dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 23 years (wild) Observations: In Hawaii, reported to breed twice a year and year round (http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/).
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Reproduction

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The cattle egret is seasonally monogamous. It pair-bonds, but at the start of the breeding season there can be a temporary group of 1 male and 2 females. Breeding starts when small groups of males establish territories. Soon after this, aggression increases, and they begin to perform various elaborate courtship displays, attracting groups of females. Immediately before pairing, a female will attempt to subdue the displaying male by landing on his back. Eventually, the male will allow one female to remain in his territory, and within a few hours, the pair-bond is secure. The female then follows the male to another site where the nest will be built. Copulation usually also takes place at this second site. There is little display involved with copulation. Some rapes and rape attempts have been documented. (Telfair, 1994)

Cattle egrets nest is large colonies with other wading birds. Pairs sometimes reuse old nests, or build new ones with live or dead vegetation. They will build in any place that can support a nest. Both sexes participate in nest-building: the female usually builds with materials brought by the male. They often steal sticks and other materials from neighbors' unattended nests. Material is continuously added to the bulky nests during incubation and after hatching. Throughout mating, nesting, and incubation, a Greeting Ceremony is given whenever one mate returns to the nest to join the other. The Greeting Ceremony involves erection of the back plumes, and flattening of the crest feathers. Eggs are laid every 2 days, and the female does not become attentive to the nest until the last egg is laid. The eggs are light sky blue, turning lighter as time passes. Clutch size is usually 3-4 eggs, although extremes of 1 and 9 have been recorded. Incubation is carried out by both sexes, and lasts 24 days. During the first week, nestlings are easily overheated, and so the parents shade them from the sun beneath their wings. Both parents brood constantly for the first 10 days. The parents may accept chicks from other broods only if they are less than 14 days old. Begging for food becomes very aggressive in days 4-8, and the nestlings are very competative with one another. Siblicide is uncommon, though sibling aggression is strong. Most of the chicks' growth is completed in the nest, but by 14-21 days, the chicks are capable of leaving the nest and climbing in vegetation, and are thus referred to as 'branchers.' At this stage, they remain nearby and continue to beg for food. At 45 days, they are independent, at 50 days they can make short flights, and at around 60 days, they fly to foraging areas. (Telfair, 1994; http://www.coos.or.us/~aigrette/ce.htm)

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Average time to hatching: 22 days.

Average eggs per season: 3.

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Ivory, A. 2000. "Bubulcus ibis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bubulcus_ibis.html
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Untitled

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The cattle egret now outnumbers the combined populations of all other egrets and herons found in North America. No other egret spends as little time near water than does the cattle egret. ( http://www.coos.or.us/~aigrette/ce.htm)

It is sometimes called by names of the animal it associates with, such as Elephant Bird, Rhinoceros Egret, or Hippopotomus Egret.

Three subspecies are recognized: B. i. ibis, B. i. seychellarum, and B. i. coromanda. (Telfair, 1994)

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Ivory, A. 2000. "Bubulcus ibis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bubulcus_ibis.html
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Ivory, A. 2000. "Bubulcus ibis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bubulcus_ibis.html
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Conservation Status

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The cattle egret is the most plentiful ardeid in many areas of the U.S. Its range continues to expand as a result of widespread landscape conversion to pasturelands, where these birds forage with cattle. (Telfair, 1994)

US Migratory Bird Act: protected

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Ivory, A. 2000. "Bubulcus ibis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bubulcus_ibis.html
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Benefits

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Cattle egrets may transmit parasites and other disease organisms to livestock and people, but this is very speculative. Some heronries are considered nuisances when near structures used by humans due to noise, odor, concern over health hazards, and potential danger to aircraft. (Telfair)

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Ivory, A. 2000. "Bubulcus ibis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bubulcus_ibis.html
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Benefits

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Some ranchers rely on cattle egrets for fly control more than they do pesticides.

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Ivory, A. 2000. "Bubulcus ibis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bubulcus_ibis.html
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Trophic Strategy

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It has been calculated that an individual cattle egret can obtain up to 50% more food and use only two-thirds as much energy catching it by associating with cattle, as well as with other large ungulate species. Thus it is a very opportunistic and non-competitive feeder. It commonly associates with livestock, wild buffalo, rhino, elephant, hippo, zebra, giraffe, eland, and waterbuck. Due to their practice of perching on these animals' backs, cattle egrets are often grouped incorrectly with 'tick-birds.' In Australia, they have also been observed to associate with horses, pigs, sheep, fowls, geese, and kangaroos. In the Carribean they even follow the plough, capturing exposed earthworms. The cattle egret's major prey is active insects which are disturbed by the grazing activities of the cattle egret's host animals. It eats mostly grasshoppers, crickets, spiders, flies, frogs, and noctuid moths. It is a very active forager, usually feeding in loose aggregations of small or large flocks of mixed sex and age, varying from tens to hundreds of individuals. It may forage in smaller groups or singly. When feeding, it usually walks in a steady strut, followed by a short dart forward, and a quick stab. If they prey animal is small, it is immediately swallowed. If it is larger, it may be jabbed or dipped in water a few times, but it is not dismembered. (Telfair, 1994; Hancock and Elliott, 1992)

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Ivory, A. 2000. "Bubulcus ibis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bubulcus_ibis.html
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Distribution

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The cattle egret, due to its great range expansion in association with cattle ranching, has become a true 'cosmopolitan' species. It occurs in North America, generally not in the west or far north; and Eurasia, though usually not in the east. It also inhabits Africa, Australia and parts of South America. Cattle egret are native to Africa and southern Spain. (Hancock and Elliott, 1978)

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Introduced ); palearctic (Introduced , Native ); oriental (Introduced ); ethiopian (Introduced , Native ); neotropical (Introduced ); australian (Introduced ); oceanic islands (Introduced )

Other Geographic Terms: cosmopolitan

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Ivory, A. 2000. "Bubulcus ibis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bubulcus_ibis.html
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Habitat

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The cattle egret is the most terrestrial heron, being well-adapted to many diverse terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Though it does not depend on aquatic habitats to survive, it does make frequent use of them, even when they are not close to livestock-grazing areas. It is also well-adapted to urban areas. In its breeding range, which is similar to its winter range, it often nests in heronries established by native ardeids. (Telfair, 1994)

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

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Ivory, A. 2000. "Bubulcus ibis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bubulcus_ibis.html
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Life Expectancy

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Range lifespan
Status: wild:
23 (high) years.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
204 months.

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Ivory, A. 2000. "Bubulcus ibis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bubulcus_ibis.html
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Morphology

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The cattle egret is a medium sized bird, with a 'hunched' posture, even when it is standing erect. In comparison to other egrets, it is short-legged and thick-necked. The total length of the bird ranges from 46-56 cm, and its wingspan averages 88-96 cm. The basic plumage of the adult of both sexes is pure white, with a dull orange or yellow bill, and dull orange legs. For a brief period of time during the breeding season, however, the plumage of the breeding adults is buffy at the head, neck and back, and the eyes, legs and bill are a vivid red. Because of this coloration, it is sometimes called the Buff-Backed Heron. (Telfair, 1994; Hancock and Elliott, 1978; http://www.coos.or.us/~aigrette/ce.htm; http://www.mbr.nbs.gov/id/htmid/h2001id.html)

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average mass: 220 g.

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Ivory, A. 2000. "Bubulcus ibis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bubulcus_ibis.html
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Brief Summary

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The Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) is an Old World species that colonized northeastern South America from Africa in the 1870s and 1880s (although it may not have actually established until decades later), spread to Florida by the 1940s or 1950s, and reached California by the mid-1960s. More recently, it has colonized the Australasian region. In the Western Hemisphere, the Cattle Egret breeds locally from most of the United States (and adjacent Canada) south (mainly in coastal lowlands) through Middle America, the West Indies, and South America (including Trinidad and Tobago and the Galapagos Islands) to northern Chile and northern Argentina; in southern Europe, it breeds from the Mediterranean region east to the Caspian Sea and south throughout most of Africa (except the Sahara), including Madagascar and islands in the Indian Ocean. In Southeast Asia, it breeds from India east to eastern China, Japan, and the Ryukyu Islands and south throughout the Philippines and East Indies to New Guinea and Australia. In the New World, Cattle Egrets winter throughout much of the breeding range from the West Coast, Gulf Coast, and Florida in the United States south through the West Indies, Middle America, and South America. In the Old World, they winter from southern Spain and northern Africa south and east through the remainder of the breeding range in Africa and southwestern Asia and from southern Asia and the Philippines south through Indonesia and the Australian region. The Cattle Egret was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands in 1959 and is now established on most of the larger Hawaiian Islands. The Cattle Egrets in Asia and Australia are sometimes treated as a distinct species, the Eastern Cattle Egret (B. coromanda), separate from the Western Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis). Unlike other herons and egrets, this species typically feeds in dry fields, often following cattle or other grazing animals and waiting for them to flush insects. It also occurs in other open habitats, including aquatic ones. It nests in low trees and shrubs in mixed colonies with other species of herons and egrets. When associated with grazing cattle in fields, Cattle Egrets feed mainly on large insects flushed by the cattle, but in other situations they may eat crayfish, earthworms, snakes, nestling birds, bird eggs, and sometimes fish. They may also scavenge for food in garbage dumps. Although often associated with cattle or horses in North America, on other continents Cattle Egrets may follow elephants, camels, zebras, deer, and other grazers. They may also follow tractors and lawnmowers. Cattle Egrets usually first breed at 2 to 3 years of age. The male establishes a pairing territory in or near the colony and displays there to attract a mate. Displays include stretching the neck and raising plumes while swaying from side to side, making short flights with exaggerated deep wingbeats. The nest site is typically in a tree or shrub in a heron rookery on an island or in a swamp. The nest is built mainly by the female using materials collected mainly by the male. It is a platform or shallow bowl of sticks, often with green, leafy twigs added. The typically 3 to 4 (range 1 to 9) eggs are pale blue. Incubation is by both sexes for 21 to 26 days. Young are fed by both parents (by regurgitation). The young begin to climb around near the nest at around 15 to 20 days, to fly at 25 to 30 days, and become independent around 45 days. Cattle Egrets are strongly migratory. Birds from northern breeding areas in North America may winter to the West Indies, Middle America, and northern South America. In the United States, they are common year-round in Florida, along the Gulf Coast, and in parts of the Southwest. Young birds may disperse great distances, even thousands of kilometers. (Crosby 1972; Maddock and Geering 1994; Kaufman 1996; AOU 1998; Dunn and Alderfer 2011)
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Cattle egret

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The cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) is a cosmopolitan species of heron (family Ardeidae) found in the tropics, subtropics, and warm-temperate zones. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Bubulcus, although some authorities regard two of its subspecies as full species, the western cattle egret and the eastern cattle egret. Despite the similarities in plumage to the egrets of the genus Egretta, it is more closely related to the herons of Ardea. Originally native to parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe, it has undergone a rapid expansion in its distribution and successfully colonised much of the rest of the world in the last century.

It is a white bird adorned with buff plumes in the breeding season. It nests in colonies, usually near bodies of water and often with other wading birds. The nest is a platform of sticks in trees or shrubs. Cattle egrets exploit drier and open habitats more than other heron species. Their feeding habitats include seasonally inundated grasslands, pastures, farmlands, wetlands, and rice paddies. They often accompany cattle or other large mammals, catching insect and small vertebrate prey disturbed by these animals. Some populations are migratory and others show postbreeding dispersal.

The adult cattle egret has few predators, but birds or mammals may raid its nests, and chicks may be lost to starvation, calcium deficiency, or disturbance from other large birds. This species maintains a special relationship with cattle, which extends to other large grazing mammals; wider human farming is believed to be a major cause of their suddenly expanded range. The cattle egret removes ticks and flies from cattle and consumes them. This benefits both species, but it has been implicated in the spread of tick-borne animal diseases.

Taxonomy

The cattle egret was first described in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus in his Systema naturae as Ardea ibis,[2] but was moved to its current genus by Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1855.[3] Its genus name Bubulcus is Latin for herdsman, referring, like the English name, to this species' association with cattle.[4] Ibis is a Latin and Greek word which originally referred to another white wading bird, the sacred ibis,[5] but was applied to this species in error.[6]

The cattle egret has two geographical races, which are sometimes classified as full species, the western cattle egret, B. ibis, and eastern cattle egret, B. coromandus. The two forms were split by McAllan and Bruce,[7] but were regarded as conspecific by almost all other recent authors until the publication of the influential Birds of South Asia.[8] The eastern subspecies B. i. coromandus, described by Pieter Boddaert in 1783, breeds in South Asia, Eastern Asia and Australasia, and the western nominate form occupies the rest of the species range, including Western Asia, Europe, Africa and the Americas.[9] Some authorities recognise a third Seychelles subspecies, B. i. seychellarum, which was first described by Finn Salomonsen in 1934.[10]

Despite superficial similarities in appearance, the cattle egret is more closely related to the genus Ardea, which comprises the great or typical herons and the great egret (A. alba), than to the majority of species termed egrets in the genus Egretta.[11] Rare cases of hybridization with little blue herons Egretta caerulea, little egrets Egretta garzetta and snowy egrets Egretta thula have been recorded.[12]

  • "

    B. i. ibis breeding adult with neck retracted

  • "

    B. i. coromandus adult showing the red flush on the legs and bill, present at the height of the breeding season

Description

"
From Thalassery Beach, Kerala, India
"
Perched on a buffalo in Buruma, East Timor

The cattle egret is a stocky heron with an 88–96 cm (35–38 in) wingspan; it is 46–56 cm (18–22 in) long and weighs 270–512 g (9.5–18.1 oz).[13] It has a relatively short, thick neck, a sturdy bill, and a hunched posture. The nonbreeding adult has mainly white plumage, a yellow bill, and greyish-yellow legs. During the breeding season, adults of the nominate western subspecies develop orange-buff plumes on the back, breast, and crown, and the bill, legs, and irises become bright red for a brief period prior to pairing.[14] The sexes are similar, but the male is marginally larger and has slightly longer breeding plumes than the female; juvenile birds lack coloured plumes and have a black bill.[13][15]

B. i. coromandus differs from the nominate subspecies in breeding plumage, when the buff colour on its head extends to the cheeks and throat, and the plumes are more golden in colour. This subspecies' bill and tarsus are longer on average than in B. i. ibis.[16] B. i. seychellarum is smaller and shorter-winged than the other forms. It has white cheeks and throat, like B. i. ibis, but the nuptial plumes are golden, as with B. i. coromandus.[10] Individuals with abnormally grey, melanistic plumages have been recorded.[17][18]

The positioning of the egret's eyes allows for binocular vision during feeding,[19] and physiological studies suggest that the species may be capable of crepuscular or nocturnal activity.[20] Adapted to foraging on land, they have lost the ability possessed by their wetland relatives to accurately correct for light refraction by water.[21]

This species gives a quiet, throaty rick-rack call at the breeding colony, but is otherwise largely silent.[22]

Distribution and habitat

"
On a farm in Maharashtra, India
"
Range expansion in the Americas (click to magnify)

The cattle egret has undergone one of the most rapid and wide-reaching natural expansions of any bird species.[22] It was originally native to parts of southern Spain and Portugal, tropical and subtropical Africa, and humid tropical and subtropical Asia. At the end of the 19th century, it began expanding its range into southern Africa, first breeding in the Cape Province in 1908.[23] Cattle egrets were first sighted in the Americas on the boundary of Guiana and Suriname in 1877, having apparently flown across the Atlantic Ocean.[9][13] In the 1930s, the species is thought to have become established in that area.[24] It is now widely distributed across Brazil.

The species first arrived in North America in 1941 (these early sightings were originally dismissed as escapees), bred in Florida in 1953, and spread rapidly, breeding for the first time in Canada in 1962.[23] It is now commonly seen as far west as California. It was first recorded breeding in Cuba in 1957, in Costa Rica in 1958, and in Mexico in 1963, although it was probably established before then.[24] In Europe, the species had historically declined in Spain and Portugal, but in the latter part of the 20th century, it expanded back through the Iberian Peninsula, and then began to colonise other parts of Europe, southern France in 1958, northern France in 1981, and Italy in 1985.[23] Breeding in the United Kingdom was recorded for the first time in 2008, only a year after an influx seen in the previous year.[25][26] In 2008, cattle egrets were also reported as having moved into Ireland for the first time.[27] This trend has continued and cattle egrets have become more numerous in southern Britain with influxes in some numbers during the nonbreeding seasons of 2007/08 and 2016/17. They bred in Britain again in 2017, following an influx in the previous winter, and may become established there.[28][29]

In Australia, the colonisation began in the 1940s, with the species establishing itself in the north and east of the continent.[30] It began to regularly visit New Zealand in the 1960s. Since 1948, the cattle egret has been permanently resident in Israel. Prior to 1948, it was only a winter visitor.[31]

The massive and rapid expansion of the cattle egret's range is due to its relationship with humans and their domesticated animals. Originally adapted to a commensal relationship with large grazing and browsing animals, it was easily able to switch to domesticated cattle and horses. As the keeping of livestock spread throughout the world, the cattle egret was able to occupy otherwise empty niches.[32] Many populations of cattle egrets are highly migratory and dispersive,[22] and this has helped the species' range expansion. The species has been seen as a vagrant in various sub-Antarctic islands, including South Georgia, Marion Island, the South Sandwich Islands, and the South Orkney Islands.[33] A small flock of eight birds was also seen in Fiji in 2008.[34]

In addition to the natural expansion of its range, cattle egrets have been deliberately introduced into a few areas. The species was introduced to Hawaii in 1959, and to the Chagos Archipelago in 1955. Successful releases were also made in the Seychelles and Rodrigues, but attempts to introduce the species to Mauritius failed. Numerous birds were also released by Whipsnade Zoo in England, but the species was never established.[35]

Although the cattle egret sometimes feeds in shallow water, unlike most herons it is typically found in fields and dry grassy habitats, reflecting its greater dietary reliance on terrestrial insects rather than aquatic prey.[36]

Migration and movements

Some populations of cattle egrets are migratory, others are dispersive, and distinguishing between the two can be difficult.[22] In many areas, populations can be both sedentary and migratory. In the Northern Hemisphere, migration is from cooler climes to warmer areas, but cattle egrets nesting in Australia migrate to cooler Tasmania and New Zealand in the winter and return in the spring.[30] Migration in western Africa is in response to rainfall, and in South America, migrating birds travel south of their breeding range in the nonbreeding season.[22] Populations in southern India appear to show local migrations in response to the monsoons. They move north from Kerala after September.[37][38] During winter, many birds have been seen flying at night with flocks of Indian pond herons (Ardeola grayii) on the south-eastern coast of India[39] and a winter influx has also been noted in Sri Lanka.[8]

Young birds are known to disperse up to 5,000 km (3,100 mi) from their breeding area. Flocks may fly vast distances and have been seen over seas and oceans including in the middle of the Atlantic.[40]

"
A flock in a tree at Jacutinga, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

Status

This species has a large range, with an estimated global extent of occurrence of 10,000,000 km2 (3,900,000 sq mi). Its global population estimated to be 3.8–6.7 million individuals. For these reasons, the species is evaluated as least concern.[1] The expansion and establishment of the species over large ranges, though, has led it to be classed as an invasive species (although little, if any impact has been noted yet).[41]

Breeding

The cattle egret nests in colonies, which are often found around bodies of water.[22] The colonies are usually found in woodlands near lakes or rivers, in swamps, or on small inland or coastal islands, and are sometimes shared with other wetland birds, such as herons, egrets, ibises, and cormorants. The breeding season varies within South Asia.[8] Nesting in northern India begins with the onset of monsoons in May.[42] The breeding season in Australia is November to early January, with one brood laid per season.[43] The North American breeding season lasts from April to October.[22] In the Seychelles, the breeding season of B.i. seychellarum is April to October.[44]

The male displays in a tree in the colony, using a range of ritualised behaviours, such as shaking a twig and sky-pointing (raising his bill vertically upwards),[45] and the pair forms over 3–4 days. A new mate is chosen in each season and when renesting following nest failure.[46] The nest is a small, untidy platform of sticks in a tree or shrub constructed by both parents. Sticks are collected by the male and arranged by the female, and stick-stealing is rife.[15] The clutch size can be one to five eggs, although three or four is most common. The pale bluish-white eggs are oval-shaped and measure 45 mm × 53 mm (1.8 in × 2.1 in).[43] Incubation lasts around 23 days, with both sexes sharing incubation duties.[22] The chicks are partly covered with down at hatching, but are not capable of fending for themselves; they become capable of regulating their temperature at 9–12 days and are fully feathered in 13–21 days.[47] They begin to leave the nest and climb around at 2 weeks, fledge at 30 days and become independent at around the 45th day.[46]

The cattle egret engages in low levels of brood parasitism, and a few instances have been reported of cattle egret eggs being laid in the nests of snowy egrets and little blue herons, although these eggs seldom hatch.[22] Also, evidence of low levels of intraspecific brood parasitism has been found, with females laying eggs in the nests of other cattle egrets. As much as 30% extra-pair copulations has been noted.[48][49]

The dominant factor in nesting mortality is starvation. Sibling rivalry can be intense, and in South Africa, third and fourth chicks inevitably starve.[46] In the dryer habitats with fewer amphibians, the diet may lack sufficient vertebrate content and may cause bone abnormalities in growing chicks due to calcium deficiency.[50] In Barbados, nests were sometimes raided by vervet monkeys,[9] and a study in Florida reported the fish crow and black rat as other possible nest raiders. The same study attributed some nestling mortality to brown pelicans nesting in the vicinity, which accidentally, but frequently, dislodged nests or caused nestlings to fall.[51] In Australia, Torresian crows, wedge-tailed eagles, and white-bellied sea eagles take eggs or young, and tick infestation and viral infections may also be causes of mortality.[15]

  • "

    Cattle egret egg

  • "

    Adult feeding a nestling in Apenheul zoo

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    Juvenile on Maui (note black bill)

Feeding

"
A nonbreeding adult eating a frog in the Gambia

The cattle egret feeds on a wide range of prey, particularly insects, especially grasshoppers, crickets, flies (adults and maggots[52]), and moths, as well as spiders, frogs, lizards and earthworms.[53][54] In a rare instance, they have been observed foraging along the branches of a banyan tree for ripe figs.[55] The species is usually found with cattle and other large grazing and browsing animals, and catches small creatures disturbed by the mammals. Studies have shown that cattle egret foraging success is much higher when foraging near a large animal than when feeding singly.[56] When foraging with cattle, it has been shown to be 3.6 times more successful in capturing prey than when foraging alone. Its performance is similar when it follows farm machinery, but it is forced to move more.[57] In urban situations, cattle egrets have also been observed foraging in peculiar situations such as railway lines.[58]

A cattle egret will weakly defend the area around a grazing animal against others of the same species, but if the area is swamped by egrets, it will give up and continue foraging elsewhere. Where numerous large animals are present, cattle egrets selectively forage around species that move at around 5–15 steps per minute, avoiding faster and slower moving herds; in Africa, cattle egrets selectively forage behind plains zebras, waterbuck, blue wildebeest and Cape buffalo.[59] Dominant birds feed nearest to the host, and thus obtain more food.[15]

The cattle egret sometimes shows versatility in its diet. On islands with seabird colonies, it will prey on the eggs and chicks of terns and other seabirds.[35] During migration, it has also been reported to eat exhausted migrating landbirds.[60] Birds of the Seychelles race also indulge in some kleptoparasitism, chasing the chicks of sooty terns and forcing them to disgorge food.[61]

Relationship with humans

"
B. i. seychellarum waiting for scraps at the fish market of Victoria, Seychelles.

A conspicuous species, the cattle egret has attracted many common names. These mostly relate to its habit of following cattle and other large animals, and it is known variously as cow crane, cow bird or cow heron, or even elephant bird or rhinoceros egret.[22] Its Arabic name, abu qerdan, means "father of ticks", a name derived from the huge number of parasites such as avian ticks found in its breeding colonies.[22][62] The Maasai people consider the presence of large numbers of cattle egrets as an indicator of impending drought and use it to decide on moving their cattle herds.[63]

The cattle egret is a popular bird with cattle ranchers for its perceived role as a biocontrol of cattle parasites such as ticks and flies.[22] A study in Australia found that cattle egrets reduced the number of flies that bothered cattle by pecking them directly off the skin.[64] It was the benefit to stock that prompted ranchers and the Hawaiian Board of Agriculture and Forestry to release the species in Hawaii.[35][65][66]

Not all interactions between humans and cattle egrets are beneficial. The cattle egret can be a safety hazard to aircraft due to its habit of feeding in large groups in the grassy verges of airports,[67] and it has been implicated in the spread of animal infections such as heartwater, infectious bursal disease,[68] and possibly Newcastle disease.[69][70]

References

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  3. ^ Bonaparte, Charles Lucien (1855). "[untitled]". Annales des Sciences Naturelles comprenant la zoologie (in French). 4 (1): 141.
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  37. ^ Seedikkoya, K.; Azeez, P.A.; Shukkur, E.A.A. (2005). "Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis habitat use and association with cattle" (PDF). Forktail. 21: 174–176.
  38. ^ Kushlan, James A.; Hafner, Heinz (2000). Heron Conservation. Academic Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 0-12-430130-4.
  39. ^ Santharam, V. (1988). "Further notes on the local movements of the Pond Heron Ardeola grayii". Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 28 (1–2): 8–9.
  40. ^ Arendt, Wayne J. (1988). "Range Expansion of the Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) in the Greater Caribbean Basin". Colonial Waterbirds. Waterbird Society. 11 (2): 252–262. doi:10.2307/1521007. JSTOR 1521007.
  41. ^ "Bubulcus ibis (bird)". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
  42. ^ Hilaluddin; Kaul, Rahul; Hussain, Mohd Shah; Imam, Ekwal; Shah, Junid N.; Abbasi, Faiza; Shawland, Tahir A. (2005). "Status and distribution of breeding cattle egret and little egret in Amroha using density method" (PDF). Current Science. 88 (25): 1239–1243.
  43. ^ a b Beruldsen, G. (2003). Australian Birds: Their Nests and Eggs. Kenmore Hills, Queensland: self. p. 182. ISBN 0-646-42798-9.
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  45. ^ Marchant, S.; Higgins, P.J. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 1 (Ratites to Ducks). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-553068-3.
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  47. ^ Hudson, Jack W.; Dawson, William R.; Hill, Richard W. (1974). "Growth and development of temperature regulation in nestling cattle egrets". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 49 (4): 717–720. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(74)90900-1. PMID 4154173.
  48. ^ Fujioka, M.; Yamagishi, S. (1981). "Extra-marital and pair copulations in cattle egret". The Auk. 98 (1): 134–144. JSTOR 4085616.
  49. ^ McKilligan, N.G. (1990). "Promiscuity in the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis)". The Auk. 107 (2): 334–341. doi:10.2307/4087617. JSTOR 4087617.
  50. ^ Phalen, David N.; Drew, Mark L.; Contreras, Cindy; Roset, Kimberly; Mora, Miguel (2005). "Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from central Texas". Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 41 (2): 401–415. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-41.2.401. PMID 16107676.
  51. ^ Maxwell, G.R., II; Kale, H.W., II (1977). "Breeding biology of five species of herons in coastal Florida". The Auk. 94 (4): 689–700. doi:10.2307/4085265. JSTOR 4085265.
  52. ^ Seedikkoya, K.; Azeez, P.A.; Shukkur, E.A.A. (2007). "Cattle egret as a biocontrol agent". Zoos' Print Journal. 22 (10): 2864–2866. doi:10.11609/jott.zpj.1731.2864-6.
  53. ^ Siegfried, W.R. (1971). "The Food of the Cattle Egret". Journal of Applied Ecology. British Ecological Society. 8 (2): 447–468. doi:10.2307/2402882. JSTOR 2402882.
  54. ^ Fogarty, Michael J.; Hetrick, Willa Mae (1973). "Summer Foods of Cattle Egrets in North Central Florida". The Auk. 90 (2): 268–280. JSTOR 4084294.
  55. ^ Chaturvedi, N. (1993). "Dietary of the cattle egret Bubulcus ibis coromandus (Boddaert)". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 90 (1): 90.
  56. ^ Grubb, T. (1976). "Adaptiveness of Foraging in the Cattle Egret". Wilson Bulletin. 88 (1): 145–148. JSTOR 4160720.
  57. ^ Dinsmore, James J. (1973). "Foraging Success of Cattle Egrets, Bubulcus ibis". American Midland Naturalist. The University of Notre Dame. 89 (1): 242–246. doi:10.2307/2424157. JSTOR 2424157.
  58. ^ Devasahayam, A. (2009). "Foraging behaviour of cattle egret in an unusual habitat". Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 49 (5): 78.
  59. ^ Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M. (1993). "Making Foraging Decisions: Host Selection by Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis". Ornis Scandinavica. Blackwell Publishing. 24 (3): 229–236. doi:10.2307/3676738. JSTOR 3676738.
  60. ^ Cunningham, R.L. (1965). "Predation on birds by the Cattle Egret" (PDF). The Auk. 82 (3): 502–503. doi:10.2307/4083130. JSTOR 4083130.
  61. ^ Feare, C.J. (1975). "Scavenging and kleptoparasitism as feeding methods on Seychelles Cattle Egrets, Bubulcus ibis". Ibis. 117 (3): 388. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1975.tb04229.x.
  62. ^ McAtee, Waldo Lee (October 1925). "The Buff-backed Egret (Ardea ibis L., Arabic Abu Qerdan) as a Factor in Egyptian Agriculture" (PDF). The Auk. 42 (4): 603–604. doi:10.2307/4075029. JSTOR 4075029.
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  67. ^ Paton, P.; Fellows, D.; Tomich, P. (1986). "Distribution of Cattle Egret Roosts in Hawaii With Notes on the Problems Egrets Pose to Airports". Elepaio. 46 (13): 143–147.
  68. ^ Fagbohun, O.A.; Owoade, A.A.; Oluwayelu, D.O.; Olayemi, F.O. (2000). "Serological survey of infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in cattle egrets, pigeons and Nigerian laughing doves". African Journal of Biomedical Research. 3 (3): 191–192.
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Cattle egret: Brief Summary

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The cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) is a cosmopolitan species of heron (family Ardeidae) found in the tropics, subtropics, and warm-temperate zones. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Bubulcus, although some authorities regard two of its subspecies as full species, the western cattle egret and the eastern cattle egret. Despite the similarities in plumage to the egrets of the genus Egretta, it is more closely related to the herons of Ardea. Originally native to parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe, it has undergone a rapid expansion in its distribution and successfully colonised much of the rest of the world in the last century.

It is a white bird adorned with buff plumes in the breeding season. It nests in colonies, usually near bodies of water and often with other wading birds. The nest is a platform of sticks in trees or shrubs. Cattle egrets exploit drier and open habitats more than other heron species. Their feeding habitats include seasonally inundated grasslands, pastures, farmlands, wetlands, and rice paddies. They often accompany cattle or other large mammals, catching insect and small vertebrate prey disturbed by these animals. Some populations are migratory and others show postbreeding dispersal.

The adult cattle egret has few predators, but birds or mammals may raid its nests, and chicks may be lost to starvation, calcium deficiency, or disturbance from other large birds. This species maintains a special relationship with cattle, which extends to other large grazing mammals; wider human farming is believed to be a major cause of their suddenly expanded range. The cattle egret removes ticks and flies from cattle and consumes them. This benefits both species, but it has been implicated in the spread of tick-borne animal diseases.

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