Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
This is the most widely distributed member of the genus Halechiniscus, but known almost exclusively from the northern hemisphere. Halechiniscus r. remanei was reported from warm waters of temperate and tropical zones (northern parts of tropical zone and southern parts of temperate zone). However, it was also reported from cold waters of the North Sea on the coast of Sweden. Halechiniscus r. remanei is known mainly from intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, although it was also found deeper (to 130 m bsl.). It has been reported from 0–40 cm deep in different types of sand. Although it is a rather common species, it has never been found in marine caves. Based on Renaud-Mornant (1984), it is cosmopolitan but in the process of speciation (the changes are mainly visible in modifications of the caudal appendages). Speciation is less visible in the Australian region and more advanced in the Caribbean region where a new subspecies H. r. antillensis was described. Also specimens from California clearly differ from typical forms (McGinty 1969, Renaud-Mornant 1984) and should probably be considered a new subspecies or even a new species. In the light of these statements and new findings of cryptic species in marine tardigrades (see e.g. Faurby et al. 2011), we question the cosmopolitan character of this species and consider it as a group of species or subspecies. Thus, the geographical range of H. r. remanei and its ecological requirements need thorough revision. It also should be noted that Chang & Rho (2002) in their relatively recent treatment of Halechiniscus do not even mention the two subspecies of H. remanei.
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cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Kaczmarek, Ł.; Bartels, P. J.; Roszkowska, M.; Nelson, D. R. (2015). The Zoogeography of Marine Tardigrada. <em>Zootaxa.</em> 4037(1): 1-189.
contributor
Guidetti, Roberto [email]