Diagnostic Description

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Brownish or grayish above, whitish below; caudal fin 2-3 horizontal black stripes (Ref. 4315). Head strongly depressed. Preopercular spines 2, lower usually longest. Vomerine teeth in a single transverse band. Dorsal fin I,VII,I, I,I,VII,I or I,VIII, 13. Anteriormost lateral line scale usually with a small spine or ridge. Diagonal scale rows slanting backward above lateral line 83-107. Iris lappet a single elongated lobe. Identified by the distinctive color pattern on the caudal fin: centrally yellow and black stripes on upper and lower margins (Ref. 48635).
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Recorder
Crispina B. Binohlan
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Diseases and Parasites

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Procerovum Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Recorder
Allan Palacio
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Diseases and Parasites

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Procamallanus Infection 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Life Cycle

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Also Ref. 103751.
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Susan M. Luna
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Migration

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Rainer Froese
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 9 - 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 13
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Crispina B. Binohlan
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Trophic Strategy

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Found inshore (Ref. 75154).
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Pascualita Sa-a
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Biology

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Found on sandy and muddy bottoms of coastal waters (Ref. 5213, 48635). Frequently in estuaries, juveniles have been taken in freshwater. Taken by handlining and seining in shallow waters and by trawling at depths to 30 m, usually less (Ref. 9790). A good food fish (Ref. 4315) that is marketed fresh (Ref. 5284). Commercially cultured in Japan. Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
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Rainer Froese
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
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Rainer Froese
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