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Nuttall's Horsebrush

Tetradymia nuttallii Torr. & A. Gray

Description

provided by eFloras
Shrubs, 10–120 cm. Stems 1–5+, erect, spiny, pannose but for glabrescent streaks. Leaves: primaries forming straight or recurved spines, 5–25 mm; secondaries spatulate, 10–20 mm, tomentose to nearly glabrous. Heads 4–6. Peduncles 2–12 mm. Involucres turbinate to cylindric, 6–9 mm. Phyllaries 4, oblong. Florets 4; corollas bright yellow, 8–10 mm. Cypselae 4–6 mm, densely hirsute; pappi of 75–100 bristles 9–10 mm. 2n = 60.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 20: 630, 631 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Nuttall's horsebrush
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bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: achene, fruit, pappus, perfect, shrub

Nuttall's horsebrush is a native subshrub or shrub with semiwoody to woody stem
texture [18].  Mature plants are 1 to 4 feet (0.3-1.2 m) tall. Stems are
stiff and much branched [7,18,23]. Horsebrushes (Tetradymia
spp.) have 2 types of leaves: primary and secondary. Primary leaves of Nuttall's
horsebrush occur on
elongated stems and are subtended
with 0.4- to 0.8-inch (1-2 cm) spines. Secondary leaves occur in the axils
of primary leaves and have smaller
spines. The flower is a corymb with
tubular, perfect flowers. The fruit is a 3- to 5-mm hairy achene with a bristly pappus
[7,22,23,44]. Horsebrushes are tap-rooted [21].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Nuttall's horsebrush occurs in south-central Wyoming and western Colorado across Utah to Elko County,
Nevada [7,18,43,44].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Fire Ecology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire regime, grassland, root crown, severity, shrub

Fire adaptations:
Horsebrushes are "slightly damaged by fire" [30]: top-growth is removed.
Nuttall's horsebrush sprouts from the root crown and unscorched aerial stems after
fire [4,40,42].

FIRE REGIMES:
Fires in the desert shrub
and grassland ecosystems in which gray horsebrush occurs were historically stand
replacing. Fires in pinyon-juniper types were of
mixed severity [27]. The following table provides some fire return
intervals for plant communities in which Nuttall's horsebrush occurs. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find FIRE REGIMES".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [27]
basin big sagebrush A. t. var. tridentata 12-43 [32]
mountain big sagebrush A. t. var. vaseyana 15-40 [1,5,24]
Wyoming big sagebrush A. t. var. wyomingensis 10-70 (40**) [41,46]
saltbush-greasewood Atriplex confertifolia-Sarcobatus vermiculatus
desert grasslands Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica 5-100
western juniper Juniperus occidentalis 20-70 
Rocky Mountain juniper J. scopulorum
pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. 27]


**mean
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bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Fire Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: shrubs

Fire exclusion on desert steppes has tended to favor sagebrush species over
fire-tolerant shrubs such as horsebrush [6,15,17].
Increased fire frequencies due to invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum),
red brome (B. madritensis ssp. rubens), and other annual grasses
may favor Nuttall's horsebrush over sagebrushes.
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

RAUNKIAER [31] LIFE FORM:




Phanerophyte
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bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Nuttall's horsebrush occurs on dry hills, ridges, plains, river benches, and
valleys [16,43]. It grows in stony
soils in Colorado [43]. General elevational range is 4,300 to 6,900 feet
(1,300-2,100 m) [7,22]. Range by state is:

CO ~ 6,500 feet (2,000 m) [16]
UT 4,500-6,000 feet (1,370-1,830 m) [44]
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

ECOSYSTEMS [14]:




FRES29 Sagebrush

FRES30 Desert shrub

FRES35 Pinyon-juniper

FRES40 Desert grasslands
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: cover, shrub, woodland

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [34]:




107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass

401 Basin big sagebrush

402 Mountain big sagebrush

403 Wyoming big sagebrush
405 Black sagebrush

412 Juniper-pinyon woodland

414 Salt desert shrub

501 Saltbush-greasewood
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Fire top-kills Nuttall's horsebrush [4,40,42]. Fire
seldom kills horsebrush species [28,29].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

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More info for the term: cover

Palatability/nutritional value:
Horsebrushes
are unpalatable except early in the spring, when browsers may consume young
shoots and buds [20]. Nuttall's horsebrush is not a toxic
horsebrush species, but livestock and wildlife seldom consume it [12,33,36,38]. In
Utah its palatability is rated poor for livestock, large game animals, upland
game birds, waterfowl, and small nongame birds, and fair for small mammals [8].

Cover value:
Cover value of Nuttall's horsebrush is rated poor for pronghorn, elk, mule deer, and waterfowl, and fair
for small mammals, upland game birds, and small nongame birds of Utah [8].

license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Key Plant Community Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Nuttall's horsebrush occurs in shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia), black
greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus), sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), and
pinyon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus spp.) communities [9,44]. It does
not occur
in pure stands and is not a plant community dominant. It usually found as
isolated individuals or in small colonies [25].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Life Form

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: shrub

Shrub
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bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Management considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
No information
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Occurrence in North America

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
CO NV UT WY
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Other uses and values

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
No information
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Phenology

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More info on this topic.

More info for the term: seed

Nuttall's horsebrush flowers from late May to early June [7,22]. The leaves are drought
deciduous, with the secondary
leaves shed 1st. Colonies usually have synchronous flowering. Failure to flower
or develop seed is apparently triggered by low rainfall. In very dry years, some
individuals -- or entire colonies -- may not flower, or will flower and not set
seed [37].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: root crown

Nuttall's horsebrush sprouts from undamaged stems and from the root crown after
fire [4,40,42].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Post-fire Regeneration

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: adventitious, shrub

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [35]:




Small shrub, adventitious bud/root crown
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Regeneration Processes

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: root crown, seed, top-kill

Nuttall's horsebrush regenerates from seed and by sprouting
[3,4,26,37,40,42,45].
Information on breeding, seed production and viability, and seed banking is
scant for Nuttall's and other horsebrushes. Further research is needed on the
reproductive ecology of this genus.

Pollination:
Horsebrushes are pollinated by insect generalists including flies, moths, bees, and beetles
[23].


Seed dispersal:
Horsebrush seeds are wind dispersed [47]. The
hairs on horsebrush achenes and pappi aid dispersal [13].


Seedling establishment/growth:
Seedling establishment is rare in horsebrushes, probably due to harsh environments
[37].


Asexual regeneration:
Nuttall's horsebrush sprouts from the root
crown after top-kill [3,26,37,45].

license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [2]:




6 Upper Basin and Range

7 Lower Basin and Range

10 Wyoming Basin

12 Colorado Plateau
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Successional Status

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As of this writing (2002), information on Nuttall's horsebrush's successional
role is lacking in the literature. As a sprouting species, it is likely that
Nuttall's horsebrush is seral. Other sprouting horsebrushes are commonly found
in seral plant communities [10].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The scientific name of Nuttall's horsebrush is Tetradymia nuttallii
Torr. & Gray (Asteraceae) [7,9,18,43,44].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: cover

Horsebrushes provide critically needed ground cover and erosion protection on dry sites that are
otherwise often sparsely vegetated [22].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/tetnut/all.html

Tetradymia nuttallii

provided by wikipedia EN

Tetradymia nuttallii is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common name Nuttall's horsebrush.[1] It is native to the western United States, where it occurs in Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado.[2]

This shrub or subshrub has a stiff, branching network of stems reaching up to 1.2 meters in maximum height. Like other Tetradymia, this species has two types of leaves. The larger, primary leaves become spines which may be over 2 centimeters in length. The inflorescence is made up of a few flower heads, each of which contains four bright yellow flowers. The fruit is well over a centimeter long, including its large pappus.[2][3] The leaves fall off the plant during dry times. Also when it is dry the plant may not flower, or if it does, it does not produce fruits.[2]

This plant grows in habitat dominated by shadscale and black greasewood, as well as sagebrush and pinyon-juniper woodland. It grows in dry and sometimes rocky soils.[2]

References

  1. ^ "Tetradymia nuttallii". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d Howard, Janet L. 2002. Tetradymia nuttallii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.
  3. ^ Tetradymia nuttallii. Flora of North America.

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Tetradymia nuttallii: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Tetradymia nuttallii is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common name Nuttall's horsebrush. It is native to the western United States, where it occurs in Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado.

This shrub or subshrub has a stiff, branching network of stems reaching up to 1.2 meters in maximum height. Like other Tetradymia, this species has two types of leaves. The larger, primary leaves become spines which may be over 2 centimeters in length. The inflorescence is made up of a few flower heads, each of which contains four bright yellow flowers. The fruit is well over a centimeter long, including its large pappus. The leaves fall off the plant during dry times. Also when it is dry the plant may not flower, or if it does, it does not produce fruits.

This plant grows in habitat dominated by shadscale and black greasewood, as well as sagebrush and pinyon-juniper woodland. It grows in dry and sometimes rocky soils.

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