Comprehensive Description

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Hypopitys latisquama Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 40: 461. 1913
Hypopitys lutea Howell, Fl. NW. Am. 1: 429. 1901. Not H. lutea SF. Gray, 1821.
Plants yellowish, pink, or coral-red, the stem usually pubescent, sometimes only slightly so, 1-4 dm. tall, rather stout; leaves thick, the blades mostly ovate, usually broadly so, or orbicular-ovate, the upper ones 1-1.5 cm. long, undulate or erose, the lower ones smaller; bracts shorter than the flowers ;, sepals mostly 9-11 mm. long, spatulate to cuneate, ciliate; petals cuneate to obovate, pubescent, ciliate; filaments 7-8 mm. long; capsules globose to ovoid-globose, 5.5-7 mm. long.
Type locality: Bridget Mountains, Montana.
Distribution: Montana and British Columbia to California, New Mexico, and Mexico.
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bibliographic citation
John Kunkel Small, NathanieI Lord Britton, Per Axel Rydberg, LeRoy Abrams. 1914. ERICALES, CLETHRACEAE, LENNOACEAE, PTROLACEAE, MONOTROPACEAE, ERICACEAE, UVA-URSI. North American flora. vol 29(1). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Comprehensive Description

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Hypopitys fimbriata A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 8: 394. 1872
Plants red or yellowish, the stem 3 dm. tall or less, glabrous or pubescent with very short hairs; leaves various, the blades of the lower ones broadly ovate or orbicular-ovate, more or less erose, the upper ovate or oblong-ovate, mostly 1-1.5 cm. long, erose-fimbriate ; bracts commonly as long as the flowers or longer, fimbriate; sepals 10-11 mm. long, acute or acuminate, fimbriate above the claw-like base, ciliate; petals exceeding the sepals, cuneate and sometimes dilated at the tip, pubescent, erose and ciliate; filaments 6-7 mm. long; style dilated upward; stigma funnelform; capsules ovoid, 5-6 mm. long.
Type LOCALITY : Oregon. Distribution: Oregon.
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John Kunkel Small, NathanieI Lord Britton, Per Axel Rydberg, LeRoy Abrams. 1914. ERICALES, CLETHRACEAE, LENNOACEAE, PTROLACEAE, MONOTROPACEAE, ERICACEAE, UVA-URSI. North American flora. vol 29(1). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Comprehensive Description

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Hypopitys lanuginosa (Michx.) Nutt. Gen. 1: 271. 1818
Monotropa lanuginosa Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 266. 1803.
Plants deep-pink or crimson, or rarely pale, the stem pubescent, usually copiously so, 0.5-3.5 dm. tall, rather slender; leaves mostly less than 1 cm. long, the blades suborbicular or ovate near the base of the stem, ovate, oval, or oblong above ; bracts as long as the flowers or shorter; sepals 6-7.5 mm. long in anthesis, cuneate, spatulate, or narrowly elliptic-spatidate, long-ciliate ; petals cuneate to almost oblong, pubescent, often densely so, long-ciliate; filaments 7-8 mm. long; capsules mostly oval to oblong, 4-6 mm. long, usually pedicelled.
Type I.OCALITY: North Carolina.
Distribution: Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Quebec, and southward to Florida and Louisiana.
Ii.i,usTRATiONS : Torr. Fl. N. Y. pi. 72; Britt. & Brown, -111. Fl. ed. 2./. 3212.
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bibliographic citation
John Kunkel Small, NathanieI Lord Britton, Per Axel Rydberg, LeRoy Abrams. 1914. ERICALES, CLETHRACEAE, LENNOACEAE, PTROLACEAE, MONOTROPACEAE, ERICACEAE, UVA-URSI. North American flora. vol 29(1). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Comprehensive Description

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Hypopitys americana (DC.) Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 880. 1903
Hypopitys multijlora americana DC. Prodr. 7: 780. 1839.
Plants lemon-yellow, or sometimes pink, the stem finely pubescent or nearly glabrous, 1-3 dm. tall, rather slender; leaves mostly 1 cm. long or less, the blades ovate or ovate-lanceolate at the base of the stem, narrowly ovate, lanceolate, or rhombic above ; bracts shorter than the flowers; sepals mostly 6-8 mm. long in anthesis, spatulate to rhombic-spatulate or oblanceolate, short-cUiate ; petals cuneate to oblong-cuneate, finely and sparingly pubescent, short-ciliate ; filaments 6-8 mm. long; capsules mostly globose to spheroidal, 5-9 mm. long, usually short-pedicelled.
Type locaIvITy: Canada.
Distribution: Ontario and New York, and southward, especially in and near the mountains, to North Carolina.
ILI.USTRATION : Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. ed. 2. f. 3211.
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John Kunkel Small, NathanieI Lord Britton, Per Axel Rydberg, LeRoy Abrams. 1914. ERICALES, CLETHRACEAE, LENNOACEAE, PTROLACEAE, MONOTROPACEAE, ERICACEAE, UVA-URSI. North American flora. vol 29(1). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Monotropa hypopitys

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Monotropa hypopitys, the so-called Dutchman's pipe, false beech-drops, pinesap, or yellow bird's-nest, is a herbaceous perennial plant, formerly classified in the families Monotropaceae or Pyrolaceae, but now included within the subfamily Monotropoideae of the family (Ericaceae). It is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and is scarce or rare in many areas. However, it is still the most widespread member of the subfamily. While currently included in the genus Monotropa, recent genetic evidence strongly suggests that Monotropa hypopitys should be placed in its own genus, Hypopitys, with the single species Hypopitys monotropa Crantz, but possibly containing several other species.[1]

 src=
The pink to cream flower, with four to five petals, is borne on a short stalk
 src=
Monotropa hypopitys with bee

Unlike most plants, it does not contain chlorophyll; it is a myco-heterotroph, getting its food through parasitism upon fungi rather than photosynthesis. These fungi form a mycorrhiza with nearby tree species.

Plants are fleshy and grow 10–35 cm tall. True stems are nonexistent. Instead, the only part which emerges from the soil are unbranched adventitious inflorescences which are developmentally similar to adventitious roots.[2] All parts of the plant are pale yellowish white to reddish-tinged. The bracts are 5–10 mm long scale-like structures, which cover most of the inflorescence. Plants flower from April to December depending on the geographic region (May to October in North America).[3] The flowers are pendulous when young, but become erect when they begin to mature into the fruit which is a capsule. The flowers are 9–12 mm long and produced in a cluster of 1–11 together at the apex of the inflorescence, which is a raceme.[4] It flowers between early summer and mid autumn; plants that flower in summer are yellow and sparsely hairy, while those that flower in autumn are red and densely hairy. These two color "forms" overlap in flowering time. It has been suggested that yellow individuals are largely self-pollinating.[5]

The species name is from Latinized Greek hypo-, "under", and pitys, "pine", referring to where pinesap often grows.[6] However, Linnaeus misspelled it hypopithys. Many authorities have followed his spelling.[7][8][9] On the other hand, it has been stated that the spelling "is generally treated as correctable to 'hypopitys'",[10] as followed by other authorities.[11] The variability of the species in colour, hairiness, and in the number of flowers, has led to an extensive synonymy for the species. The entire list is over 80 synonyms;[2] some of which include Hypopitys americana, H. fimbriata, H. insignata, H. lanuginosa, H. latisquama, H. monotropa, Monotropa chinensis, M. hypophegea, M. lanuginosa, M. latisquama, M. multiflora and M. taiwaniana.

In California, Monotropa hypopitys may be confused for the much less common Pityopus or Hemitomes which are superficially similar.

References

  1. ^ Bidartondo, M.I.; Bruns, T.D. (2001), Extreme specificity in epiparasitic Monotropoidiae (Ericaceae): widespread phylogenetic and geographical structure, Molecular Ecology
  2. ^ a b Wallace, G.D. (1975), Studies of the Monotropoidiae (Ericaceae): taxonomy and distribution, The Wassman Journal of Biology
  3. ^ Sullivan, Steven. K. (2015). "Monotropa hypopitys". Wildflower Search. Retrieved 2015-01-17.
  4. ^ Klinkenberg, Brian (Editor) (2014). "Monotropa hypopitys". E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Retrieved 2015-01-17.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Klooster, Matthew R.; Culley, Theresa M. (2009), Comparative ecology of Monotropa and Monotropsis: two mycoheterotrophic genera in the Monotripoidiae (Ericaceae), The American Journal of Botany
  6. ^ IPNI Plant Name Details, International Plant Names Index, 2005, retrieved 2009-08-08
  7. ^ USDA, NRCS (2009), Plants profile for Monotropa hypopithys (pinesap), National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA, retrieved 2009-08-08
  8. ^ ITIS Standard Report Page: Monotropa hypopithys, 2009-06-24, retrieved 2009-08-08
  9. ^ Iqbal Dar, M., Monotropa hypopithys in Flora of Pakistan, eFloras.org, retrieved 2009-08-08
  10. ^ Monotropa hypopitys in the Linnaean Typification Project, The Natural History Museum, 2009, retrieved 2009-08-08
  11. ^ Qin, Haining; Stevens, Peter F.; Wallace, Gary D. (2005), Monotropa hypopitys in Flora of China, eFloras.org, retrieved 2009-08-08

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Monotropa hypopitys: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Monotropa hypopitys, the so-called Dutchman's pipe, false beech-drops, pinesap, or yellow bird's-nest, is a herbaceous perennial plant, formerly classified in the families Monotropaceae or Pyrolaceae, but now included within the subfamily Monotropoideae of the family (Ericaceae). It is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and is scarce or rare in many areas. However, it is still the most widespread member of the subfamily. While currently included in the genus Monotropa, recent genetic evidence strongly suggests that Monotropa hypopitys should be placed in its own genus, Hypopitys, with the single species Hypopitys monotropa Crantz, but possibly containing several other species.

 src= The pink to cream flower, with four to five petals, is borne on a short stalk  src= Monotropa hypopitys with bee

Unlike most plants, it does not contain chlorophyll; it is a myco-heterotroph, getting its food through parasitism upon fungi rather than photosynthesis. These fungi form a mycorrhiza with nearby tree species.

Plants are fleshy and grow 10–35 cm tall. True stems are nonexistent. Instead, the only part which emerges from the soil are unbranched adventitious inflorescences which are developmentally similar to adventitious roots. All parts of the plant are pale yellowish white to reddish-tinged. The bracts are 5–10 mm long scale-like structures, which cover most of the inflorescence. Plants flower from April to December depending on the geographic region (May to October in North America). The flowers are pendulous when young, but become erect when they begin to mature into the fruit which is a capsule. The flowers are 9–12 mm long and produced in a cluster of 1–11 together at the apex of the inflorescence, which is a raceme. It flowers between early summer and mid autumn; plants that flower in summer are yellow and sparsely hairy, while those that flower in autumn are red and densely hairy. These two color "forms" overlap in flowering time. It has been suggested that yellow individuals are largely self-pollinating.

The species name is from Latinized Greek hypo-, "under", and pitys, "pine", referring to where pinesap often grows. However, Linnaeus misspelled it hypopithys. Many authorities have followed his spelling. On the other hand, it has been stated that the spelling "is generally treated as correctable to 'hypopitys'", as followed by other authorities. The variability of the species in colour, hairiness, and in the number of flowers, has led to an extensive synonymy for the species. The entire list is over 80 synonyms; some of which include Hypopitys americana, H. fimbriata, H. insignata, H. lanuginosa, H. latisquama, H. monotropa, Monotropa chinensis, M. hypophegea, M. lanuginosa, M. latisquama, M. multiflora and M. taiwaniana.

In California, Monotropa hypopitys may be confused for the much less common Pityopus or Hemitomes which are superficially similar.

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