Image of <i>Iris spuria</i> ssp. <i>musulmanica</i> (Fomin) Takht.
Creatures » » Plants » » Iris Family »

Iris spuria ssp. musulmanica (Fomin) Takht.

Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica

provided by wikipedia EN

Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica is a species of the genus Iris, part of a subgenus known as Limniris and in the series Spuriae. It is a subspecies of Iris spuria and is a rhizomatous perennial plant, from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkey in Asia with flowers in various shades of blue, but there are rare white forms. They have a yellow centre and darker veining. It has the common name of 'Muslim iris'. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions.

Description

It has a thin or stout, creeping rhizome.[2][3]

It has linear, lanceolate, sword-like, leaves.[4][5][6] That are blue-green, grey-green or dark green.[4][5][7] The leaves are normally wider than Iris notha,[8] at 8–17 cm (3–7 in) wide,[9][10] and they can grow up to 50 cm (20 in) long.[5][6] They are shorter than the flowering stem.[2]

It has an erect, strong, straight stem that can grow up to between 40–100 cm (16–39 in) tall.[11][12][13] It has thick,[8] linear, lanceolate, spathes (leaves of the flower bud).[2] That are 13 mm wide and have a white membranous edge.[2]

The stems hold several, terminal (top of stem) flowers,[2] in late spring,[7] or summer,[11] between May and July.[5][6][9] It has flowers that are up to 6–10 cm (2–4 in) in diameter,[3][9][10] they come in various shades of blue including deep blue,[10][14][15] deep violet,[12][13][16] lavender,[4][11] purple,[5][7][17] and very rarely, white.[13][17][15] They are very similar in colour to Iris spuria subsp. demetrii,[18] and similar in form to Iris sibirica, but slightly larger with wider petals.[15] It has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals, known as the 'standards'.[19] The falls have an elliptical blade, and then a narrow claw (section closest to the stem), which is equal or slight longer than the blade.[2][9][11] The blade has a yellow or white central stripe or signal area,[4] around it are darker veins heading to the edges.[5][17][16] They are 5.5–8 cm (2–3 in) long.[11] The upright, lanceolate,[3] standards are a single colour, they gradually narrow to the claw (near the stem).[2] It has a perianth tube that is shorter than the ovary. It has also style branches that are as long as the claw of the falls.[2]

After the iris has flowered, it produces an oblong cylindrical capsule,[3][5][6] with 6 angles,[2] that has a long spout like appendage.[2][5][6] It fruits between August and September.[2][6] Inside the capsule are, flat, semi-circular or reniform (kidney shaped), off-white to pale brown.[5][6][20]

Biochemistry

In 1988, a study was carried out on the rhizomes of Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica, and found a chemical compound ( 12a-hydroxyrotenoid ).[21] In 2005, the seeds of the iris were studied in Turkey. Along with a morphological and anatomical investigation. The oil content and methyl esters of fatty acids of the seed were also examined. They contained linoleic acid (40%) and oleic acid (30%).[20]

As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes, this can be used to identify hybrids and classification of groupings.[19] It has a chromosome count: 2n=44.[12][13]

Taxonomy

The Latin specific epithet musulmanica is derived from Musulman (the Persian word for Muslim).

It has the common name of 'Muslim iris'.[18][22]

It was original published as Iris musulmanica by Aleksandr Vasiljevich Fomin in Vĕstnik Tiflisskago Botaniceskago Sada. Moniteur du Jardin Botanique de Tiflis (Vĕstn. Tiflissk. Bot. Sada) xiv. 46 in 1909.[2][23] It was later re-classified as a subspecies of Iris spuria, as Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica by Armen Takhtajan in Flora Erevana: opredelitel dik orastushdikh rastenii Araratskoi Kotloving (Fl. Erevana) edit.2 on page 330 in 1972.[24][25] It was later publisher and illustrated in 'Flora Iranica' (Edited by Rechinger), within Iridaceae (chapter), plate12 in 1975.[11] It was then published by Brian Mathew, in his book 'The Iris' on page 20 in 1981.[11] It was verified by United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service on 9 January 2003, and then updated on 3 December 2004.[25] Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica is an accepted name by the RHS.[26]

Distribution and habitat

It is native temperate regions of Asia.[25][26]

Range

It is found within Iran,[15][25][27] and Turkey,[18][25][27] or Asia Minor.[3][10][20] It is found in the Caucasus regions,[10][11][14] of Armenia,[17][25][28] Transcaucasia,[9][15][26] and Azerbaijan.[12][13][25]

Habitat

It grows in damp meadows,[9][10] marshes,[2][3][28] in saline soils,[3][9][28] and in the grassy plains by rivers.[5][9] It is found in a wide zone between the lowlands and the uplands.[3] It can create huge colonies of plants.[9]

Conservation

In Armenia, it is rare and grows in the salt marshes of the Ararat Valley (between Mount Ararat and Mount Aragats) with other endemic species including, Linum seljukorum, Inula aucheriana, Sonchus araraticus, Orchis laxiflora and Merendera sobolifera.[28] It is listed in the Azerbaijan Red Data Book.[22]

Cultivation

It is hardy, and can survive most winters without shelter.[5] Although is less robust than Iris orientalis and Iris xanthospuria.[9] It is hardy to Europe Zone H2.[11] It can be grown in most nutrient rich garden soils.[9][10][15] Soils that Iris siberica grow in are suitable for Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica.[15] It prefers positions in full sun or partial shade.[4][7] It can be grown in either a rockery or sunny flower border.[4] In Turkey, Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica, with Narcissus poeticus and Tulipa sylvestris are used as ornamental plants in parks and gardens in the region.[29] The iris is susceptible to slug damage.[9] It is only normally found with specialised Iris growers or nurseries.[12]

Propagation

It can also be propagated by division or by seed growing. Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica usually germinates within 30–545 days.

Uses

It has been listed with Iris paradoxa and Iris orientalis as a suitable halophyte crop.[30]

References

  1. ^ "Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica (Fomin) Takht. is an accepted name". theplantlist.org (The Plant List). 23 March 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Komarov, V.L. (1935). "Akademiya Nauk SSSR (FLORA of the U.S.S.R.) Vol. IV". Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Rencova, Eva (5 August 2013). "Iris spuria ssp. musulmanica". botany.cz. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Iris Spuria ssp. Musulmanica, Spuria-iris". konnklubb.nordicshops.com. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Tall irises Spurrier". click-art.ru. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "Subgenus Xyridion (Xyridion) – Wood-iris rhizome". flower-iris.ru. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d "Perennials – Iris" (PDF). rbg.ca. 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  8. ^ a b British Iris Society (1997) A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 255, at Google Books
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Phillips, Roger; Rix, Martyn (1991). Perennials Vol. 1. Pan Books Ltd. p. 225. ISBN 9780330327749.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g "Lat. Iris". agbina.com. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey (Editors) The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification (2011) , p. 255, at Google Books
  12. ^ a b c d e Kramb, D. "Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica". signa.org (Species Iris Group of North America). Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  13. ^ a b c d e "Iris summary" (PDF). pacificbulbsociety.org. 14 April 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  14. ^ a b "Bezkartáčkaté irises". zahradaweb.cz. 5 March 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g "Iris spuria ssp. musulmanica". rareplants.de. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  16. ^ a b "Iris Musulmanica Spuria Iris". comancheacresiris.com. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  17. ^ a b c d Blazek, Milan. "Iris spuria and related species – the importance of culture". ibotky.cz. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  18. ^ a b c "Spurius Irises, History, Groups And Types, Cultivation And Maintenance". liveinternet.ru. 20 January 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  19. ^ a b Austin, Claire (2005). Irises: A Gardener's Encyclopedia. Timber Press, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0881927306. OL 8176432M.
  20. ^ a b c Güvenç, Ayşegül; Kurucu, Semra; Koyuncu, Mehmet; Arihan, Okan; Erdurak, Ceyda Sibel (2005). "Investigation on the seeds of Iris Spuria l. subsp. musulmanica (Fomin) Takht. (Iridaceace)". Turkish J. Pharm. Sci. 3: 125–136. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  21. ^ Shawl, Abdul S.; Mengi, N.; Misra, L.N.; Vishwapaul (1988). "Irispurinol, a 12a Hydroxyrotenoid from Iris Spuria". Phytochemistry. 27 (10): 3331–3332. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(88)80061-x.
  22. ^ a b "The Red Book (2nd edition) has been included in the list of plant and fungal species". eco.gov.az. Archived from the original on 7 March 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  23. ^ "Iridaceae Iris musulmanica Fomin". ipni.org (International Plant Names Index). Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  24. ^ "Iridaceae Iris spuria L. subsp. musulmanica (Fomin) Takht". ipni.org (International Plant Names Index). Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g "Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  26. ^ a b c "Search the RHS Horticultural Database". www.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  27. ^ a b "Iris musulmanica Fomin". asianflora.com. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  28. ^ a b c d Asatryan, A. "Important Plant Areas of Armenia: Research for Conservation" (PDF). nerium.net (Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  29. ^ Bilge Şene (Editor) Biodiversity: Biomolecular Aspects of Biodiversity and Innovative Utilization, p. 247, at Google Books
  30. ^ M. Ajmal Khan, Benno Boer and Munir Ozturk (Editors)Sabkha Ecosystems: Volume Iv: Cash Crop Halophyte and Biodiversity Conservation, Volume 4 , p. 124, at Google Books
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Iris spuria subsp. musulmanica is a species of the genus Iris, part of a subgenus known as Limniris and in the series Spuriae. It is a subspecies of Iris spuria and is a rhizomatous perennial plant, from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkey in Asia with flowers in various shades of blue, but there are rare white forms. They have a yellow centre and darker veining. It has the common name of 'Muslim iris'. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN