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Yellow Horned Poppy

Glaucium flavum Crantz

Brief Summary

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Yellow-horned poppy is a very rare plant in the North Sea region, growing almost exclusively in the flood mark at the foot of the dunes. It only grows were lots of dead plants are buried in the ground, because yellow-horned poppy needs lots of nutrients to grow. Sometimes, a plant breaks off as it dies and the wind blows it as a tumbleweed into a dip in the dunes where the seeds germinate. However, it takes a year before the first flowers appear. Unless there is a buried flood mark or other plant material in the direct vicinity, the plant will not survive long enough to blossom.
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Comments

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Native from the Black Sea and Transcaucasus to coastal southern and western Europe, and also well established as a ruderal in central Europe, Glaucium flavum has spread far beyond that range as a ballast waif and occasional garden escape. It should be expected elsewhere in the flora.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Plants biennial or perennial, to 8 dm. Stems branching. Leaves to 30 cm; basal numerous, blade densely pubescent; basal and proximal cauline with blade lyrate, 7-9-lobed; distal with blade ovate, cordate, distinctly clasping stem; margins deeply dentate. Flowers: pedicels stout, to 4 cm; sepals 20-30 mm; petals yellow, sometimes orangish, sometimes with reddish to violet basal spot, obovate, 25-40 mm. Capsules sublinear, mostly distinctly curved, sometimes straight, to 30 cm, glabrous, tuberculate, or scabrous. 2 n = 12.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Distribution

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introduced; Ont.; Colo., Conn., Md., Mass., Mich., N.J., N.Y., Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., Va.; Europe; sw Asia.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering summer.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat

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Open sandy shores and flats, waste places, and on ballast; 0-200m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Synonym

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Chelidonium glaucium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 506. 1753; G. luteum Scopoli
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Glaucium flavum

provided by wikipedia EN

Glaucium flavum MHNT.BOT.2007.40.129.jpg

Glaucium flavum, the yellow horned poppy, yellow hornpoppy or sea poppy, is a summer flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae. It is native to Europe, Northern Africa, Macaronesia and temperate zones in Western Asia. The plant grows on the seashore and is never found inland. All parts of the plant, including the seeds, are toxic. It is classed as a noxious weed in some areas of North America, where it is an introduced species. It is grown in gardens as a short-lived perennial but usually grown as a biennial.

Description

It has thick, leathery deeply segmented, wavy, bluish-grey leaves, which are coated in a layer of water-retaining wax. The sepal, petals and stamen have a similar structure and form to the red poppy (Papaver rhoeas), except the sepals are not hairy.[2] It grows up to 30–90 cm (1–3 ft) tall,[3] on branched, grey stems. It blooms in summer,[4] between June and October.[3][5] It has bright yellow or orange flowers,[4] that are 7.5 cm (3 in) across.[3] Later it produces a very long, upright,[4] thin,[3] distinctive horn shaped capsule, which is 15–30 cm (6–12 in) long. It is divided into two chambers,[2] which split open to reveal the seeds.[3]

Taxonomy

It was first published and described by Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz in 'Stirp. Austr. Fasc.' (Stirpium Austriarum) vol.2 on page 131 in 1763.[1][6] The species epithet flavum is Latin for yellow and indicates its flower colour.[7]

It is commonly known as sea-poppy,[8] horned-poppy, and yellow horned-poppy.[4][9]

G. flavum was verified by United States Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service on 25 May 1995, then updated on 9 May 2011,[9] and is an accepted name by the Royal Horticultural Society.[4]

Distribution and habitat

It is native to temperate regions of North Africa, Europe and parts of Western Asia.[9][10]

Range

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Growing in sand in Spain

It is found in North Africa, within Macaronesia, Canary Islands, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia and Morocco. Within Western Asia it is found in the Caucasus, Georgia, Cyprus, Egypt (in the Sinai), Lebanon, Syria and Turkey. In eastern Europe, it is found within Ukraine. In middle Europe, it is in Belgium, Germany, Netherlands and Slovakia. In northern Europe, in Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden and United Kingdom. In south-eastern Europe, within Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania and Slovenia. Also in southwestern Europe, it is found in France, Portugal and Spain.[9][11]

Habitat

It grows in coastal habitats on shingle banks and beaches,[5][11] but can also be found on cliff tops and in sand dunes.[3]

Toxicity

It produces an orange foul smelling sap, if cut open.[3] All parts of the plant, including the seeds, are toxic, and can cause a wide range of symptoms including brain damage (if eaten),[3] and respiratory failure, resulting in death.[12]

Culture

It is referenced in various poems.

A poppy grows upon the shore,
Bursts her twin cups in summer late:
Her leaves are glaucus-green and hoar,
Her petals yellow, delicate.

She has no lovers like the red,
That dances with the noble corn:
Her blossoms on the waves are shed,
Where she stands shivering and forlorn.

Shorter Poems Robert Bridges.[13]

Sea Poppies:

Amber husk
fluted with gold,
fruit on the sand
marked with a rich grain,

treasure
spilled near the shrub-pines
to bleach on the boulders:

your stalk has caught root
among wet pebbles
and drift flung by the sea
and grated shells
and split conch-shells.

Beautiful, widespread,
fire upon leaf,
what meadow yields
so fragrant a leaf
as your bright leaf?

H.D.[14]

Uses

Glaucine is the main alkaloid component in Glaucium flavum.[15] Glaucine has bronchodilator and antiinflammatory effects, acting as a PDE4 inhibitor and calcium channel blocker,[16] and is used medically as an antitussive in some countries.[17] Glaucine may produce side effects such as sedation, fatigue, and a hallucinogenic effect characterised by colourful visual images,[18][19] and as a recreational drug.[20] For a detailed bibliography on glaucine and Glaucium flavum see: National Agricultural Library.[21] (Glaucium flavum entry)

In the past, it was known in Hampshire, UK as 'squatmore', and the roots were used to treat bruises.[3] Also pains in the breast, stomach and intestines.[8]

References

  1. ^ a b "Glaucium flavum Crantz is an accepted name". theplantlist.org. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  2. ^ a b L. J. F. Brimble (1947). Flowers in Britain. London: Macmillan and Co. p. 54.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Reader's Digest Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of Britain. Reader's Digest. 1981. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-276-00217-5.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Glaucium flavum". rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  5. ^ a b "Yellow horned-poppy Glucium flavum". norfolkwildlifetrust.org.uk. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  6. ^ "Papaveraceae Glaucium flavum Crantz". ipni.org. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  7. ^ Archibald William Smith A Gardener's Handbook of Plant Names: Their Meanings and Origins, p. 258, at Google Books
  8. ^ a b W. T. Fernie Herbal Simples: Approved for Modern Uses of Cure (1897), p. 441, at Google Books
  9. ^ a b c d "Taxon: Glaucium flavum Crantz". ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  10. ^ Hassler, M. (September 2017). "Accepted scientific name: Glaucium flavum Crantz (accepted name)". catalogueoflife.org. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  11. ^ a b Cambrollé, Jesús; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Luque, Teresa; Figueroa, Manuel Enrique (February 2011). "Physiological responses to salinity in the yellow-horned poppy, Glaucium flavum". Plant Physiol Biochem. 49 (2): 186–94.
  12. ^ Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. 1998. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. (Cooper & Johnson ed.2)
  13. ^ "The shorter poems of Robert Bridges (1890)". Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  14. ^ "Sea Poppies". poetryfoundation.org. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  15. ^ G.B. Lapa; O.P. Sheichenko; A.G. Serezhechkin; O.N. Tolkachev (August 2004). "HPLC Determination of Glaucine in Yellow Horn Poppy Grass (Glaucium flavum Crantz)". Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 38 (1): 441–442. doi:10.1023/B:PHAC.0000048907.58847.c6. ISSN 0091-150X. S2CID 44040818. S-(+)-Glaucine (C21H25NO4) is the main alkaloid component in the grass of yellow horn poppy (Glaucium luteum L., syn. Glaucium flavum Crantz) of the family Papaveraceae
  16. ^ Cortijo J, Villagrasa V, Pons R, Berto L, Martí-Cabrera M, Martinez-Losa M, Domenech T, Beleta J, Morcillo EJ (August 1999). "Bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory activities of glaucine: In vitro studies in human airway smooth muscle and polymorphonuclear leukocytes". British Journal of Pharmacology. 127 (7): 1641–51. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0702702. PMC 1566148. PMID 10455321.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Rühle KH, Criscuolo D, Dieterich HA, Köhler D, Riedel G (May 1984). "Objective evaluation of dextromethorphan and glaucine as antitussive agents". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 17 (5): 521–4. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1984.tb02384.x. PMC 1463443. PMID 6375709.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ Rovinskiĭ VI (September 1989). "A case of hallucinogen-like action of glaucine. (Russian)". Klinicheskaia Meditsina (Mosk). 67 (9): 107–8. PMID 2586025.
  19. ^ Rovinskiĭ VI (2006). "Acute glaucine syndrome in the physician's practice: the clinical picture and potential danger. (Russian)". Klinicheskaia Meditsina (Mosk). 84 (11): 68–70. PMID 17243616.
  20. ^ Dargan PI, Button J, Hawkins L, Archer JR, Ovaska H, Lidder S, Ramsey J, Holt DW, Wood DM (May 2008). "Detection of the pharmaceutical agent glaucine as a recreational drug". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 64 (5): 553–4. doi:10.1007/s00228-007-0451-9. PMID 18204834. S2CID 21348503.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ "NAL Catalog (AGRICOLA): Titles". agricola.nal.usda.gov.
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Glaucium flavum: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
Glaucium flavum MHNT.BOT.2007.40.129.jpg

Glaucium flavum, the yellow horned poppy, yellow hornpoppy or sea poppy, is a summer flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae. It is native to Europe, Northern Africa, Macaronesia and temperate zones in Western Asia. The plant grows on the seashore and is never found inland. All parts of the plant, including the seeds, are toxic. It is classed as a noxious weed in some areas of North America, where it is an introduced species. It is grown in gardens as a short-lived perennial but usually grown as a biennial.

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