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Ribbed Mussel

Geukensia demissa (Dillwyn 1817)

Reproduction

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Ribbed mussels are broadcast spawners. At a particular time of year, individuals release eggs and sperm into the water, and fertilization occurs there.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Sexual maturation in this species is primarily determined by body weight, and this in turn is strongly influenced by the environment of individual mussels. Along the edge of the marsh, mussels usually become sexually mature during their second growing season. The minimum size for gametogenesis is around 12 mm. The average size for the sexually mature ribbed mussel is greater than 20 mm. A few meters from the edge of the marsh, the minimum size increases to about 17 mm. Higher up on shore, it is not uncommon to see mussels greater than 35 mm that do not show any external characteristics of gametogenesis. Mussels that are farther from the marsh edge tend to grow slower as a result of shorter submergence and feeding time, which can delay maturation an additional year compared to the mussels along the edge of the marsh.

The ribbed mussel spawns by external fertilization, sperm and eggs are released into the water column.

Gametogenesis begins in early spring and peaks in June and July. Maximum reproduction occurs between June and August, depending on location, and larvae can be found into early fall.

Breeding interval: It is unknown how many times they spawn during one summer, but it is thought to be only one time.

Breeding season: in the summer months

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (External ); broadcast (group) spawning

There is practically no parental investment in this species -- eggs do not receive substantial provisioning, and there is no interaction with offspring after gametes are released.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement

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Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
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Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Behavior

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Communication Channels: tactile ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical

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Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
author
Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
editor
Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Conservation Status

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This species is not rare, and not considered in need of special conservation effort.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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bibliographic citation
Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
author
Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
editor
Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Life Cycle

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This species has a planktonic larval stage that allows for dispersal to distant locations. The larvae settle out of the water column and attach to oyster reefs, saltmarsh plants, and other solid objects in shallow or intertidal waters. They then transform into the sedentary shelled form. Subsequent growth rate and time to maturity is strongly determined by environmental conditions, including tidal exposure, temperature, and available food. Time to ma

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

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Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
author
Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
editor
Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Benefits

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There should be no low tide collection of mussels. Mussels retain the pollution inside when their shells are closed. This can cause humans to become sick if eaten.

The high abundance and biomass of Geukensia demissa in Pacific coast wetlands (where it is not native) is a concern for conservation of these threatened habitats.

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bibliographic citation
Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
author
Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
editor
Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Benefits

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These mussels help maintain saltmarshes, which are important nurseries for food fish and shellfish. Ribbed mussels can also be very useful bioindicators for pollution assessment studies.

The mussel is also an important prey species for desirable shellfish and bird species.

Ribbed mussels are edible, but are generally not considered to taste good. They can accumulate toxins from their environment, especially while exposed at low tide, and so should not be harvested then.

Positive Impacts: research and education

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bibliographic citation
Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
author
Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
editor
Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Associations

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Mussels are important in changing nutrient dynamics of marsh and estuary. They help cycle energy, phosphorous and nitrogen.

The ribbed mussel has a mutualistic relationship with marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora. Mussels attach to the base of the stem with their byssal threads. As a byproduct of their filter-feeding, they deposit fecal material on the surrounding sediment. This stimulates the grass to grow by increasing the soil nitrogen. Overall they increase marsh net primary production and stability.

Geukensia demissa is a host for the flatworm, Paravortex gemellipara.

Mutualist Species:

  • marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • a flatworm, Paravortex gemellipara.
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bibliographic citation
Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
author
Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
editor
Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Trophic Strategy

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When covered with water, the mussels opens and cilia on its gills draw water and food in. The ribbed mussel's primary diet consists of microscopic plankton and particles of detritus.

Animal Foods: zooplankton

Plant Foods: phytoplankton

Other Foods: detritus ; microbes

Foraging Behavior: filter-feeding

Primary Diet: planktivore ; detritivore

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bibliographic citation
Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
author
Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
editor
Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Distribution

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The ribbed mussel is native to the Atlantic coast of North America, from the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada to northeastern Florida and along the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Yucatan.

In the mid 1800s the ribbed mussel was introduced to San Francisco Bay, California, apparently by accident, included with live oysters shipped by trans-continental rail for cultivation in the Bay. Since then it has been found in other locations on the Pacific coast, from Alamitos Bay south to Anaheim Bay, Newport Bay, Bolsa Chica Lagoon and Estero de Punta Banda, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The locations may have been sites of unrecorded oyster transplants, or the mussels may have arrived after attaching to hulls or other mobile objects.

Biogeographic Regions: atlantic ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Introduced )

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bibliographic citation
Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
author
Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
editor
Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Habitat

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The larvae of ribbed mussels settle on subtidal oyster reefs, in intertidal salt marshes and on man-made structures in these habitats. Sometimes they attach to one another in aggregations or to clumps of hollow grass stems (Spartina alterniflora) in low marshes. They are most abundant at the lowest shore levels within salt marshes and occur in small numbers in the high marsh zone above the average high water mark.

These mussels can tolerate water temperatures up to 133 degrees F (56°C) and and wide range of salinities, from near fresh water up to 70 ppt (twice the concentration of seawater).

Habitat Regions: saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: benthic ; reef ; coastal ; brackish water

Wetlands: marsh

Other Habitat Features: estuarine ; intertidal or littoral

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bibliographic citation
Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
author
Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
editor
Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Life Expectancy

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The age of ribbed mussels can be determined by back counting the annual growth ribs on the shell.

Mortality of plankton larvae is unknown. Mortality rates of juveniles in the year following settlement have been recorded to average about 55 % partially due to winter icing on the marsh.

Even though mussels are less abundant higher on shore, survivorship increases with increasing tidal height. Some reach 15 years or older. Mussels on the marsh edge tend to be around 6 or 7 years old.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
15 years.

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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
author
Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
editor
Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Morphology

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Ribbed mussel are relatively large mussels. They range from 5 - 10 cm (4 inches) in length. The largest specimen recorded reached 13 cm. The shell is moderately thin and oblong or fan shaped. The upper margin is straight or slightly convex. The dorsal and ventral margins are parallel.

The periostracum (thin, glossy outer shell layer) is glossy, brownish black with some yellow to a bleached white color. It is grooved with pronounced, unbranched, radiating ribs, largest on the upper part of the hind end above a broad umbonal ridge, fine along lower margin. These give the species its common name. The inside of the shell is pearlescent, sometimes white or bluish-gray, tinged with purple/blue or purple/red at hind margin. There are no teeth at the hinge. At the head end of the shell there is no shelf on the inside.

In the summer, the color of the mantle varies between the sexes. In females the mantle tends to be a medium chocolate brown, in males is is lighter, a yellowish cream white color.

The broad umbo (hump at the center of the concentric growth lines) is a short distance behind the narrowed, rounded front end. The periostracum is often worn away around the umbo. There is no external siphon.

Like most bivalves, the species has a muscular "foot", capable of moving he animal slowly through sediment, . The foot can also secrete byssal threads -- hair-like adhesive filaments that help the mussel attach to grasses, nearby shells, or other solid objects.

One subspecies of Geukensia demissa is recognized. G. d. granosissima (Sowerby, 1914) ranges from the east and west coast of Florida to the Gulf of Mexico (Yucatan). It differs in the morphology of the shell (rib number) and ultrastructure.

Range length: 13 (high) cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes colored or patterned differently

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bibliographic citation
Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
author
Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
editor
Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Associations

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The primary defense of ribbed mussels is their shell. In their native range, their main predator is the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). The mud crab Panopeus herbstii is also known to feed on them. Higher survivorship in mussels high in the intertidal zone suggest that marine predators are more important than terrestrial ones.

Shore birds, including clapper rails (Rallus longirostris), willets, and dunlins have been recorded feeding on them in San Francisco Bay (Cohen, 2005). One study found ribbed mussels to be more than half the prey (by volume) in stomachs of California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus).

Some rails have been found to have ribbed mussels clamped to their toes, and others are found missing toes.

Known Predators:

  • blue crab, Callinectes sapidus
  • mud crab, Panopeus herbstii
  • clapper rail, Rallus longirostris
  • willet, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
  • dunlin, Calidris alpina
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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Nestlerode, M. 2009. "Geukensia demissa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Geukensia_demissa.html
author
Michelle Nestlerode, Environmental Concern, Inc.
editor
Sarah Toman, Environmental Concern, Inc.
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Geukensia demissa

provided by wikipedia EN

Geukensia demissa is a species of mussel, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Mytilidae, the true mussels. This species is native to the Atlantic coast of North America. The common names for this species include ribbed mussel, Atlantic ribbed marsh mussel and ribbed horsemussel.[1] However, the common name ribbed mussel is also used for the Southern Hemisphere mussel Aulacomya atra. The appearance of the shell is grooved and oval in shape. The interior of this mussel is tinted purple

The ribbed shells of this species usually attain a length of 10 cm length, and can be as large as 13 cm.[1] Age can be determined by counting dark growth rings on the shell and mussels typically live 10 – 15 years, but more advanced ages are not uncommon.[2]

Distribution

The ribbed mussel occurs in the coastal waters of salt marsh habitats from the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence in eastern Canada south along the western Atlantic coast to Florida. In the Gulf of Mexico this species is replaced by the southern ribbed mussel, Geukensia granosissima. Geukensia granosissima and Geukensia demissa hybridize in southern Florida.[3]

The ribbed mussel has been introduced to Texas, Mexico, California, and Venezuela.[1]

Habitat

Ribbed mussels live in the intertidal zone, attached to hard surfaces or embedded in sediment with the help of their byssal threads. They are typically found in salt marshes where they form dense aggregations with the marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) and each other.[4]

Reproduction

Ribbed mussels are dioecious and sexes can only be determined histologically.[5]

They reproduce once per year in Connecticut[5] and South Carolina,[6] however in an introduced population in Venezuela two spawning peaks have been observed.[7]

Mussels>20 mm are typically reproductive, however it is not uncommon for mussels up to 35 mm to have no signs of gametogenesis.[8]

Diet

The ribbed mussel is primarily a filter feeder for the Rhode Island bay area. They help to clean said area of bacteria, parasites, and heavy metals.[9]

References

  1. ^ a b c Geukensia demissa (mollusc) Global Invasive Species Database.
  2. ^ Brousseau, Diane J. (1984-01-01). "Age and Growth Rate Determinations for the Atlantic Ribbed Mussel, Geukensia demissa Dillwyn (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)". Estuaries. 7 (3): 233–241. doi:10.2307/1352143. JSTOR 1352143.
  3. ^ Sarver, S. K.; Landrum, M. C.; Foltz, D. W. (1992). "Genetics and taxonomy of ribbed mussels (Geukensia spp.)". Marine Biology. 113 (3): 385–390. doi:10.1007/BF00349163. ISSN 0025-3162.
  4. ^ Bertness, Mark D.; Grosholz, Edwin (1985-09-01). "Population dynamics of the ribbed mussel, Geukensia demissa: The costs and benefits of an aggregated distribution". Oecologia. 67 (2): 192–204. doi:10.1007/BF00384283. ISSN 0029-8549. PMID 28311308.
  5. ^ a b Brousseau, Dianna (1982). "Gametogenesis and spawning in a population of Geukensia demissa from Westport ,Connecticut". The Veliger.
  6. ^ Borrero, Francisco J. (1987-08-01). "Tidal Height and Gametogenesis: Reproductive Variation Among Populations of Geukensia Demissa". The Biological Bulletin. 173 (1): 160–168. doi:10.2307/1541869. ISSN 0006-3185. JSTOR 1541869. PMID 29314991.
  7. ^ Báez, M. (2005). "Reproductive cycle of Geukensia demissa (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) on a beach at Nazaret, El Moján, Zulia State, Venezuela". Ciencias Marinas. 31: 111–118. doi:10.7773/cm.v31i11.73. Retrieved 2016-04-10.
  8. ^ Franz, David (1996). "Size and age at first reproduction of the ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa in relation to shore level in a New York salt marsh". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 205: 1–13. doi:10.1016/s0022-0981(96)02607-x.
  9. ^ "Ribbed Mussel".
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Geukensia demissa: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Geukensia demissa is a species of mussel, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Mytilidae, the true mussels. This species is native to the Atlantic coast of North America. The common names for this species include ribbed mussel, Atlantic ribbed marsh mussel and ribbed horsemussel. However, the common name ribbed mussel is also used for the Southern Hemisphere mussel Aulacomya atra. The appearance of the shell is grooved and oval in shape. The interior of this mussel is tinted purple

The ribbed shells of this species usually attain a length of 10 cm length, and can be as large as 13 cm. Age can be determined by counting dark growth rings on the shell and mussels typically live 10 – 15 years, but more advanced ages are not uncommon.

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Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Gulf of St. Lawrence (unspecified region), northern Gaspe waters, southern Gaspe waters (Baie des Chaleurs, Gaspe Bay to American, Orphan and Bradelle banks; eastern boundary: eastern Bradelle Valley); Prince Edward Island (from the northern tip of Miscou Island, N.B. to Cape Breton Island south of Cheticamp, including the Northumberland Strait and Georges Bay to the Canso Strait causeway); Cobscook Bay
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bibliographic citation
Cohen, A.N. (2011). The Exotics Guide: Non-native Marine Species of the North American Pacific Coast. Center for Research on Aquatic Bioinvasions, Richmond, CA, and San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Revised September 2011. Cohen, A.N. (2011). The Exotics Guide: Non-native Marine Species of the North American Pacific Coast. Center for Research on Aquatic Bioinvasions, Richmond, CA, and San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Revised September 2011. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492. Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492.
Contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
intertidal and infralittoral of the Gulf and estuary
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bibliographic citation
Cohen, A.N. (2011). The Exotics Guide: Non-native Marine Species of the North American Pacific Coast. Center for Research on Aquatic Bioinvasions, Richmond, CA, and San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Revised September 2011. Cohen, A.N. (2011). The Exotics Guide: Non-native Marine Species of the North American Pacific Coast. Center for Research on Aquatic Bioinvasions, Richmond, CA, and San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Revised September 2011. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492. Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492.
Contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]