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Bonaparte's gulls are named after a nephew of Napoleon, Charles Lucien Bonaparte, who was a leading ornithologist in the 1800's in America and Europe.

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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Park, S. 2001. "Larus philadelphia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Larus_philadelphia.html
author
Sam Park, University of California, Irvine
editor
Rudi Berkelhamer, University of California, Irvine
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Behavior

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The vocalizations of Bonaparte's gulls can be described as a harsh high pitched see-whee and a low pitched kuk-kuk-kuk. They produce many conversational whistled notes when feeding.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Park, S. 2001. "Larus philadelphia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Larus_philadelphia.html
author
Sam Park, University of California, Irvine
editor
Rudi Berkelhamer, University of California, Irvine
original
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Conservation Status

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The global population of Bonaparte's gulls is estimated to be between 260,000 and 530,000. This number seems to be stable.

US Migratory Bird Act: protected

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Park, S. 2001. "Larus philadelphia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Larus_philadelphia.html
author
Sam Park, University of California, Irvine
editor
Rudi Berkelhamer, University of California, Irvine
original
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Benefits

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There are no adverse affects of Bonaparte's gulls on humans.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Park, S. 2001. "Larus philadelphia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Larus_philadelphia.html
author
Sam Park, University of California, Irvine
editor
Rudi Berkelhamer, University of California, Irvine
original
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Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

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Bonaparte's gulls are beneficial to agriculture, destroying insect pests, grubs, and worms in the fields.

Positive Impacts: controls pest population

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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Park, S. 2001. "Larus philadelphia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Larus_philadelphia.html
author
Sam Park, University of California, Irvine
editor
Rudi Berkelhamer, University of California, Irvine
original
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Trophic Strategy

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Small fish, crustacea, snails and marine worms are staple foods of Larus philadelphia along the coast. However, inland in summer they feed chiefly on insects they capture in the air, pick from croplands, or gather from the surface of lakes or ponds. (Miklos 1994).

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Park, S. 2001. "Larus philadelphia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Larus_philadelphia.html
author
Sam Park, University of California, Irvine
editor
Rudi Berkelhamer, University of California, Irvine
original
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Distribution

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Larus philadelphia breeds in western Canada and Alaska from July to October. Bonaparte's gulls migrate south to spend the winter on the Pacific coast from Vancouver Island to points southward. Some migrate southward as far as Panama. They sometimes occur as vagrants in in a number of European countries as well as Japan, Israel, and Morroco.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); palearctic (Native ); ethiopian (Native ); neotropical (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Park, S. 2001. "Larus philadelphia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Larus_philadelphia.html
author
Sam Park, University of California, Irvine
editor
Rudi Berkelhamer, University of California, Irvine
original
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Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

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Bonaparte's gulls are found in ocean bays, coastal waters, islands, and lakes.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; saltwater or marine ; freshwater

Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; coastal

Other Habitat Features: estuarine

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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Park, S. 2001. "Larus philadelphia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Larus_philadelphia.html
author
Sam Park, University of California, Irvine
editor
Rudi Berkelhamer, University of California, Irvine
original
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Morphology

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Bonaparte's gulls are slate-gray headed with a very small black bill and bright orange-red legs and feet. They have a white terminal band on tail feathers and secondaries. In young birds, the wing has a dark-bordered appearance, with flashy white wing tips. Adults reach 43 to 53 cm in body length. (Pough 1953)

Range mass: 200 to 250 g.

Range length: 43 to 53 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Park, S. 2001. "Larus philadelphia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Larus_philadelphia.html
author
Sam Park, University of California, Irvine
editor
Rudi Berkelhamer, University of California, Irvine
original
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Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

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Bonaparte's gulls nest in loose colonies throughout most of Canada, from Manitoba to west-central Ontario and north to Alaska. They are the only gull species that nests almost exclusively in nests built in trees, rather than on the ground. They lay two to four eggs in nests built from twigs and moss in spruce or tamarack trees near water. The eggs are grayish to greenish brown, marked with dark brown and lilac and 4.8 by 3.3 cm on average.

Breeding interval: Bonaparte's gulls breed once yearly.

Breeding season: Bonaparte's gulls breed from July to October each year.

Range eggs per season: 2 to 4.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Park, S. 2001. "Larus philadelphia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Larus_philadelphia.html
author
Sam Park, University of California, Irvine
editor
Rudi Berkelhamer, University of California, Irvine
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web