. They also inhabit marshy inland lake
shores, sedge (Carex spp.) meadows, bogs, conifer uplands, wet hardwood
forests, and islands in large bodies of water [10,13]. American black
ducks seem to prefer more wooded habitat compared to the mallard [10].
They nest in tree cavities, old bird nests, on muskrat (Ondatra
zibethica) lodges, or on the ground either near water or as far as
one-half mile from the water's edge [10].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
The commonly accepted scientific name for the American black duck is
Anas rubripes Brewster [10,14]. There are no recognized subspecies.
The American black duck hybridizes with the mallard (Anas platyrynchos).
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Timing of Major Life History Events

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info for the term: formation

Pair formation - mostly paired by autumn but can continue into winter.
Breeding/Nesting - March through June.
Incubation - 23 to 33 days.
Clutch - 7 to 12 eggs; birds may renest if first clutch is destroyed.
Fledge - 8 to 10 weeks.
Maturity - 1 year.
[10,13]
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Use of Fire in Population Management

provided by Fire Effects Information System Animals
More info for the term: fire regime

Early spring burning of coastal marshes can be used to force nesting
American black ducks out of those areas where nests are likely to be
destroyed by flooding [6].

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Anas rubripes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

American black duck

provided by wikipedia EN

The American black duck (Anas rubripes) is a large dabbling duck in the family Anatidae. It was described by William Brewster in 1902. It is the heaviest species in the genus Anas, weighing 720–1,640 g (1.59–3.62 lb) on average and measuring 54–59 cm (21–23 in) in length with a 88–95 cm (35–37 in) wingspan. It somewhat resembles the female mallard in coloration, but has a darker plumage. The male and female are generally similar in appearance, but the male's bill is yellow while the female's is dull green with dark marks on the upper mandible. It is native to eastern North America. During the breeding season, it is usually found in coastal and freshwater wetlands from Saskatchewan to the Atlantic in Canada and the Great Lakes and the Adirondacks in the United States. It is a partially migratory species, mostly wintering in the east-central United States, especially in coastal areas.

It interbreeds regularly and extensively with the mallard, to which it is closely related. The female lays six to fourteen oval eggs, which have smooth shells and come in varied shades of white and buff green. Hatching takes 30 days on average. Incubation usually takes 25 to 26 days, with both sexes sharing duties, although the male usually defends the territory until the female reaches the middle of her incubation period. It takes about six weeks to fledge. Once the eggs hatch, the hen leads the brood to rearing areas with abundant invertebrates and vegetation.

The American black duck is considered to be a species of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It has long been valued as a game bird. Habitat loss due to drainage, global warming, filling of wetlands due to urbanization and rising sea levels are major reasons for the declining population of the American black duck. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has been purchasing and managing the habitat of this species in many areas to support the migratory stopover, wintering and breeding populations. The Atlantic Coast Joint Venture also protects habitat through restoration and land acquisition projects, mostly within their wintering and breeding areas.

Taxonomy and etymology

American ornithologist William Brewster described the American black duck as Anas obscura rubripes, for "red-legged black duck",[2] in his landmark article "An undescribed form of the black duck (Anas obscura)," in The Auk in 1902, to distinguish between the two kinds of black ducks found in New England. One of them was described as being comparatively small, with brownish legs and an olivaceous or dusky bill, and the other as being comparatively larger, with a lighter skin tone, bright red legs and a clear yellow bill.[2] The larger of the two was described as Anas obscura by the German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1789[1] in the 13th edition of the Systema Naturae, Part 2, and he based it on the "Dusky Duck" of Welsh naturalist Thomas Pennant.[2] The current scientific name, Anas rubripes, is derived from Latin, with Anas meaning "duck" and rubripes coming from ruber, "red", and pes, "foot".[3]

Pennant, in Arctic Zoology, Volume 2, described this duck as coming "from the province of New York" and having "a long and narrow dusky bill, tinged with blue: chin white: neck pale brown, streaked downwards with dusky lines."[2] In a typical obscura, characteristics such as greenish black, olive green or dusky olive bill; olivaceous brown legs with at most one reddish tinge; the nape and pileum nearly uniformly dark; spotless chin and throat; fine linear and dusky markings on the neck and sides of the head, rather than blackish, do not vary with age or season.[2]

Description

"
Male with a yellow beak and showing speculum
"
Female with a dull green beak

The American black duck weighs 720–1,640 g (1.59–3.62 lb) and measures 54–59 cm (21–23 in) in length with a 88–95 cm (35–37 in) wingspan.[4] This species has the highest mean body mass in the genus Anas, with a sample of 376 males averaging 1.4 kg (3.1 lb) and 176 females averaging 1.1 kg (2.4 lb).[5][6] The American black duck somewhat resembles the female mallard in coloration, although the black duck's plumage is darker.[7] Males and females are generally similar in appearance, but the male's bill is yellow while the female's is dull green with dark marks on the upper mandible,[8] which is occasionally flecked with black.[9][10] The head is brown, but is slightly lighter in tone than the darker brown body. The cheeks and throat are streaked brown, with a dark streak going through the crown and dark eye.[7] The speculum feathers are iridescent violet-blue with predominantly black margins.[8] The fleshy orange feet of the duck have dark webbing.[11]

Both male and female American black ducks produce similar calls to their close relative, the mallard, with the female producing a loud sequence of quacks which falls in pitch.[12]

In flight, the white lining of the underwings can be seen in contrast to the blackish underbody and upperside.[7][13] The purple speculum lacks white bands at the front and rear, and rarely has a white trailing edge. A dark crescent is visible on the median underwing primary coverts.[13]

Juveniles resemble adult females, but have broken narrow pale edges of underpart feathers, which give a slightly streaked rather than scalloped appearance, and the overall appearance is browner rather than uniformly blackish. Juvenile males have brownish-orange feet while juvenile females have brownish feet and a dusky greyish-green bill.[13]

Distribution and habitat

"
Anas rubripes female, Hudson River, New Jersey, USA

The American black duck is endemic to eastern North America.[14] In Canada, the range extends from northeastern Saskatchewan to Newfoundland and Labrador.[7] In the United States, it is found in northern Illinois, Michigan, New Jersey, Ohio, Connecticut, Vermont, South Dakota, central West Virginia, Maine and on the Atlantic coast to North Carolina.[15][7]

The American black duck is a habitat generalist as it is associated with tidal marshes and present throughout the year in salt marshes from the Gulf of Maine to coastal Virginia.[16] It usually prefers freshwater and coastal wetlands throughout northeastern America, including brackish marshes, estuaries and edges of backwater ponds and rivers lined by speckled alder.[15][7] It also inhabits beaver ponds, shallow lakes with sedges and reeds, bogs in open boreal and mixed hardwood forests, as well as forested swamps.[15] Populations in Vermont have also been found in glacial kettle ponds surrounded by bog mats.[15] During winter, the American black duck mostly inhabits brackish marshes bordering bays, agricultural marshes, flooded timber, agricultural fields, estuaries and riverine areas.[15] Ducks usually take shelter from hunting and other disturbances by moving to brackish and fresh impoundments on conservation land.[4]

Behavior

Feeding

The American black duck is an omnivorous species[17] with a diverse diet.[18] It feeds by dabbling in shallow water and grazing on land.[17] Its plant diet primarily includes a wide variety of wetland grasses and sedges, and the seeds, stems, leaves and root stalks of aquatic plants, such as eelgrass, pondweed and smartweed.[7][8] Its animal diet includes mollusks, snails, amphipods, insects, mussels and small fishes.[17][18]

During the breeding season, the diet of the American black duck consists of approximately 80% plant food and 20% animal food. The animal food diet increases to 85% during winter.[17] During nesting, the proportion of invertebrates increases.[8] Ducklings mostly eat water invertebrates for the first 12 days after hatching, including aquatic snowbugs, snails, mayflies, dragonflies, beetles, flies, caddisflies and larvae. After this, they shift to seeds and other plant food.[17]

Breeding

"
A female American black duck (top left) and a male mallard (bottom right) in eclipse plumage

The breeding habitat includes alkaline marshes, acid bogs, lakes, ponds, rivers, marshes, brackish marshes and the margins of estuaries and other aquatic environments in northern Saskatchewan, Manitoba, across Ontario, Quebec as well as the Atlantic Canadian Provinces, Great Lakes and the Adirondacks in the United States.[19] It is partially migratory, and many winter in the east-central United States, especially coastal areas; some remain year-round in the Great Lakes region.[20] This duck is a rare vagrant to Great Britain and Ireland, where over the years several birds have settled in and bred with the local mallard.[21] The resulting hybrid can present considerable identification difficulties.[21]

Nest sites are well-concealed on the ground, often in uplands. Egg clutches have six to fourteen oval eggs,[11] which have smooth shells and come in varied shades of white and buff green.[19] On average, they measure 59.4 mm (2.34 in) long, 43.2 mm (1.70 in) wide and weigh 56.6 g (0.125 lb).[19] Hatching takes 30 days on average.[11] The incubation period varies,[19] but usually takes 25 to 26 days.[22] Both sexes share duties, although the male usually defends the territory until the female reaches the middle of her incubation period.[22] It takes about six weeks to fledge.[22] Once the eggs hatch, the hen leads the brood to rearing areas with abundant invertebrates and vegetation.[22]

The American black duck interbreeds regularly and extensively with the mallard, to which it is closely related.[23] Some authorities even consider the black duck to be a subspecies of the mallard instead of a separate species. Mank et al. argue that this is in error as the extent of hybridization alone is not a valid means to delimitate Anas species.[24]

"
Chart showing differences between the American black duck and the female mallard

It has been proposed that the American black duck and the mallard were formerly separated by habitat preference, with the American black duck's dark plumage giving it a selective advantage in shaded forest pools in eastern North America, and the mallard's lighter plumage giving it an advantage in the brighter, more open prairie and plains lakes.[25] According to this view, recent deforestation in the east and tree planting on the plains has broken down this habitat separation, leading to the high levels of hybridization now observed.[26] However, rates of past hybridization are unknown in this and most other avian hybrid zones, and it is merely presumed in the case of the American black duck that past hybridization rates were lower than those seen today. Also, many avian hybrid zones are known to be stable and longstanding despite the occurrence of extensive interbreeding.[23] The American black duck and the local mallard are now very hard to distinguish by means of microsatellite comparisons, even if many specimens are sampled.[27] Contrary to this study's claims, the question of whether the American haplotype is an original mallard lineage is far from resolved. Their statement, "Northern black ducks are now no more distinct from mallards than their southern conspecifics" only holds true in regard to the molecular markers tested.[24] As birds indistinguishable according to the set of microsatellite markers still can look different, there are other genetic differences that were simply not tested in the study.[24]

In captivity studies, it has been discovered that most of the hybrids do not follow Haldane's Rule, but sometimes hybrid females die before they reach sexual maturity, thereby supporting the case for the American black duck being a distinct species.[23][28]

Nest predators and hazards

The apex nest predators of the American black duck include American crows, gulls and raccoons, especially in tree nests.[17] Hawks and owls are also major predators of adults. Bullfrogs and snapping turtles eat many ducklings.[17] Ducklings often catch diseases caused by protozoan blood parasites transmitted by bites of insects such as blackflies.[17] They are also vulnerable to lead shot poisoning, known as plumbism, due to their bottom-foraging food habits.[17]

Status and conservation

Since 1988, the American black duck has been rated as least concern on the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species.[1] This is because the range of this species is extremely large, which is not near the threshold of vulnerable species.[1] In addition, the total population is large, and, although it is declining, it is not declining fast enough to make the species vulnerable.[1] It has long been valued as a game bird, being extremely wary and fast flying.[29] Habitat loss due to drainage, filling of wetlands due to urbanization, global warming and rising sea levels are major reasons for the declining population.[14] Some conservationists consider hybridization and competition with the mallard as an additional source of concern should this decline continue.[30][31] Hybridization itself is not a major problem; natural selection makes sure that the best-adapted individuals have the most offspring.[32] However, the reduced viability of female hybrids causes some broods to fail in the long run due to the death of the offspring before reproducing themselves.[33] While this is not a problem in the plentiful mallard, it might place an additional strain on the American black duck's population. Recent research conducted for the Delta Waterfowl Foundation suggests that hybrids are a result of forced copulations and not a normal pairing choice by black hens.[34]

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has continued to purchase and manage habitat in many areas to support the migratory stopover, wintering and breeding populations of the American black duck.[14] In addition, the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge has purchased and restored over 1,000 acres of wetlands to provide stopover habitat for over 10,000 American black ducks during fall migration.[14] Also, the Atlantic Coast Joint Venture has been protecting the habitat of the American black duck through habitat restoration and land acquisition projects, mostly within their wintering and breeding areas.[14] In 2003, a Boreal Forest Conservation Framework was adopted by conservation organizations, industries and First Nations to protect the Canadian boreal forests, including the American black duck's eastern Canadian breeding range.[14]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e BirdLife International (2012). "Anas rubripes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2012. Archived from the original on 2016-04-25. Retrieved 2013-11-26.old-form url
  2. ^ a b c d e Brewster, William (1902). "An undescribed form of the black duck (Anas obscura)". The Auk. American Ornithologists Union. 19: 183–188. ISSN 0004-8038 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
  3. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. Christopher Helm. pp. 46, 340. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  4. ^ a b "American Black Duck". www.allaboutbirds.org. 2011. Archived from the original on 2017-02-17. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
  5. ^ CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
  6. ^ CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses, 2nd Edition by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (2008), ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Smith, Christopher (2000). Field Guide to Upland Birds and Waterfowl. Wilderness Adventures Press. p. 60. ISBN 9781885106209.
  8. ^ a b c d Kear, Janet (2005). Ducks, Geese and Swans: Species accounts (Cairina to Mergus). Oxford University Press. p. 509. ISBN 9780198610090.
  9. ^ Potter, Eloise F.; Parnell, James F.; Teulings, Robert P.; Davis, Ricky (2015). Birds of the Carolinas. The University of North Carolina Press. p. 47. ISBN 9781469625652.
  10. ^ Dunn, Jon Lloyd; Alderfer, Jonathan K. (2006). National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America. National Geographic Books. p. 30. ISBN 9780792253143.
  11. ^ a b c Ryan, James M. (2009). Adirondack Wildlife: A Field Guide. University Press of New England. p. 118. ISBN 9781584657491.
  12. ^ "American Black Duck". The Cornell Lab - All About Birds. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  13. ^ a b c Beaman, Mark; Madge, Steve (2010). The Handbook of Bird Identification: For Europe and the Western Palearctic. A&C Black. p. 163. ISBN 9781408135235.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Wells, Jeffrey V. (2010). Birder's Conservation Handbook: 100 North American Birds at Risk. Princeton University Press. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-1400831517.
  15. ^ a b c d e U.S Department of the Interior, National Park Service (2007). Cape Cod National Seashore (N.S.), Hunting Program: Environmental Impact Statement. pp. 83–84.
  16. ^ Roman, Charles T. (2012). Tidal Marsh Restoration: A Synthesis of Science and Management. Island Press. p. 132. ISBN 9781610912297.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i Eastman, John Andrew (1999). Birds of Lake, Pond, and Marsh: Water and Wetland Birds of Eastern North America. Stackpole Books. pp. 57–58. ISBN 9780811726818.
  18. ^ a b Maehr, David S.; Kale II, Herbert W. (2005). Florida's Birds: A Field Guide and Reference. Pineapple Press Inc. p. 56. ISBN 9781561643356.
  19. ^ a b c d Baldassarre, Guy A. (2014). Ducks, Geese, and Swans of North America. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 353–356. ISBN 9781421407517.
  20. ^ Jerry R., Longcore; McAuley, Daniel G.; Hepp, Gary R.; Rhymer, Judith M. (2000). "American Black Duck: Anas rubripes". Archived from the original on 2016-03-25. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
  21. ^ a b Evans, Lee G. R. (1994). Rare Birds in Britain 1800-1990. LGRE Productions Incorporated. pp. 13–14. ISBN 9781898918004.
  22. ^ a b c d Schwartz, Nancy A. (2010). Wildlife Rehabilitation: Basic Life Support. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 9781453531921.
  23. ^ a b c McCarthy, Eugene M. (2006). "Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World". Oxford University Press. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  24. ^ a b c Mank, Judith E.; Carlson, John E.; Brittingham, Margaret C. (2004). "A century of hybridization: Decreasing genetic distance between American black ducks and mallards". Conservation Genetics. 5 (3): 395–403. doi:10.1023/B:COGE.0000031139.55389.b1.
  25. ^ Armistead, George L.; Sullivan, Brian L. (2015). Better Birding: Tips, Tools, and Concepts for the Field. Princeton University Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780691129662.
  26. ^ Johnsgard, Paul A. (1967). "Sympatry Changes and Hybridization Incidence in Mallards and Black Ducks". American Midland Naturalist. 77 (1): 51–63. doi:10.2307/2423425. JSTOR 2423425.
  27. ^ Avise, John C.; Ankney, C. Davison; Nelson, William S. (1990). "Mitochondrial Gene Trees and the Evolutionary Relationship of Mallard and Black Ducks". Evolution. 44 (4): 1109–1119. doi:10.2307/2409570. JSTOR 2409570.
  28. ^ Kirby, Ronald E.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Shutler, Dave (2004). "Haldane's rule and American black duck × mallard hybridization". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 82 (11): 1827–1831. doi:10.1139/z04-169.
  29. ^ Anonymous (2007). Lake Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (N.W.R.), Conservation Plan: Environmental Impact Statement. pp. 142–143.
  30. ^ Rhymer, Judith M. (2006). "Extinction by hybridization and introgression in anatine ducks". Acta Zoologica Sinica. 52 (Supplement): 583–585. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-03.
  31. ^ Rhymer, Judith M.; Simberloff, Daniel (1996). "Extinction by hybridization and introgression". Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 27: 83–109. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83.
  32. ^ Ashton, Mike (2014). Domestic Duck. Crowood Press. p. 7. ISBN 9781847979704.
  33. ^ Newton, Ian (2003). Speciation and Biogeography of Birds. Academic Press. p. 417. ISBN 9780080924991.
  34. ^ Wintersteen, Kyle (2013-03-01). "Black Ducks in Peril". American Hunter. Archived from the original on 2016-03-26. Retrieved 2013-03-02.

"
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

American black duck: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The American black duck (Anas rubripes) is a large dabbling duck in the family Anatidae. It was described by William Brewster in 1902. It is the heaviest species in the genus Anas, weighing 720–1,640 g (1.59–3.62 lb) on average and measuring 54–59 cm (21–23 in) in length with a 88–95 cm (35–37 in) wingspan. It somewhat resembles the female mallard in coloration, but has a darker plumage. The male and female are generally similar in appearance, but the male's bill is yellow while the female's is dull green with dark marks on the upper mandible. It is native to eastern North America. During the breeding season, it is usually found in coastal and freshwater wetlands from Saskatchewan to the Atlantic in Canada and the Great Lakes and the Adirondacks in the United States. It is a partially migratory species, mostly wintering in the east-central United States, especially in coastal areas.

It interbreeds regularly and extensively with the mallard, to which it is closely related. The female lays six to fourteen oval eggs, which have smooth shells and come in varied shades of white and buff green. Hatching takes 30 days on average. Incubation usually takes 25 to 26 days, with both sexes sharing duties, although the male usually defends the territory until the female reaches the middle of her incubation period. It takes about six weeks to fledge. Once the eggs hatch, the hen leads the brood to rearing areas with abundant invertebrates and vegetation.

The American black duck is considered to be a species of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It has long been valued as a game bird. Habitat loss due to drainage, global warming, filling of wetlands due to urbanization and rising sea levels are major reasons for the declining population of the American black duck. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has been purchasing and managing the habitat of this species in many areas to support the migratory stopover, wintering and breeding populations. The Atlantic Coast Joint Venture also protects habitat through restoration and land acquisition projects, mostly within their wintering and breeding areas.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Diet

provided by World Register of Marine Species
seeds and vegetative parts of aquatic plants and crop plants, invertebrates (insects, molluscs, crustaceans)
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Caribbean, North America; range extends from Northern Labrador to southern North Carolina
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
bays, estuaries, marches, lagoons, and lakes
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]