Comprehensive Description

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Gesneria ventricosa subsp. ventricosa

Gesneria ventricosa Swartz, Prodr. 89, 1788.—Sw., Fl. Ind. Occid. 2:1028, 1800.—Lunan, Hort. Jam. 1:322, 1814.—Spreng., Syst. Veg. ed. 16. 2:839, 1825.—Urban, Symb. Ant. 2:371, 1901 [non Hort. Berol. ex Hanstein (1859)].

Pentarhaphia longiflora Lindley, Bot. Reg. 13: sub pl. 1110, 1827 [nom. superfl. (“Pentaraphia”)].—Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 460, 1862—Hook. f., Bot. Mag. 120: pl. 7339, 1894.—Duss, Ann. Inst. Bot.-Géol. Colon. Marseille 3:430, 1897 [non sensu Cook & Collins (1903)].

Conradia ventricosa (Swartz) Martius ex G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4:650, 1838—A. P. de Candolle, Prodr. 7:525, 1839.

Conradia ventricosa (Swartz) Martius β ?angustior A. P. de Candolle, Prodr. 7:525, 1839. [Type-collection: Guadeloupe, G. Perrottet sn (G-DC, holotype).]

Pentarhaphia lindleyana Decaisne, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 3, 6:103, 1846.—Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 6:735, 1847.—Hanstein, Linnaea 34:300, 1865. [Type-collection: “In occid.,” de Ponthieu sn (G, holotype; G, isotype).]

Pentarhaphia swartzii Decaisne, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 3, 6:103, 1846 [nom. superfl.].—Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 6: 735, 1847.

Pentarhaphia exserta (Swartz) Decaisne, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 3, 6:104, 1846 [pro parte, as to Decaisne’s description, excluding synonyms of Swartz and Martius].

Pentarhaphia montana Decaisne, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 3, 6:105, 1846.—Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 6:736, 1847.—Hanstein, Linnaea 34:298, 1865. [Type-collection: Guadeloupe, F. l’Herminier sn (P, holotype).]

Pentarhaphia florida Decaisne, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 3, 6:106, pl. 7, 1846.—Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 6:736, 1847.—Hanstein, Linnaea 34:297, 1865. [Type-collection: Guadeloupe, Beaupertuis sn (P, lectotype).]

Pentarhaphia herminieri Decaisne, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 3, 6:106, 1846.—Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 6:736, 1847.—Hanstein, Linnaea 34:297, 1865. [Type-collection: Guadeloupe. F. l’Herminier sn (P, holotype).]

Pentarhaphia ventricosa (Swartz) Hanstein, Linnaea 34:299, 1865.

Gesneria longiflora (Lindley) Baillon, Hist. Plant. 10:59, pl. 94, 95, 1888.

Gesneria angustior (A. P. de Candolle) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2:473, 1891 [“Gesnera”].

Gesneria herminieri (Decaisne) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2:473, 1891 [“Gesnera”].

Gesneria lindleyana (Decaisne) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2:473, 1891 [“Gesnera”].

Gesneria montana (Decaisne) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2:473. 1891 [“Gesnera”].

Pentarhaphia longiflora var. lindleyana (Decaisne) Duss, Ann. Inst. Bot.-Géol. Colon. Marseille 3:430, 1897.

Gesneria ventricosa var. β ovata Urban, Symb. Ant. 2:373, 1901. [Type-collection: Saba, W. Suringar sn, L (Hort. Lugd. Bat. No. 903:310–333), lectotype].

Gesneria ventricosa var. γ obovata Urban, Symb. Ant. 2:372, 1901 [nom. superfl.].

Gesneria ventricosa forma montana (Decaisne) Stehlé, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 109:31, 1962.

Gesneria ventricosa forma obovata (Urban) Stehlé, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 109:31, 1962.

Gesneria ventricosa forma ovata (Urban) Stehlé, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 109:31, 1962.

Shrubs or trees: branches green, internodes about 1 cm long.

Leaves alternate: petioles 0.6–2.1 cm long, 3–5 mm wide; blades ovate to obovate, base acute to truncate.

Inflorescences 2– to 4-flowered, shorter than the subtending leaves: peduncles 2.3–15.9 cm long, 2–4 mm in diameter, green; bracts green; pedicels jointed, green; floral tube green; calyx lobes flattened to terete, sometimes keeled, green; corolla yellow-orange to red (Figure 16d); stamens exserted to 3 cm beyond corolla mouth, filaments glabrous, pollen grains isopolar, prolate, size small (19.6–21.3 μm long at the polar axis, 11.1 μm wide at the equatorial axis), tricolpate, colpi 15.6–16.9 μm long, mesocolpia overlapping the colpi, apocolpia rounded to truncate, sexine sparsely reticulate, heterobrochate, lumina scattered, less than 0.25 μm across, muri to 1 μm or more wide (Figure 17g); style yellow at the base.

TYPE-COLLECTION.—Paradise Mountain, Montserrat, J. Ryan sn (BM, lectotype, Figure 42b).

CHROMOSOME NUMBER.—n = 14 (Lee, 1966a).

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY.—Gesneria ventricosa subsp. ventricosa is known from most of the islands of the Lesser Antilles from St. Croix south to St. Lucia (Figures 43, 44), growing in damp ravines or forest margins at elevations from sea level to 1200 m. Flowering specimens have been collected in all months except March and October. In the greenhouse, the subspecies appears to flower irregularly.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.—LESSER ANTILLES. ST. CROIX: below the dam, Caledonia Gut above Ham Bay, 20 January 1961, R. Howard 15663a (A); in wet valley, Trasholm, near Annaly, 18 January 1961, R. Howard 15663b (A). ST. BARTHELEMY: no date, Euphrasen sn (UPS). SABA: Weg i Mountain, 21 August 1947, Fr. Arnoldo 778 (U); “Rendez-Vous” to road of the Mountain, 600–800 m, 26 December 1965, Fr. Arnoldo 3260 (U, US); Mountain, 600 m, 14 July 1906, I. Boldingh 1758B (NY, U); Mountain, 600 m, 16 July 1906,

I. Boldingh 1783B (U); between Hellsgate and Santa Cruz, 500–600 m, 7 May 1953, A. Stoffers 3172 (C, U); Mountain, at the “Rendevous side,” 600–680 m, 12 May 1953, A. Stoffers 3248 (IJ, U); Mountains at the “Rendez Vous” side, 550 m, 12 August 1953, A. Stoffers 4255 (A, U); Mountain, 6–800 m, 23 April 1885, W. Suringar sn (L); Crespeen-”Rendez-vous,” 23 April 1885, W. Suringar sn (L, lectotype of G. ventricosa var. β ovata Urban). ST. EUSTATIUS: top of the Quill, 400 m, 8 June 1906, I. Boldingh 471aB [No. 243] (U, 2 sheets); top of the Quill, 500 m, 8 June 1906, I. Boldingh 479aB [No. 251] (U); gap of the Quill, 350–400 m, 13 July 1953, A. Stoffers 3605 (U); 14 April 1885, W. Suringar sn (L); Kant, 18 May 1885, W. Suringar sn (L, 3 sheets). ST. CHRISTOPHER (St. Kitts); ex insula St. Christopheri, India occidentalis, no date, J. Forsstrom sn (S); 1788, B. Euphrasen sn (S); January 1883, H. Eggers 469b (M); 1780, Fr. Masson sn (BM); forest ravine near Sandy point, 8 September-5 October 1901, N. Britton & J. Cowell 124 (K, NY, US); interior slopes of the Crater, 2100–2500 ft, 22 February 1959, G. Proctor 19228 (A, IJ). MONTSERRAT: Centre Hills, 500 m, 6 November 1944, J. Beard 404 (A, K, NY, U); below actual summit of hill on trail to Chance’s pond, 14–18 June 1950, R. Howard 11912 (A, BM, U, US); area of Lang’s Soufrière, Paradise Estate, 5–14 January 1961, R. Howard & E. Howard 15175 (A, U); summit of English Peak, 5–14 January 1961, R. Howard & E. S. Howard 15195 (A, U); “b. in Montserrat, Gesneria flexuosa,” no date, J. von Rohr sn (C, PH); Paradise Mountain, [ca 1780], J. Ryan sn (BM, lectotype of Gesneria ventricosa Swartz); near Gages Soufrière, 23 January 1907, J. Shafer 187 (F, NY, US); lower slope of Farrels Mount, 25 July 1937, F. Squire sn (A). GUADELOUPE: 1839, Beaupertuis sn (P, lectotype of Pentarhaphia florida Decaisne); Basseterre, April 1818, C. Bertero 873 (TO); “Guadeloupe, Balb? 1821,” C. Bertero sn (G-DC); Pitons des environs des Báins-Jaunes, 1892 [1893], Pére Duss 2375 (F, GH, MO, NY, PH, US); Lavanea-Mulets, 24 April 1902, Pére Duss 4071 (F, NY, US); 1818, C. Krauss sn (G-DC, 3 sheets); “Guadeloupe, no date,” F. l’Herminier sn (P, 2 sheets, holotypes of Pentarhaphia herminieri Decaisne and P. montana Decaisne); Montagnes de la Guadeloupe, 18 June 1824, G. Perrottet 230 (G, P); “Montagnes de la Guadeloupe, 1825,” 18 June 1824, G. Perrottet sn (G-DC); 21 June 1824, G. Perrottet sn (G-DC, holotype of Conradia ventricosa β ?angustior A. P. de Candolle); Antilles, Guadeloupe, 1842, G. Perrottet sn (P); Saut du Constantin, 25 April 1941, A. Questel 5111 (US); Antilles, Guadeloupe, A. Questel sn (P); Guadeloupe in vallibus umbrosis praeruptis, 1792, Herb. M. Richard sn (P); mornes basaltiques, Houélmont, 450 m, 25 February 1936, H. Stehlé 568 (US); mornes basaltiques Houélmont an Vieux Fort, 14 September 1938, H. Stehlé 565 (P). DOMINICA: in silvis et ad vias, July 1881, H. Eggers 469 (BP, BR, G 3 sheets, GH, GOET, L, M, P, U, W); in silvis et ad vias, July 1881, H. Eggers 731 (K); Goodwill Valley, 23 February 1880, H. Eggers sn (US); Layou River Valley, about ½ mi above the York Valley Estate Bridge, ca 60 m, 12 April 1964, W. Ernst 1061 (US); road to Brand Bay between Fond Baron Estate and

Pichelin, ca 160–450 m, 8 July 1964, W. Ernst 1616 (US); Rivière Douce, 28 February 1880, H. Eggers sn (GH); rain forest on the precipitous slopes of Morne Colla Anglais, Sylvania, 610–732 m, 10–23 August 1938, W. Hodge 835 (BM, GH, NY, US 2 sheets); Sylvania, rain forest on the precipitous slopes of Morne Colla Anglais, 610–732 m, 10 February 1940, W. Hodge 1185 (GH, US); in woodlands about South Chiltern Estate, 500 m, 27–28 February 1940, W. Hodge & B. Hodge 1551 (GH, NY, US); La Ronde River, 60 m, 24 November 1964, D. Nicolson 2065 (US); Roseau to Sulfur Springs in Roseau Valley, 27 May-2 June 1950, R. Howard 11741 (A, U, US); Dominica, no date J. Imray 40 (K); no date, J. Imray 87 (GOET); no date, J. Imray 193 (E, K); Dominica, 1822, Kohaut sn [Sieber Flor. Martin. Nro. 394] (BR, GOET, K, L, M, MO, P 2 sheets. W 4 sheets); Dominica, no date, C. Krauss 399 (E); Soufrière, 1903, F. Lloyd 468 (NY 2 sheets); waterfall, Roseau valley, 1903, F. Lloyd 806 (NY); Point Michelle, several hundred feet above the sea, 10 May 1888, G. Ramage sn (BM, K); Belfast River Valley, St. Paul, 150 ft, 2 January 1965, C. Shillingford 191 (MO, UCWI); 2 mi N of Soufrière, ca 75 m, in from the road to Roseau, 30 June 1970, L. Skog 1583 (BH, US 2 sheets); St. Joseph, banks of Layou River across from Clarke Hall, 5 July 1966, W. Stern & D. Wasshausen 2401 (IJ, US); St. Dominique, in silvis et ad vias, July 1927, H. von Türckheim 5381 (L); lower slopes of Morne Plat Pays above Bellevue along trail to Grand Bay, 23 July 1964, R. Wilbur, E. Dunn, H. Hespenheide & D. Wiseman 7871 (F, GH, MO, NY, US). MARTINIQUE; Plateau de Larcher (entre le camp-Balata et le Camp-Colson), 1879, 1899, Pére Duss 329, 4543 (NY); pitons du Carbet pitons al marner de l’Alme, 600–900 m, 1882, Pére Duss 330 (NY); Piton du Champ flore, December 1867, L. Hahn 362 (BM, G 4 sheets, GH, P 3 sheets, U); [Martinique, 1819–1821], Kohaut sn [Sieber Flora Mixta No. 407] (E-GL, G, L, LD, NY, P); east slope of L’Ailéron, Mt. Pelee, 950–1100 m, 8 December 1960, G. Proctor 21750 (A); Pitons du Carbet, 1200 m, 5 September 1937, H. Stehlé 2261 (US); Piton du Carbet, 1080 m, 5 September 1937, H. Stehlé 2637 (US); entre Fonds, St. Denis et le Morne-Vert., 650 m, 27 July 1942, H. Stehlé & M. Stehlé 5173 (US); Martinique, 1823, Wrbna sn (AWH). ST. LUCIA: Millet, 20 June 1945, P. Beard 1107 (GH, MO, S, US); Ravine Zenon (Soufrière Valley), 800 ft, 8 November 1938, H. Box 1921 (BM); 0.5 mi SW of Piton Troumassee, ca 2150 ft, 4 April-12 June 1958, G. Proctor 17856 (A, BM, IJ, NY, US): Great Piton, 2000 ft or more, 23 September 1888, G. Ramage sn (BM, K); rain forest along rocky streambank at foot of Mt. Gimie, ca 1500 ft, 2 August 1959, G. Webster, J. Ellis K. Miller 9411 (A, IJ, S, U, US); St. Lucia, 3 August 1959, G. Webster, J. Ellis & K. Miller 9455 (A). LOCALITY UNKNOWN: [Lesser Antilles, 1788], B. Euphrasen sn (S); 1825, M. Lambert sn (G-DC); “In occid.,” de Ponthieu sn (G, holotype of Pentarhaphia lindleyana Decaisne; G, isotype); ex India occidentali, J. Ryan sn (C, S); “diffusa vanat floribus rubris et luteis e montis,” J. Ryan sn (C); J. Ryan sn [ex Herb. Schum.] (C 5 sheets); India occid.: Jamaica. O. Swartz sn (S 2 sheets); India occidentalis: Jamaica, 1784–1786, O. Swartz sn (S); West Indies, 1784–1786, O. Swartz sn (S). CULITIVATED: Cornell University, 2 August 1966, L. Leva 37 (BH); Cornell University, 12 September 1966, M. Stone 197 (BH); Cornell University, 6 March 1972, L. Skog 1817 (BH).
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bibliographic citation
Skog, Laurence E. 1976. "A study of the tribe Gesneriaceae, with a revision of Gesneria (Gesneriaceae-Gesnerioideae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. 1-182. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.0081024X.29