Comments

provided by eFloras
Prior to N. Hotchkiss and H. L. Dozier (1949), Typha domingensis was generally included within T. angustifolia in North America. Because of many misidentified specimens, range expansion in recent years, and undercollecting, the distribution on the margins of the main range is somewhat uncertain. Many literature reports are based on misidentified specimens. Some workers suggested T. angustifolia was early introduced from Europe into Atlantic Coastal North America and migrated westward (R. L. Stuckey and D. P. Salamon 1987). In recent decades it has expanded its range in many regions and become much more abundant, especially in roadside ditches and other highly disturbed habitats. For example, although it was known only from one Wisconsin station in 1929 (N. C. Fassett 1930) and was very local in Iowa in 1939 (A. Hayden 1939), it is now common and widespread in both states. As it often out-competes many native marsh species to produce very dense, pure stands, and hybridizes with T. latifolia to form the probably even more competitive T. glauca, T. angustifolia and T. glauca should perhaps be classified as noxious weeds in parts of North America. Beyond the main range of T. angustifolia, there are specimens of T. glauca from north-central Montana (Phillips County.), west-central Manitoba (La Pas), and Anticosti Island, Quebec. There are m Many erroneous reports have come from outside of Europe and North America. For hybrids see also genus and key.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22: 283, 284 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Erect shoots 150--300 cm, not glaucous; flowering shoots 5--12 mm thick in middle; stems 2--3 mm thick near inflorescence. Leaves: sheath sides membranous, margin broadly clear, summit with membranous auricles which often disintegrate late in season; mucilage glands at sheath-blade transition brown, absent from blade and usually from sheath center near summit; widest blades on shoot 4--12 mm wide when fresh, 3--8 mm when dry; distal blade usually markedly exceeding inflorescence. Inflorescences: staminate spikes separated from pistillate by 1--8(--12) cm of naked axis, ca. as long as pistillate, 1 cm thick in anthesis; staminate scales variable in same spike, straw-colored to medium brown, filiform, simple to bifid or sometimes cuneate and irregularly branched, to 6  0.1 mm; pistillate spikes in flower when fresh dark brown with whitish stigmas (drying brown), later medium brown, in fruit when fresh as stigmas wear off often greenish due to green carpodia, (4--)6--20 cm  5--6 mm in flower, 13--22 mm in fruit; compound pedicels in fruit peg-like, 0.5--0.7 mm; pistillate bracteole blades forming spike surface before flowering, later exceeded by stigmas and about equaling or slightly exceeded by pistil hairs, very dark to medium brown, much darker than (or sometimes as dark as) stigmas, irregularly spatulate, 0.6  0.1--0.2 mm, wider than or about as wide as stigmas, apex rounded (to acute). Staminate flowers 4--6 mm; anthers 1.5--2 mm, thecae yellow, apex dark brown; pollen in monads or some in irregular clusters. Pistillate flowers 2 mm in flower, 5--7 mm in fruit; pistil-hair tips medium brown, distinctly swollen at 10--20X; stigmas sometimes deciduous in fruit, in flower erect, elongating, bending to form surface mat, white in flower, drying brownish, later medium brown, narrowly linear-lanceolate, 0.6--1.4  0.1 mm; carpodia slightly exceeded by and visible among pistil hairs at mature spike surface, green when young and fresh, straw-colored with orange-brown spots when dry, apex nearly truncate. 2n = 30.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22: 283, 284 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Distribution

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Temperate and subtropical regions in Europe, Asia & N.America.
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bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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Distribution

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B.C., Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask.; Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., [Mont.], Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Vt., Va., Wash., W. Va., Wis., Wyo.; Eurasia.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22: 283, 284 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Elevation Range

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200 m
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering late spring--summer.
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Flora of North America Vol. 22: 283, 284 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat

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Often somewhat brackish or subsaline water or wet soil; 0--1900m.
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Flora of North America Vol. 22: 283, 284 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cover, density, marsh

The effects of fire on the narrowleaf cattail hybrid T.
× glauca were determined for a New Brunswick marsh.  The marsh was divided into two
sections, each containing four blocks of four plots.  In each section one
block was burned in early and mid-June, one was burned in early and
mid-July, and one was burned in mid-August and mid-September.
Vegetation was measured the third postfire year.  Following each fire,
plots were either drained or flooded.  On the drained sites T.
× glauca cover, density, and height were least on the plots burned in July.
Other burned plots did not differ significantly from the control.  On
the flooded sites July-burned plots had greater T. × glauca cover than
control plots.  Other burned plots did not differ significantly from the
control [30]. 
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
narrowleaf cattail
narrow-leaved cattail
narrow-leaf cattail
narrowleaved cattail
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Cover Value

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More info for the term: cover

Narrowleaf cattail provides important cover for muskrats and a
variety of waterfowl [4,6,27].  White-tailed deer use cattail for cover
[31].
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Narrowleaf cattail is an erect, rhizomatous perennial that grows 3 to
6 feet (1-2 m) tall [15].  Its lateral rhizomes, produced at the leaf
base, can grow up to 27.6 inches (70 cm) long and 0.8 to 1.6 inches (2-4
cm) in diameter [15].  Its leaves are 2 to 5 feet (0.6-1.5 m) long, very
narrow, and flattened [10,12].  Flowers grow on erect stalks, and the
fruits are cigar-shaped and 2 to 6 inches (5-15 cm) long.  Fruits contain
soft, downy seeds [10].
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Narrowleaf cattail occurs from Nova Scotia south through parts of New
England along the coast to southern Florida.  It occurs in the Midwest
south to southeastern Texas.  Scattered populations are found throughout
Nebraska and Wyoming, parts of the Intermountain West, and along the
Pacific Northwest coast into central California [10].
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Ecology

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More info for the term: fire regime

Cattail rhizomes sprout following fire [4].

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fuel, marsh, oligotrophic

Fire can be used to reduce aboveground debris, opening up stands for
nesting waterfowl.  Burning in winter when rhizomes are buried in ice or
in frozen soil usually will not kill cattail.  If the objective is to
create more open stands for wildlife, burning should be conducted in
spring following a relatively dry winter, when the marsh is dry [4].

Fire has been used to provide openings in cattail (Typha spp.) marshes
for mallard foraging. In the St Clair Wildlife Refuge, Ontario, mallards
used openings that were created by winter burning followed by spring
flooding.  Mallard foraging effort was positively correlated with invertebrate
biomass and opening size (P<0.001).  Burning produced less cattail mortality
than winter mowing followed by spring flooding [1].  For detailed
information, refer to the Research Project Summary Winter
fire in a marshland in St Clair National Wildlife Area, Ontario.


Cattail marshes are difficult to burn 2 years in a row because
accumulated debris is needed for fuel.  The thick bases of cattail
species are often the last part of the plant to dry out and are
difficult to burn.

Canada geese, herons, egrets, and other waterfowl use burned marsh areas
for feeding and nesting [4].

Draining and burning marshes during July inhibits rapid growth of
cattail species.  Several fires during summer will release nutrients if
a portion of the organic mat is removed [30].  Draining and burning
before a thick mat layer forms is necessary for slowing palludification.
Fires on nutrient-poor fens can reduce species diversity and create
oligotrophic bogs, but on nutrient-rich sites fires will not typically
reduce species diversity [30].
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info on this topic.

More info for the term: helophyte

  
   Helophyte
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: marsh

Narrowleaf cattail grows in marshes, wet meadows, fens, estuaries,
bogs, ditches, and along lake shores.  It is tolerant of saline
environments [15,31].  Where T. angustifolia and T. latifolia occur
together, T. angustifolia usually colonizes the deeper waters (31.5 in.
[80 cm] or more) [16].

In Utah, narrowleaf cattail occurs in peaty soils of salt marshes and
colonizes deep sloughs and sloping marsh perimeters [5].

In Wisconsin, water levels seem to be the most important factor affecting
cattail occurrence and establishment [4].  Typha spp. grow best under
stable moisture conditions, saturated soil, and water up to 1.5 feet
(45 cm) deep.  Narrowleaf cattail can grow in water as deep as 2.5
feet (76 cm) [4].  After establishment, it can tolerate fluctuating
water levels including periods of drought and deep flooding.  In
Wisconsin cattail species usually grow in soils that are fertile and
nutrient rich [4].  Narrowleaf cattail height growth is best in hot
temperatures but does not seem to be adversely affected by extreme cold [4].
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

    63  Cottonwood
   235  Cottonwood - willow
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

   FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood
   FRES28  Western hardwoods
   FRES37  Mountain meadows
   FRES39  Prairie
   FRES41  Wet grasslands
   FRES42  Annual grasslands
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

   K049  Tule marshes
   K072  Sea oats prairie
   K073  Northern cordgrass prairie
   K074  Bluestem prairie
   K092  Everglades
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: density, peat

Burning top-kills narrowleaf cattail and reduces stem density [1]. 
Fires that burn into the peat layer can kill cattail [4].
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

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Narrowleaf cattail is eaten by waterfowl and muskrats [24,27].
Muskrats also construct their lodges with cattail, and blackbirds use
cattail for perches [31].  Extensive monotypic stands of cattail are
usually poor habitat for wildlife [1].
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Key Plant Community Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: lichens

Narrowleaf cattail is listed as a riparian dominance type in the
following publication:

Riparian dominance types of Montana [31]

Some associates of narrowleaf cattail include sedges (Carex spp.),
bulrushes (Scirpus spp.), rushes (Juncus spp.), sphagnum mosses
(Sphagnum ssp.), lichens (Cladonia spp.), kalmia (Kalmia spp.), foxtail
barley (Critestion jubatum), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinaceae),
oakleaf goosefoot (Chenopodium glaucum), curled dock (Rumex crispus),
panicgrass (Panicum spp.), cottonsedge (Eriophorum spissum), buttonbush
(Cephalanthus occidentalis), spiraea (Spiraea spp.), blueberries
(Vaccinium spp.), viburnum (Viburnum spp.), chufa flatsedge (Cyperus
esculentus), and dwarf huckleberry (Gaylussacia dumosa) [8,28].
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

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More info for the term: graminoid

Graminoid
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cover, density, marsh, restoration, seed

Although narrowleaf cattail is useful in wetland restoration
projects, without control it will form dense stands that eventually
outcompete other valuable wildlife food and cover species [4].  It can
be controlled with herbicides and through marsh drawdowns or by flooding
over freshly cut stubble to reduce oxygen to the rhizomes [15].

A study of the effects of cutting cattail, then flooding the area,
showed that stem densities were reduced by 89 percent the first year.
When cut a second time, densities were reduced by 99 percent.  No
fruiting heads or seed germination occurred following cutting and
flooding [1].

Draining a New Brunswick marsh caused a 36 percent increase in
narrowleaf cattail cover and a 50 percent increase in stem density.
However, plant height and basal diameter were reduced by 16.54 percent
and 7.14, respectively [30].
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Nutritional Value

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: litter

Food values for leaf litter of the narrowleaf cattail hybrid, T.
× glauca, have been listed [22]:

type           time         %nitrogen    %phosphorus       %ash

green        early July       2.77         0.29            6.55
senesced     early Feb.       0.63         0.05            3.89
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
     AL  AR  CA  CT  DE  FL  GA  IL  IN  IA
     KY  LA  ME  MD  MA  MI  MN  MS  MO  MT
     NE  NH  NJ  NY  NC  OH  OR  PA  RI  SC
     TN  TX  UT  VT  VA  WV  WI  WY  MB  NB
     NS  ON  PQ
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Other uses and values

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Rhizomes are eaten whole or ground into flour.  Shoots, seeds, flowers,
pollen, and stems are also eaten.  Stems and leaves are woven into
baskets and rope or used in roofing, bedding, and paper manufacturing
[10,15].  Many other uses for narrowleaf cattail have been documented
[21].
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

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More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: formation, marsh, rhizome

Leaves emerge in the spring, flowering is initiated in early to
mid-summer, and the greatest clonal growth occurs in the fall [15].
Under good conditions, seeds germinate from May to September [4].
Aerial shoot growth continues into November or until the first freeze
when plants go dormant [20].  Development times in a Wisconsin marsh
were:  April:  aerial shoot sprout, new rhizome formation, leaves; May:
new shoots; June:  spikes formed; July:  basal shoots and flower head
development; August through September:  maturation of flower head [4].
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Narrowleaf cattail will sprout following fire if rhizomes are not
consumed [1,4]. 
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: ground residual colonizer, herb, rhizome

   Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
   Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regeneration Processes

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More info for the term: seed

Cattails reproduce by seed and rhizomes.  Their primary means of
colonizing is by seed, and once established, colonies are maintained by
vegetative reproduction [16].  Seeds are wind pollinated and require
moisture, but not oxygen for germination [15].  Laboratory studies have
shown that seeds germinate best in water 1 inch (2.5 cm) deep, but can
germinate in water as deep as 16 inches (40 cm) [4].  In the field seed
germination usually occurs following exposure of mudflats.
Narrowleaf cattail was found in wetland seedbanks that had been
drained for more than 70 years [32].
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    1  Northern Pacific Border
    2  Cascade Mountains
    3  Southern Pacific Border
    5  Columbia Plateau
    8  Northern Rocky Mountains
    9  Middle Rocky Mountains
   10  Wyoming Basin
   14  Great Plains
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Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Successional Status

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More info for the term: litter

Narrowleaf cattail is considered an early to mid-seral species and a
dominant in disturbed wetlands [15].  In the absence of disturbance,
narrowleaf cattail dominates marshes in dense, monotypic stands [18].
Under these conditions productivity is lowered because of litter
buildup, and narrowleaf cattail outcompetes other species.
Narrowleaf cattail replaces cordgrass (Spartina spp.) in marshes
where coastal wetlands are diked or tidally restricted [2,23].
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The currently accepted scientific name for narrowleaf cattail is
Typha angustifolia L. in the family Typhaceae [12].

Typha angustifolia hybridizes with T. latifolia to form T. × glauca
Godron. [14].
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cover, restoration, rhizome

Narrowleaf cattail is used in prairie wetland restoration [17].  It
is used to create wetlands for mitigating the effects of wastewater
treatment plants and landfills [9].  A shoreline restoration project to
provide cover for largemouth bass and other fish determined that rhizome
transplants have better survivorship than transplanted greenhouse stock [7].
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bibliographic citation
Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Typha angustifolia

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Typha angustifolia L. (also lesser bulrush,[3] narrowleaf cattail[4] or lesser reedmace) is a perennial herbaceous plant of genus Typha. This cattail is an "obligate wetland" species that is commonly found in the northern hemisphere in brackish locations.[5]

Description

The plant's leaves are flat, very narrow (¼"–½" wide), and 3'–6' tall when mature; 12–16 leaves arise from each vegetative shoot. At maturity, they have distinctive stalks that are about as tall as the leaves; the stalks are topped with brown, fluffy, sausage-shaped flowering heads. The plants have sturdy, rhizomatous roots that can extend 27" and are typically ¾"–1½" in diameter.[6][7]

Distribution

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Typha angustifolia, habitus

It has been proposed that the species was introduced from Europe to North America.[8] In North America, it is also thought to have been introduced from coastal to inland locations.[9]

The geographic range of Typha angustifolia overlaps with the very similar species Typha latifolia (broadleaf or common cattail). T. angustifolia can be distinguished from T. latifolia by its narrower leaves and by a clear separation of two different regions (staminate flowers above and pistilate flowers below) on the flowering heads.[6] The species hybridize as Typha x glauca (Typha angustifolia x T. latifolia) (white cattail); Typha x glauca is not a distinct species, but is rather a sterile F1 hybrid.[10] Broadleaf cattail is usually found in shallower water than narrowleaf cattail.

Culinary use

Several parts of the plant are edible, including during various seasons the dormant sprouts on roots and bases of leaves, the inner core of the stalk, green bloom spikes, ripe pollen, and starchy roots.[11][12] It can be prepared in the same way as Typha latifolia.[13] The edible stem is called bồn bồn in Vietnam.photo

References

  1. ^ Tropicos Typha angustifolia
  2. ^ The Plant List Typha angustifolia
  3. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  4. ^ "Typha angustifolia". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  5. ^ "Typha angustifolia - narrow leaf cattail". Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
  6. ^ a b Rook, Earl J. S. (26 February 2004). "Typha angustifolia: Narrow Leaf Cattail". Retrieved 13 September 2008.
  7. ^ "PLANTS Profile for Typha angustifolia (narrowleaf cattail)". U. S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 13 September 2008.
  8. ^ Stuckey, R. L.; Salamon, D. P. (1987). "Typha angustifolia in North America: masquerading as a native". Am. J. Bot. 74: 757.
  9. ^ Mills, Edward L.; Leach, Joseph H.; Carlton, James T.; Secor, Carol L. (1993). "Exotic Species in the Great Lakes: A History of Biotic Crises and Anthropogenic Introductions" (PDF). Journal of Great Lakes Research. 19 (1): 1–54. doi:10.1016/S0380-1330(93)71197-1. Retrieved 21 October 2013. The distributional history of the narrow-leaved cattail, a brackish water species native to the Atlantic coast, is debatable. The plant is thought to have invaded inland slowly with the early canal, railroad, and highway systems. It began a rapid inland expansion in through Central New York in the first half of the 20th Century when the de-icing of highways using salt became more widespread. The link is to a preprint of the published article; see p. 46.
  10. ^ Selbo, Sarena M.; Snow, Allison A. (2004). "The potential for hybridization between Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia in a constructed wetland" (PDF). Aquatic Botany. 78 (4): 361–369. doi:10.1016/j.aquabot.2004.01.003. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  11. ^ Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. (2009) [1982]. Edible Wild Plants. New York, NY: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-1-4027-6715-9.
  12. ^ "Typha angustifolia - Small reed mace". Plants for a Future. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
  13. ^ Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. (2009) [1982]. Edible Wild Plants: A North American Field Guide to Over 200 Natural Foods. New York: Sterling. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-4027-6715-9. OCLC 244766414.

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Typha angustifolia: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Typha angustifolia L. (also lesser bulrush, narrowleaf cattail or lesser reedmace) is a perennial herbaceous plant of genus Typha. This cattail is an "obligate wetland" species that is commonly found in the northern hemisphere in brackish locations.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN