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Mexican Tea

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants

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Southern populations of Dysphania ambrosioides are native while those populations in the northern part of the flora area are introduced.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 4: 265, 269, 270 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Comments

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Dysphania ambrosioides s.l. is a taxonomically complicated aggregate of several closely related segregate “microspecies” and/or infraspecific taxa. Judging from the herbarium material available, there are several entities naturalized in China. However, their taxonomy and distribution in the Flora area are not well understood, and because of that they are not discussed here.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 377 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Description

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Plants annual. Stems erect to ascending, much-branched, 3-10(-15) dm, ± glandular-pubescent. Leaves aromatic, distal leaves sessile; petiole to 18 mm; blade ovate to oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, proximal ones mostly lanceolate, 2-8(-12) × 0.5-4(-5.5) cm, base cuneate, margins entire, dentate, or laciniate, apex obtuse to attenuate, copiously gland-dotted (rarely glabrous). Inflorescences lateral spikes, 3-7 cm; glomerules globose, 1.5-2.3 mm diam.; bracts leaflike, lanceolate, oblanceolate, spatulate, or linear, 0.3-2.5 cm, apex obtuse, acute, or attenuate. Flowers: perianth segments 4-5, connate for ca. 1/2 their length, distinct portion ovate, rounded abaxially, 0.7-1 mm, apex obtuse, glandular-pubescent, covering seed at maturity; stamens 4-5; stigmas 3. Achenes ovoid; pericarp nonadherent, rugose to smooth. Seeds horizontal or vertical, reddish brown, ovoid, 0.6-1 × 0.4-0.5 mm; seed coat rugose to smooth.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 265, 269, 270 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Description

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Herbs annual or perennial, 50-80 cm tall, with strong odor. Stem erect, much branched, striate, obtusely ribbed; branches usually slender, pubescent and articulated villous, sometimes subglabrous. Petiole short; leaf blade oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, abaxially with scattered glands, slightly hairy around veins, adaxially glabrous, base attenuate, margin sparsely and irregularly coarsely serrate, apex acute or acuminate; lower leaves ca. 15 × 5 cm, upper ones gradually reduced and margin subentire. Flowers borne in upper leaf axils, usually 3-5 per glomerule, bisexual and female. Perianth segments (3 or)5, usually nearly closed in fruit. Stamens 5; anthers ca. 0.5 mm. Style obscure; stigmas 3(or 4), filiform, exserted from perianth. Utricle enclosed by perianth, depressed globose. Seed horizontal or oblique, black or dark red, sublustrous, ca. 0.7 mm in diam., glabrous, rim margin obtuse. Fl. and fr. over a lengthy period.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 377 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Ont., Que.; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis.; native to North America and South America, widely naturalized throughout the tropics and warm-temperate regions of the world.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 265, 269, 270 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Fruiting summer-fall.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 265, 269, 270 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Habitat

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River bottoms, dry lake beds, flower beds, waste areas; 0-700m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 265, 269, 270 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Habitat & Distribution

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Naturalized; often cultivated for medicine in N China. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [native to tropical America; now widely naturalized in tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate regions of the world].
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 377 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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eFloras

Synonym

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Chenopodium ambrosioides Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 219. 1753; C. ambrosioides var. suffruticosum (Willdenow) Ascherson & Graebner; Teloxys ambrosioides (Linnaeus) W. A. Weber
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 265, 269, 270 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Chenopodium ambrosioides Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 219. 1753; Ambrina ambrosioides (Linnaeus) Spach, nom. illeg.; Atriplex ambrosioides (Linnaeus) Crantz; Blitum ambrosioides (Linnaeus) G. Beck.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 377 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Derivation of specific name

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
ambrosioides: resembling a species of Ambrosia, a genus in Asteraceae.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=121950
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Erect much branched, aromatic annual herb, rarely a short-lived perennial, up to 180 cm high. Stems green, rarely tinged red. Leaves mostly lanceolate, 3-14 cm long, green, with numerous yellow glands, especially below; margin, particularly of the lower leaves, with up to 10 irregular teeth. Minute flowers in sessile yellowish clusters or 'glomerules' along the ultimate branches, together forming large branched heads.
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cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=121950
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Worldwide distribution

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in South America
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cc-by-nc
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=121950
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Description

provided by Phytokeys
Annual or short-lived perennial up to 1.5(2.0) m, very aromatic, covered (at least the young parts of the plant) with curved simple hairs, yellow (subsessile) glands and glandular hairs with a prominent stalk. Leaves long-petiolate, 5.0–16.0 × 1.0–4.0 cm, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate, dentate or sinuate; upper leaves often entire. Inflorescence usually highly branched, spike-like, bracteate or aphyllous in the upper part. Flowers sessile. Perianth segments (4)5, green, ca. 1.0 mm long, (nearly) half concrescent, concave near the apex, completely enclosing the fruit (Fig. 20A). Pericarp thin, hyaline, tightly adjoining the seed coat but separating from it when rubbed, in its upper part covered with glandular hairs (up to 0.12 mm long) with a large terminal cell (Fig. 20B). Seed dark red or almost black, 0.7 × 0.5–0.6 mm, not keeled. Embryo horizontal, rarely oblique or vertical.
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Alexander P. Sukhorukov, Pei-Liang Liu, Maria Kushunina
bibliographic citation
Sukhorukov A, Liu P, Kushunina M (2019) Taxonomic revision of Chenopodiaceae in Himalaya and Tibet PhytoKeys (116): 1–141
author
Alexander P. Sukhorukov
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Pei-Liang Liu
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Maria Kushunina
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Distribution

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See Fig. 21.
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Alexander P. Sukhorukov, Pei-Liang Liu, Maria Kushunina
bibliographic citation
Sukhorukov A, Liu P, Kushunina M (2019) Taxonomic revision of Chenopodiaceae in Himalaya and Tibet PhytoKeys (116): 1–141
author
Alexander P. Sukhorukov
author
Pei-Liang Liu
author
Maria Kushunina
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Phytokeys

Dysphania ambrosioides

provided by wikipedia EN

Dysphania ambrosioides, formerly Chenopodium ambrosioides, known as wormseed, Jesuit's tea, Mexican-tea,[2] payqu (paico), epazote, mastruz, or herba sanctæ Mariæ, is an annual or short-lived perennial herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico.

Growth

D. ambrosioides is an annual or short-lived perennial plant (herb), growing to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) tall, irregularly branched, with oblong-lanceolate leaves up to 12 cm (4.7 in) long. The flowers are small and green, produced in a branched panicle at the apex of the stem.

As well as in its native areas, it is grown in warm temperate to subtropical areas of Europe and the United States (Missouri, New England, Eastern United States),[3] sometimes becoming an invasive weed.

Taxonomy

The species was described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus as Chenopodium ambrosioides.[4] Some researchers treated it as a highly polymorphic species with several subspecies. Today these are considered as their own species of genus Dysphania (e.g. Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum is now accepted as Dysphania anthelmintica).[5][6]

The generic name Dysphania traditionally was applied in the 1930s to some species endemic to Australia. Placement and rank of this taxon have ranged from a mere section in Chenopodium to the sole genus of a separate family Dysphaniaceae, or a representative of Illicebraceae. The close affinity of Dysphania to "glandular" species of Chenopodium sensu lato is now evident.[7]

Etymology

The common Spanish name, epazote (sometimes spelled and pronounced ipasote or ypasote), is derived from Nahuatl languages: epazōtl (pronounced [eˈpasoːt͡ɬ]).

Usage

Culinary uses

D. ambrosioides is used as a leaf vegetable, herb, and herbal tea for its pungent flavor. Raw, it has a resinous, medicinal pungency, similar to oregano, anise, fennel, or even tarragon, but stronger. The fragrance of D. ambrosioides is strong but difficult to describe. A common analogy is to turpentine or creosote. It has also been compared to citrus, savory, and mint.

Although it is traditionally used with black beans for flavor and its supposed carminative properties (less gas), it is also sometimes used to flavor other traditional Mexican dishes: it can be used to season quesadillas and sopes (especially those containing huitlacoche), soups, mole de olla, tamales with cheese and chili peppers, chilaquiles, eggs and potatoes and enchiladas. It is often used as an herb in white fried rice and an important ingredient for making the green salsa for chilaquiles.

Toxicity

Humans have died from overdoses of essential oils (attributed to the ascaridole content). Symptoms include severe gastroenteritis with pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.[8]

Agricultural use

The essential oils of D. ambrosioides contain terpene compounds, some of which have natural pesticide capabilities. The compound ascaridole in epazote inhibits the growth of nearby species, so it is best to grow it at a distance from other plants.[9]

Companion plant

D. ambrosioides not only contains terpene compounds, but it also delivers partial protection to nearby plants simply by masking their scent to some insects, making it a useful companion plant. Its small flowers may also attract some predatory wasps and flies.

Chemical constituents

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Dysphania ambrosioides - MHNT

Epazote contains oil of chenopodium, which Merriam-Webster defines as “a colorless or pale yellow toxic essential oil of unpleasant odor and taste, … formerly used as an anthelmintic”.[10]

Epazote essential oil contains ascaridole (up to 70%), limonene, p-cymene, and smaller amounts of numerous other monoterpenes and monoterpene derivatives (α-pinene, myrcene, terpinene, thymol, camphor and trans-isocarveol). Ascaridole (1,4-peroxido-p-menth-2-ene) is rather an uncommon constituent of spices; another plant owing much of its character to this monoterpene peroxide is boldo. Ascaridole is toxic and has a pungent, not very pleasant flavor; in pure form, it is an explosive sensitive to shock. Ascaridole content is lower in epazote from Mexico than in epazote grown in Europe or Asia.[11]

References

  1. ^ "Tropicos - Name - Dysphania ambrosioides L." tropicos.org.
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2014-10-23. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  3. ^ Mrs. M. Grieve. A Modern Herbal. FRHS. p. 854. ISBN 0-486-22798-7.
  4. ^ L. (1753) Species Plantarum, Tomus I: 219.
  5. ^ Steven E. Clemants & Sergei L. Mosyakin (2003): Dysphania sect. Adenois - online. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.): Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 4: Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York, ISBN 0-19-517389-9, p. 269.
  6. ^ Steven E. Clemants & Sergei L. Mosyakin (2003): Dysphania anthelmintica - online. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.): Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 4: Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York, ISBN 0-19-517389-9, p. 269.
  7. ^ "Dysphania in Flora of North America @ efloras.org". efloras.org.
  8. ^ Tampion, John (1977). "Chenopodium ambrosioides L.". Dangerous Plants. David and Charles. p. 64. ISBN 0715373757.
  9. ^ J. Jimenez-Osorio, Am. J. Bot. 78:139, 1991, cited in Mueller, Cynthia W. (June 2012). "Epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides)". Aggie Horticulture. Texas A & M University. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
  10. ^ "chenopodium oil". The Merriam-Webster.com Medical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
  11. ^ Laferrière, Joseph E. (21 June 1990). "Nutritional and pharmacological properties of yerbaníz, epazote, and Mountain Pima oregano" (PDF). Seedhead News. No. 29. Native Seeds/SEARCH. p. 9.

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Dysphania ambrosioides: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Dysphania ambrosioides, formerly Chenopodium ambrosioides, known as wormseed, Jesuit's tea, Mexican-tea, payqu (paico), epazote, mastruz, or herba sanctæ Mariæ, is an annual or short-lived perennial herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico.

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