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Cosmos bipinnatus is native to Mexico and the southwestern United States. A garden favorite, it has escaped and naturalized widely elsewhere in the flora area (and in warm climates almost worldwide), and it has been seeded along roadsides by some highway departments. Many cultivated races and hybrids differ considerably from the wild type described above, varying widely in stature and in coloration of both ray and disc corollas. Some plants in cultivation lack pappi; they are referable to var. exaristatus de Candolle, not treated formally here.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 21: 203, 204 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Plants 30–200 cm, glabrous or sparsely puberulent, sometimes scabridulous. Leaves: petioles 0 or to 1 cm; blades 6–11 cm, ultimate lobes to 1.5 mm wide, margins entire, apices acute (indurate). Peduncles 10–20 cm. Calyculi of spreading, linear to lanceolate bractlets 6–13 mm, apices acuminate. Involucres 7–15 mm diam. Phyllaries erect, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 7–13 mm, apices round or obtuse. Ray corollas white, pink, or purplish, laminae obovate to oblanceolate, 15–50 mm, apices ± truncate, dentate. Disc corollas 5–7 mm. Cypselae 7–16 mm, glabrous, papillose; pappi 0, or of 2–3 ascending to erect awns 1–3 mm. 2n = 24.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 21: 203, 204 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Distribution

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sometimes escaping.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Annual herb to c.1 m. Leaves: petiole 0 or widened and clasping, to 4 cm; lamina 6-11 × 3-5 cm, ovate in outline, deeply dissected with ultimate segments c. 1 mm wide, linear. Capitula up to c. 2 cm diameter (excluding rays), solitary on terminal and side branches. Phyllaries: outer c. 1 cm, ovate with a long-acuminate apex; inner shorter. Receptacular scales c. 7 mm with a linear appendage, c. 2 mm. Rays up to 4 cm, c. 8, pink, white or lilac; apex 3-dentate. Disk florets yellow. Achenes 7-16 mm, blackish. Pappus of 2-3 forward-pointing setae or 0.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=160620
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Frequency

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Frequent
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=160620
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Worldwide distribution

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Native of Central America and the West Indies.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=160620
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Cosmos bipinnatus

provided by wikipedia EN

Cosmos bipinnatus, commonly called the garden cosmos or Mexican aster,[2] is a medium-sized flowering herbaceous plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, native to the Americas. The species and its varieties and cultivars are popular as ornamental plants in temperate climate gardens.[3][4][5][6]

Description

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In natural habitat.

Cosmos bipinnatus is considered a half-hardy annual, although plants may reappear via self-sowing for several years. The plant height varies from 2–6 ft (0.61–1.83 m), and rarely to 9 ft (2.7 m). The cultivated varieties appear in shades of pink and purple as well as white. The branched stem is usually densely to occasionally occupied by fine, split up, rough trichomes, some specimens are completely hairless. The petiole itself is inconspicuous, winged, 10 (rarely to 15) mm long, sometimes the leaves are almost sessile.

The partial leaves are linear-filiform to narrow linear with a width of 0.5 to 1 (rarely to 1.7) mm; the tips are pointed, hardened, but not particularly sharp. Its foliage is finely cut into threadlike segments. When flowering, the plant can become top heavy. This problem is alleviated when grown in groups, as the bipinnate leaves interlock, and the colony supports itself.[7]

The achenes become blackish, are smooth or short-bristly. Their shape is spindle-like. They are rounded off into a short, 0.5 to 1.7 mm long, but distinctly pronounced rostrum. The inner achenes are up to 18 mm long, their yellowish beaks are 4 to 5 (rarely to 10) mm long. A pappus is missing or it consists only of two to three awn-like, 1 to 3 mm large bristles.[8]

Flowers

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Cosmos bipinnatus from Sivas, Turkey

The very conspicuous cup-shaped inflorescences have a diameter of usually 5 to 7 (rarely 8) cm and contain tongue and tubular flowers, which are surrounded by bracts. The outer bracts are usually eight and are ovate to lanceolate-tail-shaped, 7 to 15 mm long, 3 to 5 (rarely 6) mm wide. The inner bracts are ovate-lanceolate and 8 to 12 mm long. They are translucent with many black stripes and a clear edge up to 1 mm wide, sometimes with yellowish or pink pigments, the tip is ciliate. The sprout leaveshave gold-yellow, thread-like tips and protrude between the tubular flowers. The broadened base of these spreader leaves is translucent, provided with a yellow line. During flowering, the plant can sag under its weight. This problem can be solved by grouping the feet together so that the leaves hang together.

The mostly eight ray florets are pink to violet or white colored, at the base may show noticeable stains caused by anthocyanin. The tongues are reversely ovate shaped, have a length of usually 20 to 35 (16 to 40) mm and a width of usually 12 to 20 (8 to 25) mm. The tips are almost dull and have three broad, wavy teeth. Below that, they are greatly rejuvenated. In the center of the flower baskets is a large number of tubular flowers (also called disc florets), whose overgrown petals are yellow, turn white in the lower part and reach a length of 5 to 6 mm. The anthers are brownish-black and about 3 mm long, at the tips are short-triangular, translucent attachments with a length of 0.5 to 0.8 mm. The branches of the stylus are short and rather dull, with a length of 0.5 mm.[9]

Range

Garden Cosmos is native to Mexico, Guatemala and Costa Rica. Since it is used as an ornamental plant in many countries and prone to sedimentation, it is an invasive plant in many areas of the world. It has naturalized in scattered locations across North America, South America, the West Indies, Italy, Australia, and Asia, where it is a garden escape (introduced species) and in some habitats becoming a weed.[7]

Cultivars

Cultivars of Cosmos bipinnatus in cultivation today include:

  • Apollo Series
    • 'Apollo Carmine' agm[10]
    • 'Apollo Pink' agm[11]
    • 'Apollo White' agm[12]
  • 'Daydream'[13] features a pink inner ring on a white background
  • Double Click Series[14] features semidouble to fully double flowers that resemble Japanese anemones (Anemone japonica)
    • 'Double Click Cranberries'[15]
    • 'Double Click Rose Bonbon' [16]
    • 'Double Click Snow Puff'[17]
    • 'Double Click Vari Extra' [18]
  • 'Rubenza' agm[19]
  • 'Sensation', also known as 'Early Sensation', is a widely available mix of tall varieties
    • 'Sensation Pinkie' agm[20]
  • Sonata series [21]
  • 'Velouette'agm[22]
  • 'Versailles', developed for the cut flower trade, are shorter than the species, with heights remaining below three feet
    • 'Versailles Dark Rose'[23]
    • 'Vesailles Tetra' [24]

(those marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit).

Cultivation

Growth characteristics of this plant include:

  • Germination takes between 7 and 10 days at the optimal temperature of 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 °C); flowering begins between 60 and 90 days after germination
  • It prefers a soil pH between 6.0 and 8.5, reflecting its native habitat in the alkaline regions of Central America
  • Flowering is best in full sun, although partial shade is tolerated

Excessive rain can cause cultivation problems, due to the delicate nature of the stems. Heavy rain can cause breakage. Cosmos bipinnatus can tolerate heat as long as adequate moisture is provided, however, it does not handle droughts, strong winds or cold temperatures well. Snails, slugs and aphids have a taste for Cosmos bipinnatus. Successfully cultivated plants can mature 2 to 4 feet x 12 to 18 inches.[25]

Pollinators

The flowers of Cosmos bipinnatus attract birds and butterflies,[25] including the monarch butterfly. It can be part of butterfly gardening and pollinator/honey-bee habitat gardens.[25]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ The Plant List, Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.
  2. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  3. ^ Flora of North America, Cosmos bipinnatus Cavanilles
  4. ^ Flora of China, 秋英 qiu ying, Cosmos bipinnatus Cavanilles
  5. ^ "Atlas of Living Australia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  6. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Astro messicano, fiederblättriges Schmuckkörbchen, rosenskära, Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.
  7. ^ a b Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
  8. ^ Erich Oberdorfer : Plant sociology excursion flora for Germany and adjacent areas . In collaboration with Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8th, heavily revised and supplemented edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , p 929
  9. ^ Thomas E. Melchert Cosmos bipinnatus. In: Dorothy L. Nash, Louis O. Williams (ed.): Flora of Guatemala. In: Fieldiana: Botany. Volume 24, Part XII, 1976, pp. 230-231.
  10. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" 'Apollo Carmine'". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  11. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" 'Apollo Pink'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  12. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" 'Apollo White'". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  13. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" 'Daydream'". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  14. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" Double Click Series". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  15. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" 'Double Click Cranberries'". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  16. ^ "Double Click Rose Bonbon". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  17. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" 'Double Click Snow Puff'". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  18. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" 'Double Click Vari Extra'". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  19. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" 'Rubenza'". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  20. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" 'Sensation Pinkie'". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  21. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" Sonata Series". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  22. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" 'Velouette'". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  23. ^ ""Cosmos bipinnatus" 'Versailles Dark Rose'". RHS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  24. ^ . RHS https://www.rhs.org.uk/Plants/132450/Cosmos-bipinnatus-Versailles-Tetra-(Versailles-Series)/Details. Retrieved 5 May 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. ^ a b c Bruce Asakawa; Sharon Asakawa (3 September 2001). California Gardener's Guide. Cool Springs Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-1-930604-47-6. Retrieved 25 November 2011.

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Cosmos bipinnatus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Cosmos bipinnatus, commonly called the garden cosmos or Mexican aster, is a medium-sized flowering herbaceous plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, native to the Americas. The species and its varieties and cultivars are popular as ornamental plants in temperate climate gardens.

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