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Sea Grape

Molgula manhattensis (De Kay 1843)

Breeding Season

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Care of Adults

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
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Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Fertilization and Cleavage

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Later Stages of Development and Metamorphosis

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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Living Material

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
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copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Preparation of Cultures

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Procuring Gametes

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
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copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Rate of Development

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Removal of the Chorion

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Woods Hole, Maine
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Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

The Unfertilized Egg

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Molgula manhattensis

provided by wikipedia EN

Molgula manhattensis, commonly known as "sea grapes", is a species of ascidian commonly found along the East Coast and Gulf Coast region of the United States. Although it is native to this region, it has been introduced to other areas of Europe, Australia, and the West Coast.[1]

Description

Molgula manhattensis is small, spherical, brownish-grey in color, somewhat translucent, and feels soft and rubbery to the touch. Like other ascidians, they have two siphons (incurrent and excurrent), through which they draw water for ventilation and filter-feeding, and also for releasing their gametes. They are hermaphroditic, and release sperm and eggs into the water for external fertilization, unlike some other species of Molgula which may be viviparous (e.g. M. citrina).[2][3] The tunic is covered with many little fibrils.[4]

Habitat

M. manhattensis can live from the intertidal zone to a depth of 300 feet. They can attach to solid organisms or even rocks, pilings, buoys, or sand.[2] The sea squirts can also live in a temperature range of about 50 °F to about 80 °F. They can live in water with a salinity of 33.270 to 36.231 PSS, with oxygen concentrations between 3.960 and 6.328 ml/l.[3]

History

Mogula manhattensis is native to the East Coast of the United States and to waters around Europe. It is also found on the West Coast of the United States and to parts of Asia. Adults can live off of almost anything making them very good survivors in bodies of water though they prefer protected waters. The larvae can only live for a few days unless it attaches to a hard surface (similar to oysters and mussels).[2]

References

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Molgula manhattensis: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Molgula manhattensis, commonly known as "sea grapes", is a species of ascidian commonly found along the East Coast and Gulf Coast region of the United States. Although it is native to this region, it has been introduced to other areas of Europe, Australia, and the West Coast.

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Alien species

provided by World Register of Marine Species
The sea grape, Molgula manhattensis, has been present for a long time in Europe, along the east coast of America, and around Australia. Some authors are convinced that the specimens found in America or Europe are different species altogether and therefore in Europe the sea grape can not be considered an exotic species. In Belgium this sea grape was first observed and reported in the middle of the 19th century in the harbour of Ostend. Later the species also established itself in the harbours of Zeebrugge and Blankenberge. The species could have arrived in Belgium via attachment to ship's hulls.
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WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Boersma, P. Dee; Reichard, Sarah H.; Van Buren, A. N. (2006). Invasive Species in the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA : University of Washington Press, ©2006. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Wolff, W. J. (2005). Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in the Netherlands. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 79, 1-116. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29.
contributor
Vandepitte, Leen [email]

Alien species

provided by World Register of Marine Species
De ronde zakpijp Molgula manhattensis is al lange tijd aanwezig in Europa, langs de oostkust van Amerika en rond Australië. Sommige auteurs zijn er echter van overtuigd dat de Amerikaanse en Europese vormen van deze soort aparte soorten zijn en dat we daarom de ronde zakpijn in Europa niet als een exoot kunnen beschouwen. In België werd de ronde zakpijp voor het eerst waargenomen en gerapporteerd in het midden van de 19de eeuw in de haven van Oostende. Later vestigde de soort zich ook in de havens van Zeebrugge en Blankenberge. De soort zou hier terecht gekomen zijn door vasthechting op scheepsrompen.
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copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Boersma, P. Dee; Reichard, Sarah H.; Van Buren, A. N. (2006). Invasive Species in the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA : University of Washington Press, ©2006. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Wolff, W. J. (2005). Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in the Netherlands. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 79, 1-116. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29.
contributor
Vandepitte, Leen [email]

Diet

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plankton feeder
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Boersma, P. Dee; Reichard, Sarah H.; Van Buren, A. N. (2006). Invasive Species in the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA : University of Washington Press, ©2006. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Wolff, W. J. (2005). Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in the Netherlands. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 79, 1-116. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29.
contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]

Distribution

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circum-global
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WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Boersma, P. Dee; Reichard, Sarah H.; Van Buren, A. N. (2006). Invasive Species in the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA : University of Washington Press, ©2006. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Wolff, W. J. (2005). Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in the Netherlands. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 79, 1-116. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29.
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]

Distribution

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Bay of Fundy to Gulf of Mexico
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WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Boersma, P. Dee; Reichard, Sarah H.; Van Buren, A. N. (2006). Invasive Species in the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA : University of Washington Press, ©2006. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Wolff, W. J. (2005). Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in the Netherlands. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 79, 1-116. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29.
contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
infralittoral of the Gulf and estuary
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Boersma, P. Dee; Reichard, Sarah H.; Van Buren, A. N. (2006). Invasive Species in the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA : University of Washington Press, ©2006. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) VLIZ Alien Species Consortium. (2010). Wolff, W. J. (2005). Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in the Netherlands. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 79, 1-116. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Xiong, W.; Shen, C.; Wu, Z.; Lu, H.; Yan, Y. (2017). A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 12(1): 109-115. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29.
contributor
Mary Kennedy [email]