Definition: A group of hydrous aluminium phyllosilicate (phyllosilicates being a subgroup of silicate minerals) minerals (see clay minerals), that are typically less than 2micrometres in diameter. Clay consists of a variety of phyllosilicate minerals rich in silicon and aluminium oxides and hydroxides which include variable amounts of structural water.
Definition: the method used by some animals (e.g. bats, dolphins and some whales) to determine the location of something by measuring the time it takes for an echo to return from it. These animals emit sound waves and listen for the echo, calculating the distance to the object from the time lapse between sound emission and the echo returning.
Definition: superposition compound eyes where each ommatidium is equipped with a lens cylinder arrangement, producing the equivalent of a pair of lenses, with the first lens producing a small image halfway down the structure and the second lens turning the image back into a parallel beam. In the process the ray direction is reversed. Thus, the emerging beam is on the same side of the axis as the entering beam—the condition for obtaining a superposition image from the whole array.