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Brief Summary

provided by Ecomare
Bream is a grayish brown fish belonging to the carp family. It can live up to 15 years. Bream is a typical fish for cloudy nutrient-rich water which often contains lots of algae. It looks for food by snuffling in the muddy bottom with its snout. This makes the water cloudy. In such 'breamy' water, its enemy the pike is unable to hunt well.
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Diagnostic Description

provided by FAO species catalogs
Deep-bodied with a high back and flattened sides. The head is comparatively small, with the mouth ventral and extending into a tube when feeding. Eyes small.

Scales are small with 51-60 scales in the lateral line.

Anal fin origin is beneath the rear end of the dorsal fin; its base is long, with 24-30 branched rays and its outline is strongly concave.

Pharyngeal teeth 5:5, the teeth long and compressed.

Colour dark brown or greyish on the back; adults have golden brown sides, the young have silver, and are ventrally yellowish. The fins are grey or light brown, those underneath being reddish tinted.

Distribution

provided by FAO species catalogs
European lakes and rivers (excluding Iberian, Italic and Balkan peninsulas and part Skandinavian peninsula); it also occurs in the brackish areas of the Baltic Sea.

Size

provided by FAO species catalogs
An average length of 40 to 51 cm and a weight of 3.6 kg is attained; exceptionally a length of 80 cm and 9 kg in weight.

Brief Summary

provided by FAO species catalogs
Occurs usually in still and slow-running waters where it travels in large shoals.Using its protusible mouth to pick up insect larvae, worms, and molluscs. Bream spawn in late spring and early summer among dense vegetation, often in shallow water and at night. The yellowish eggs stick to the weeds, and hatch in 3-12 days, depending on temperature.

Can survive out of the water for extended periods.

Benefits

provided by FAO species catalogs
In Europe this is a commercially important food-fish. It is also a valuable fish for anglers, although all too frequently expected to grow well and provide sport in unsuitable habitats. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 48 070 t. The countries with the largest catches were Russian Federation (25 687 t) and Kazakhstan (10 900 t). Marketed fresh or frozen. Eaten steamed, broiled, fried and baked.

Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
The only species of the genus which can be diagnosed from other species of Ballerus, Blicca and Vimba by the following characters: mouth sub-inferior, which can be extended as a tube; lateral line with 51-60 scales; anal fin with 30½ branched rays; eye diameter about 2/3 of snout length in individuals larger than 10 cm SL; pharyngeal teeth 5-5; and base of paired fins hyaline or grey (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196). Tall, laterally compressed body. Fins darker in adults. Anal fin base twice as long as the dorsal fin (Ref. 35388).
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Pascualita Sa-a
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Diseases and Parasites

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Black Spot Disease 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allan Palacio
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Life Cycle

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Undergo upriver migration (100 km in Dniepr) to spawn. Many populations start spawning migration in autumn ( especially semi-anadromours forms), slow down during winter and continue in spring. Males often defend spawning territories along shorelines. Eggs are sticky and eggs size increases with age of female. Frequently forms fertile hybrids with Rutilus rutilus (Ref. 59043).
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Migration

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Potamodromous. Migrating within streams, migratory in rivers, e.g. Saliminus, Moxostoma, Labeo. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9 - 10; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 23 - 30; Vertebrae: 43 - 45
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Trophic Strategy

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Predominantly plantivorous. Small bream are generally particulate feeders whereas larger bream (>15 cm) are filter feeders. The size selection of the filter feeding bream depends primarily on the mesh size of the branchiospinal system of the fish, which increases with increasing fish size (Ref. 42777).

Reference

Bryazgunova, M.I. Feeding relationships of the young of the pike perch, Lucioperca lucioperca, the bream, Abramis brama, and fishes of lesser importance in the lower reaches of the Don. J. Ichthyol. ():-.

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Biology

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Adults inhabit a wide variety of lakes and large to medium sized rivers. Most abundant in backwaters, lower parts of slow-flowing rivers, brackish estuaries and warm and shallow lakes (Ref. 59043). Adults occur usually in still and slow-running waters where they travel in large shoals (Ref. 9696). Larvae and juveniles live in still water bodies, feeding on plankton. One to two years old juveniles move from backwaters to river to feed. In the absence of opportunity to leave backwaters, juveniles may adapt but have a slower growth and attain maturity at a smaller size. They also drift to brackishwater estuaries to forage when water level of flooded areas drops in lower reaches of large rivers. Foraging juveniles in brackish waters stay in lower parts of rivers to overwinter in freshwater (Ref. 59043). Feed on insects, particularly chironomids, small crustaceans, mollusks and plants. Larger specimens may feed on small fish. Juveniles feed on zooplankton (Ref. 30578). Able to shift to particle feeding or even filter feeding at high zooplankton abundance. Usually spawn in backwaters, floodplains or lakes shores with dense vegetation (Ref. 59043). Can survive out of the water for extended periods (Ref. 9988). The flesh is bony, insipid and soft (Ref. 30578). Marketed fresh or frozen. Eaten steamed, broiled, fried and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Importance

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fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
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Common bream

provided by wikipedia EN

The common bream, freshwater bream, bream, bronze bream,[2] or carp bream[3] (Abramis brama), is a European species of freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae. It is now considered to be the only species in the genus Abramis.

Range and habitat

The common bream's home range is Europe north of the Alps and Pyrenees, as well as the Balkans. They are found as far as east as the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea, and the Aral Sea. The common bream lives in ponds, lakes, canals, and slow-flowing rivers.

Description

The bream is usually 30 to 55 cm (12 to 22 in) long, though some specimens of 75 cm (30 in) have been recorded; it usually weighs 2 to 4 kg (4.4 to 8.8 lb). Its maximum length is 90 cm (35.5 in),the recorded weight is around 9.1 kg (20 lb).

The common bream has a laterally flattened and high-backed body and a slightly undershot mouth. It is a silvery grey colour, though older fish can be bronze-coloured, especially in clear waters. The fins are greyish to black, but never reddish.

Similar-looking fish

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Silver bream above, common bream below

The common bream can easily be confused with the silver or white bream (Blicca bjoerkna), in particular at the younger stages (see picture). The most reliable method of distinguishing these species is by counting the scales in a straight line downwards from the first ray of the dorsal fin to the lateral line. Silver bream have fewer than 10 rows of scales, while common bream have 11 or more. At the adult stage the reddish tint of the pectoral fin of the silver bream is diagnostic. Like other Cyprinidae, common bream can easily hybridise with other species, and hybrids with roach (Rutilus rutilus) can be very difficult to distinguish from pure-bred bream.[2]

Habitat

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Common bream on fish exhibition in Prague

The common bream generally lives in rivers (especially in the lower reaches) and in nutrient-rich lakes and ponds with muddy bottoms and plenty of algae. It can also be found in brackish sea waters.[1]

Feeding habits

The common bream lives in schools near the bottom. At night common bream can feed close to the shore and in clear waters with sandy bottoms feeding pits can be seen during daytime. The fish's protractile mouth helps it dig for chironomid larvae, Tubifex worms, bivalves, and gastropods. The bream eats water plants and plankton, as well.

In very turbid waters, common bream can occur in large numbers, which may result in a shortage of bottom-living prey such as chironomids. The bream are then forced to live by filter feeding with their gill rakers, Daphnia water fleas being the main prey. As the fish grows, the gill rakers become too far apart to catch small prey and the bream will not then grow bigger than 40 cm (16 in). If a common bream is malnourished, it can develop a so-called "knife back", a sharp edge along its back.

Spawning

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A mature bronze-coloured common bream from the Netherlands

The common bream spawns from April to June, when water temperatures are around 17 °C (63 °F). At this time, the males form territories within which the females lay 100,000 to 300,000 eggs on water plants. The fry hatch after three to 12 days and attach themselves to water plants with special adhesive glands, until their yolk is used up.

Because of their slender shape, the young fish are often not recognised as bream, but they can be identified by their flat bodies and silvery colour. At this stage, the fish are still pelagic, but after a few months, they acquire their typical body shape and become bottom-dwellers. By three to four years old, the fish are sexually mature.

Fishing

The freshwater bream is not generally caught for consumption. Common Bream are popular with sport and match fishermen. However, bream are not as hard fighting as most other fish native to the UK, as due to their flat, disc-shaped profile they are relatively easy to bring to the bank. Bream will eat most baits, especially:

Bream can be caught in rivers or lakes, with generous use of groundbait to attract the shoals. They are not shy fish. Float fishing on the bottom is another technique used. Ledgering (using just a lead weight to hold the bait down) with a cage feeder full of bait, often works better on larger rivers and lakes.

The current (2017) record common bream is over 10 kg (22lbs), caught in 2012 [1].

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Abramis brama". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T135696A4184980. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135696A4184980.en. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b Giles, Nick, Freshwater Fish of the British Isles: A Guide for Anglers and Naturalists, Swan Hill Press, 1994, ISBN 1-85310-317-9, pp 140–144
  3. ^ FishBase, Common names of Abramis brama. Retrieved 2010-11-13.

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Common bream: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The common bream, freshwater bream, bream, bronze bream, or carp bream (Abramis brama), is a European species of freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae. It is now considered to be the only species in the genus Abramis.

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