dcsimg

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Boerhavia erecta occasionally forms mixed populations with B. intermedia without apparent intergradation. Rarely, some specimens seem to combine features of either species, particularly with regard to inflorescence structure. This is especially so in Sonora, Mexico, and in parts of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. The two species bloom simultaneously and are visited by small insects. Given the presumed close relationship and weedy habitats of each, hybridization seems possible. Usually, the two species can be distinguished by the differences in fruit length, the appearance of a crownlike apex of the nearly mature fruits of B. erecta (apex of ridges slightly expanded, apex of fruit slightly conic), and the more precisely constructed terminal umbels of B. intermedia. Both species, particularly B. intermedia, may produce entire inflorescences with branches terminating in single flowers. R. E. Woodson Jr. and H. J. Kidd (1961) suggested that B. erecta hybridizes with the perennial B. diffusa.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 4: 19, 20, 22, 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Description

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Herbs, annual [slightly woody at base]; taproot tapered, soft or ± woody. Stems usually erect, sometimes decumbent, profusely branched primarily distally, 2-12 dm, minutely puberulent with bent hairs basally, usually glabrous, rarely sparsely puberulent distally. Leaves mostly in basal 1/2 of plant; larger leaves with petiole 6-40(-55) mm, blade broadly rhombic-ovate, triangular-ovate, ovate, oval, or lanceolate, 20-50(-80) × 10-45 mm (distal leaves smaller, proportionately narrower), adaxial surface usually glabrous, sometimes minutely puberulent, usually minutely punctate, abaxial surface slightly paler than adaxial, usually glabrous, sometimes minutely puberulent, usually punctate with small patches of small brown cells, base obtuse to round, margins entire or sinuate, apex usually acute, less often obtuse or rounded. Inflorescences terminal, forked ca. 4-6 times ± evenly, diffuse, usually with sticky internodal bands; branches strongly ascending, terminating in irregular umbellate or subracemose clusters of flowers, not all pedicels attaching at same point (flowers occasionally borne singly). Flowers: pedicel (0-)0.3-2.5(-5) mm; bracts at base of perianth deciduous, usually 2, narrowly to broadly lanceolate, 0.5-1 mm, apex often acuminate; perianth whitish, usually tinged with pink or purple [bright pink] between lobes and in tube, campanulate beyond constriction, 1-1.5 mm; stamens 2-4, slightly exserted. Fruits 1-11 per cluster, pale greenish to straw colored or tan, narrowly obconic, (2.7-)3-3.5[-4] × 1.2-1.5 mm (l/w: (2-)2.3-3.2), apex truncate or broadly low conic, glabrous; ribs 5, acute, slightly rugose adjacent to sulci; sulci 0.5-1 times as wide as base of ribs, slightly to prominently coarsely transverse rugose, not papillate.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 19, 20, 22, 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Herbs. Stems erect or decumbent at base, 20-80 cm, puberulous or glabrescent. Petiole 1.5-4 cm; leaf blade ovate, oblong, or lanceolate, 1.5-3.5 × 1-2.5 cm, abaxially white-gray, with sunken glands, base rounded or cuneate, margin with unicellular hairs, apex acute, rarely obtuse. Inflorescences mostly axillary, cymose panicles close together; peduncle to 2 cm. Pedicel 0.5-5 mm, with 1 or 2 lanceolate bracteoles. Perianth limb white, red, or pink, 1.5-2 mm. Stamens 2 or 3, slightly exserted. Anthocarp obconic, ca. 3 mm, glabrous, 5-ribbed, groove between ribs somewhat undulate, apex truncate, angular. Fl. and fr. summer.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 433 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Habitat & Distribution

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Flowering early summer-mid fall. Disturbed areas, gardens, road and railroad rights-of-way, stream beds; 0-1700 m [probably much higher in tropics]; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Fla., Ga., La., Md., Miss., Mo., N.Mex., N.C., Okla., S.C., Tenn., Tex.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America; widely introduced throughout the tropics and warm-temperate regions.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 19, 20, 22, 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Habitat & Distribution

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Open sandy areas. Hainan (Xisha Qundao) [Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and probably elsewhere in SE Asia; Pacific Islands].
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 433 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Derivation of specific name

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
erecta: erect (but the meaning is not clear as the plant is usually ascending or prostrate)
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Boerhavia erecta L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=122640
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Spreading annual or perennial herb. Stems prostrate, decumbent or ascending, glabrescent but with longer hairs, particularly at the nodes. Leaves ovate, often with distinct reddish brown glandular dots. Inflorescences terminal, shortly branched. Flowers usually in clusters of 2-5, white, pink, mauve or magenta. Stamens and style c. 2 mm, slightly exerted. Fruits 3-4 mm, turbinate with a flattened apex, not glandular, glabrous. See B. diffusa for comparison.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Boerhavia erecta L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=122640
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Frequency

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Local, but probably under-recorded
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Boerhavia erecta L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=122640
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Worldwide distribution

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Pantropical
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Boerhavia erecta L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=122640
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Boerhavia erecta

provided by wikipedia EN

Boerhavia erecta, commonly known as the erect spiderling or the erect boerhavia, is one of more than 100 species in the genus Boerhavia L. Boerhavia erecta is native to the United States, Mexico, Central America and western South America, but now is cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical regions. In Africa its distribution extends from West Africa, eastwards to Somalia and down to South Africa. It has recently been found in parts of Madagascar and Réunion. In Asia, it occurs in India, Java, Malaysia, the Philippines, China and the Ryukyu Islands.

As an adventive species Boerhavia erecta is not widely regarded as a serious weed or invasive threat; in fact its physical and pharmacological attributes suggest that it is potentially useful.[1]

Description

Boerhavia erecta has a chromosome number 2n=52. It is a perennial herb similar to Boerhavia diffusa, but can be distinguished by the fact that erect spiderlings are straight, bear white and pink flowers and bear obconic, glabrous fruit.[2]

Stem

Boerhavia erecta plants can survive considerable damage from grazing and fire because their stems produce perennating buds near the ground surface.

Stems of B. erecta typically grow to about 60 centimetres (24 in) tall and 3–5 millimetres (0.12–0.20 in) across. They generally are cylindrical without furrows or ridges. In colour they are green, commonly tinted with purple, and towards their upper regions they are slightly pubescent, being covered in short, soft hairs. The base of the stem however, is glabrous and woody.[3]

Leaf

The leaves are somewhat fleshy. Their arrangement is opposite and unequal. Typically the leaf size ranges from 1.5–2.5 cm (0.59–0.98 in) long and 2–3.5 cm (0.79–1.38 in) wide to 3–4.5 cm (1.2–1.8 in) long and 2–3.5 cm (0.79–1.38 in) wide, with a petiole of roughly 2 cm (0.79 in) to 3 cm (1.2 in). The petioles of the leaf are pale green with a hint of purple. The blade of the leaf is ovate, ovate- lanceolate or lanceolate. The upper surface of the leaf is green and pubescent, sometimes with scattered glands. The underside is grayish-white, often with tints of purplish red that also appear on the leaf margins.[4]

Flower

The flowering season of Boerhavia erecta is from early summer to mid-autumn. The inflorescences are determinatively cymose, meaning that the central, terminate flowers open before the basal flowers. Two leafy bracts subtend each branch of the inflorescence, but detach at an early stage. Each peduncle bears 2–6 sessile flowers at its apex. The flowers are tiny, pink and cream. The corolla is bell-shaped, 5-petalled, 1.5 mm long and 2 mm wide. There are 2-3 stamens. Anthocarps (false fruits) are circular and flat. They are 5-ribbed (0.3-0.5 mm wide) and glabrous. The ripe fruits of this plant are sticky and adapted to dispersal by humans and animals.

Uses

Boerhavia erecta is used in traditional medicine[5] and as a food. In West and East Africa, the leaves are eaten as a vegetable and in sauces. In the Sahel, cattle graze on its leaves.

Future studies

In December, 2003 scientists in Taiwan noticed a new species growing on the railroad of Kaoshing. After a thorough investigation, they realized that it was Boerhavia erecta, a plant species that is native in the New World. B. erecta readily invades various environments such as bush, wasteland, agricultural land, and roadsides. Although the species is highly adventive, it is not regarded as a major invasive hazard. The International Union for Conservation of Nature is working with countries such as Bangladesh to encourage the species, and its pharmacology is under study.[6]

References

  1. ^ Chen, Shih-Huei, and Ming-Jou Wu." A Taxonomical Study of the Genus Boerhavia (Nyctaginaceae) in Taiwan." Taiwania. 52.4 (2007): 332-372.http://www.tsps.org.tw/document/paper/new/076%20A%20Taxonomical%20Study%20of%20the%20Genus%20Boerhavia%20(Nyctaginaceae)%20in%20Taiwan.pdf Archived July 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ USDA, NRCS. 2012. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 29 June 2012). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BOER#
  3. ^ 'eFloras (2008). http://www.efloras.org [accessed 22 February 2008]*' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  4. ^ Chou, Fu-San, Ho-Yih Liu, and Chiou-Rong Sheue. "Boerhavia erecta L. (Nyctaginaceae), A New Adventive Plant in Taiwan." Taiwania. 49.1 (2004): 39-43. MA. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/taiwania/pdf/tai.2004.49.1.39.pdf
  5. ^ Schmelzer, G.H., 2006. Boerhavia erecta L. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands. http://database.prota.org/PROTAhtml/Boerhavia%20erecta_En.htm
  6. ^ Motaleb, M. A., 2010. Approaches to Conservation of Medicinal Plants and Traditional Knowledge: A Focus on the Chittagong Hill Tracts. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Bangladesh Country Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp viii+30.http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_bangladesh_medicinal_plant_approache_book.pdf

"
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Boerhavia erecta: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Boerhavia erecta, commonly known as the erect spiderling or the erect boerhavia, is one of more than 100 species in the genus Boerhavia L. Boerhavia erecta is native to the United States, Mexico, Central America and western South America, but now is cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical regions. In Africa its distribution extends from West Africa, eastwards to Somalia and down to South Africa. It has recently been found in parts of Madagascar and Réunion. In Asia, it occurs in India, Java, Malaysia, the Philippines, China and the Ryukyu Islands.

As an adventive species Boerhavia erecta is not widely regarded as a serious weed or invasive threat; in fact its physical and pharmacological attributes suggest that it is potentially useful.

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