dcsimg

Comments

provided by eFloras
Artemisia dracunculus is widely cultivated as a culinary herb and may be introduced in parts of its range. It is easily cultivated from rootstocks, and while establishment from seeds is rare, seedlings can be found with amenable environmental conditions. Because of its popularity as an herb, it may suffer from overcollecting. Its scarcity in Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois (J. T. Kartesz and C. A. Meacham 1999) may have been caused by overly enthusiastic collecting as well as habitat loss.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 19: 503, 505, 507, 508 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Description

provided by eFloras
Perennials or subshrubs, 50–120(–150) cm, strongly tarragon-scented or not aromatic; rhizomatous, caudices coarse. Stems relatively numerous, erect, green to brown or reddish brown, somewhat woody, glabrous. Leaves: proximal blades bright green and glabrous or gray-green and sparsely hairy, 5–8 cm; cauline blades bright green (gray-green in desert forms), linear, lanceolate, or oblong, 1–7 × 0.1–0.5(–0.9) cm, mostly entire, sometimes irregularly lobed, acute, usually glabrous, sometimes glabrescent (deserts). Heads in terminal or lateral, leafy, paniculiform arrays 15–45 × 6–30 cm; appearing ball-like on slender, sometimes nodding peduncles. Involucres globose, 2–3 × 2–3.5(–6) mm. Phyllaries (light brown, broadly lanceolate, membranous): margins broadly hyaline, glabrous. Florets: pistillate 6–25; functionally staminate 8–20; corollas pale yellow, 1.8–2 mm, eglandular or sparsely glandular. Cypselae oblong, 0.5–0.8 mm, faintly nerved, glabrous. 2. = 18.
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copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 19: 503, 505, 507, 508 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Description

provided by eFloras
Perennial, strongly aromatic to inodorous, 20-100 (-150) cm tall herb, with erect or ascending, costate-striate, greenish-yellow, sparsely hairy to glabrous stems. Leaves short stalked to sessile, mostly undivided, occasionally lower 3-5-cleft, usually glabrous, sometimes sparsely appressed canescent, linear-lanceolate to occasionally ± oblanceolate, 2-8 cm x (1-) 2-8 (-10) mm, entire, acute; upper ones mostly simple, much reduced in floral region. Capitula numerous, heterogamous, globose, 2-3 x 3-4 mm, remote to approximate, nodding on curved, 1-2 mm long, hairy or glabrous peduncles, in leafy, narrow panicle with ascending to erect, sometimes appressed, up to 10 cm long branches. Involucre 3-seriate, phyllaries glabrous, outermost oblong, c. 2.5 x 1 mm, obtuse, inner ones broadly elliptic, c. 3.5 x 2 mm, broadly whitish scarious, obtuse. Receptacle conico-hemispherical, glabrous. Florets up to 40, yellow; marginal-florets 6-15, fertile, with 0.5-1 mm long, glandulose, 2-fid corolla; disc-florets 10-20, bisexual, sterile, with campanulate, 2-2.5 mm long, 5-toothed corolla. Cypselas brown, ellipsoid, 0.6-1 mm long.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 207: 101 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Distribution

provided by eFloras
Distribution: Europe eastwards to Siberia, China, Mongolia and North America (probably introduced and naturalized).
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 207: 101 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Flower/Fruit

provided by eFloras
Fl. Per.: July-September.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 207: 101 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Habitat

provided by eFloras
This species is collected for feeding to sheep in Ladakh and Tibet during winter. Cultivated in Europe for leaves which are used for seasoning salads and cooked dishes.
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copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 207: 101 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
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Synonym

provided by eFloras
Artemisia aromatica A. Nelson; A. dracunculina S. Watson; A. dracunculoides Pursh; A. dracunculoides subsp. dracunculina (S. Watson) H. M. Hall & Clements; A. glauca Pallas ex Willdenow; A. glauca var. megacephala B. Boivin
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 19: 503, 505, 507, 508 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
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Synonym

provided by eFloras
A. simplicifolia Pamp., Lav. Ist. Bot. Reale Univ. Cagliari 22: 174. 1934; A. dracunculus var. inodora Bess. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 8: 54. 1835; Oligosporus dracunculus (L.) Poljakov, l. c. 11: 166.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 207: 101 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cover, frequency, interference, natural, prescribed burn

Tarragon has been observed before and after 2 prescribed burns and 1 natural
fire [28,37,68]. Four years after a prescribed summer burn in western North
Dakota, the frequency of tarragon was nearly 3 times that found in an adjacent
unburned area. It was speculated that the increase was due to a reduction in interference
of other species following the fire and the species' ability to inhabit disturbed sandy soils and
roadsides [28].

On Hightower Mountain in western Colorado, tarragon experienced a 90%
reduction in population 2 years following a prescribed burn. Composition of the
population dropped from 0.11% to 0.01% [68]. In
Los Alamos, New Mexico, tarragon constituted 0.14% actual cover and 0.30%
relative cover in an area that had burned in 1960. After the 1977 La Mesa fire,
studies conducted to determine long-term vegetative impacts found no tarragon 1,
8, or 16 years after the fire [37].

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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
tarragon

green sagebrush

silky wormwood

false tarragon
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Conservation Status

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Tarragon was historically found in Missouri and there are some expectations that
it may still exist there [86]. It is facing the likelihood of extinction in
Wisconsin due to its rarity, but remains secure at a global level [128].
Tarragon is listed as endangered in Illinois [65]
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: adventitious, seed, shrub, xeric

The following description of tarragon has been compiled from the following
sources unless otherwise noted [1,2,7,20,41,42,45,46,62,64,79,89,116,124,127]. This description provides
characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for
identification. Keys for identifying tarragon are available
[2,7,42,45,62,124].

Tarragon is a woody, native perennial shrub with stem heights
ranging from 15.7 to 59.1 inches (40-150 cm). Aerial stems arise from thick,
horizontal rhizomes growing in clusters and singly. Leaves are alternate, 0.5 to 3.1 inches long (1.2-8.0 cm),
and 0.04 to 0.24 inch (1-6 mm) wide.
Basal leaves are cleft with 1 to 3 lobes. The inflorescence is a panicle with
numerous flowers. Outer florets are pistillate and fertile,
central flowers are sterile, and ovaries are abortive. The seeds are achenes.
Seed size is approximately 0.06 inch (1.5 mm) in length.


Tarragon supports large numbers of adventitious roots containing interxylary
cork (formed within xylem tissue), offering the plant protection in xeric habitats [89]. One individual in
Los Alamos, New Mexico was found to have a rooting depth of 83.9 inches (213 cm)
[38]. Tarragon forms associations with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae
[96].

license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Tarragon is a widely distributed species with a range that extends east from
southern Alaska to Manitoba and south to northern Mexico [2,41,45,52,58,79]. Its distribution also includes
Eurasia, with common occurrences in central Asia and Siberia [45].
A distributional map of tarragon can be accessed through Plants database.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Fire Ecology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire regime, shrub

Fire adaptations:
There is no information in the literature regarding fire adaptations of tarragon. It is
likely that rhizomes located underground survive fire and sprout. Tarragon has
been observed following prescribed burns [28,68]. It is unclear how seeds are
affected by fire or if postfire seedling establishment is common in tarragon.
Further research is needed on fire adaptations of
tarragon.

FIRE REGIMES:
Tarragon is present in a variety of community types with a wide range of FIRE REGIMES
associated with them. In ponderosa pine ecosystem types, understory fires occur
at intervals of 2 to 10 years and mixed-severity fires occur from less than 35-
to 200-year intervals. In pinyon-juniper ecosystems, tarragon experiences fire
return intervals of less than 35 years [93].

The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and
ecosystems where tarragon is important. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find FIRE REGIMES".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 66,93]
Nebraska sandhills prairie Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium <10
sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [93]
basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [107]
mountain big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana 15-40 [5,17,85]
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. 93,129]
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii 93,105,129]
paloverde-cactus shrub Parkinsonia microphylla/Opuntia spp. 93]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii <5-47+ [93,101,129]
pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. <35 [93]
Pacific ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa 1-47 [4]
interior ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [4,6,75]
mountain grasslands Pseudoroegneria spicata 3-40 (µ=10) [3,4]
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. <35 [93]


*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Fire Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Additional information on the response of tarragon to fire is necessary before
management considerations are proposed.
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

More info for the term: geophyte

RAUNKIAER [102] LIFE FORM:




Geophyte
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: shrubs, xeric

Tarragon has a wide distribution that encompasses a variety of site
characteristics. It can be found in riparian zones [81],
on floodplains and terraces [47,78], and at high
mountain elevations [15,90,124]. It occurs in open, often dry places [58] associated with soils ranging from dry
and sandy to moist and silty [116]. It is
found over the plains grasslands where conditions are favorable for shrubs [83]
and on shaded mountainous slopes [10]. It tolerates temperatures ranging from -48 ºF to 111 ºF (-44 ºC to 44 ºC ),
soil pH values from 4.9 to 8.9 [57,112], and a precipitation range of 5.7 to 51.2
inches (145-1300 mm) [16,112]. Additional site characteristics
are provided in the table below:

State or
province Location description Elevation range Precipitation range
AK Rocky slopes and roadsides [62] ---- ----
AZ Deep, well drained cinder soils [39]

Rocky, arid ranges [15] 3,600-7,550 ft (1,097-2,301 m) [10,15,39] 6.8-26.0 inches (173-660 mm) [39]
CA Arid mesas, hillsides, pine woodlands, and meadows [127]

Sandy, rocky alluvia [47]

Outwash fans and riverine deposits [47]

Dry sandy to gravelly soils from granitic parent material [91] 7,300-11,000 ft (2,225-3,353 m) [90,91] average 18.1 inches (460 mm) [47]
CO Upland loess deposits [74]

Undeveloped rocky and gravelly soils [82]

Sandy, dry marshes and riparian areas [50,113]

Well drained shale sediment [88] 1,325-10,300 ft (404-3,139 m) [27,50,104,113] average 8.5-12.3 inches (215-312 mm) [50,113]
ID Limestone derived from Paleozoic marine rocks [25]

Abandoned hayfields and pastures created in riparian zones [95] ---- ----
IL Dry sand and gravel prairies and barrens [52] ---- ----
KS Upland loess deposits [74] ---- ----
MT Stony, shallow, well-drained soils [44]

Mesoxeric to xeric dry valley zones [71]

Silt loam soils [48]

Medium to coarse-textured soils [33]

Steep, rocky, wind blown slopes with little vegetation [109] 3,000-8,202 ft (914-2,500 m) [27,44,48,81] average 11.6-50+ inches (294-1270 mm) [29,44,48]
NE Upland loess deposits [74] ---- average 22.0 inches (560 mm) [21]
NM Dry open slopes and plains [79]

Gentle slopes, sandy loam to sandy in texture [18]

Erosion channel bisecting a floodplain [22] 5,387-8,000 ft (1,642-2,438 m) [18,38,79] average 8.1-15.0 inches (206-380 mm) [18,22]
NV Stream benches, elevated terraces, meadow seeps and floodplains [78] 5,052-10,203 ft (1,540-3,110 m) [78]
ND Upland loess deposits

Fluvial sand and gravel capped with aeolian sand and silt [19]

Fine textured shallow soils; Rolling sandy uplands with well-drained soils; uplands and flat terraces
with loam to clay soils; level or hummocky terraces with loam to clay soils [57]

Excessively drained, poorly structured sandy and sandy loam soils [16]

Silty range site; glacial till site; silty ridges and hilltops [103] ---- 5.7-27.0 inches (145-686 mm) [16,19]
SD Upland loess deposits [74]

Well developed limestone derived soil [92] ---- ----
TX ---- 1,000-8,751 ft (305-2,667 m) [56,100] ----
UT Xeric portions of prairie vegetation types [115]

Mid-elevation open mountain slopes [118] 4,003-11,000 ft (1,220-3,353 m) [27,49,124] 10.0-18.0 inches (254-456 mm) [49]
WA Gravelly, sandy loam with moderate permeability [110] 1,099 ft (335 m) [110] average 18.1-24.0 inches (460-610 mm) [110]
WY ---- 3,700-8,400 ft (1,128-2,560 m) [27] ----
AB ---- 3,300-4,000 ft (1,006-1,219 m) [12] ----
BC ---- 1,312-3,117 ft (400-950 m) [76] ----
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Habitat: Cover Types

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

SAF COVER TYPES [34]:





237 Interior ponderosa pine

238 Western juniper

239 Pinyon-juniper

243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer

245 Pacific ponderosa pine
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Habitat: Ecosystem

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

ECOSYSTEMS [40]:




FRES21 Ponderosa pine

FRES23 Fir-spruce

FRES29 Sagebrush

FRES30 Desert shrub

FRES35 Pinyon-juniper

FRES36 Mountain grasslands

FRES38 Plains grasslands

FRES39 Prairie
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Habitat: Plant Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the terms: forest, woodland

KUCHLER [67] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:




K011 Western ponderosa forest

K016 Eastern ponderosa forest

K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest

K019 Arizona pine forest

K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland

K024 Juniper steppe woodland

K038 Great Basin sagebrush

K046 Desert: vegetation largely lacking

K055 Sagebrush steppe

K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe

K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: cover, shrub, shrubland, woodland

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [111]:




101 Bluebunch wheatgrass

107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass

109 Ponderosa pine shrubland

110 Ponderosa pine-grassland

301 Bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama

303 Bluebunch wheatgrass-western wheatgrass

310 Needle-and-thread-blue grama

314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass

315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue

402 Mountain big sagebrush

408 Other sagebrush types

412 Juniper-pinyon woodland

414 Salt desert shrub

504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland

507 Palo verde-cactus

608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass

609 Wheatgrass-grama

610 Wheatgrass

706 Blue grama-sideoats grama

721 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (plains)
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The immediate effect of fire on tarragon is not documented. Fire likely
top-kills tarragon.
license
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bibliographic citation
Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cover, habitat type

Tarragon provides forage for elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn,
bighorn sheep, sharp-tailed grouse, and livestock [11,35,51,69,109,116,117,130].
Observations in the Flat Top Ridge Community of North Dakota suggest that
tarragon is an important species for bighorn sheep [35]. For Rocky Mountain mule
deer, amounts consumed in the summer constitute less than 1% of their diet with
minimal amounts also being consumed during the winter and spring months [69].
Tarragon accounts for 6% of plants browsed by pronghorn and 1% for elk and mule
deer in Wind Cave National Park of northwestern South Dakota [130]. In
southwestern Utah tarragon is listed as intermediate in terms of its desirability
as forage for domestic sheep [11].

Tarragon is listed as a warm season, native perennial range plant in Montana
[70] and increases with browsing pressure in western North
Dakota [103].

Palatability/nutritional value:
Reports on the palatability of tarragon vary by region, habitat type, and
foraging species. In west-central Montana, bighorn sheep, elk, white-tailed
deer, and mule deer browse on tarragon associated with bunchgrass communities;
steep, rocky, wind blown slopes; and a 40- to 50-year-old burn [109]. A study
conducted in eastern Washington found tarragon fair to poor in palatability
while finding that populations of tarragon increase as a response to browsing [110]. In Wyoming, tarragon provides important forage for pronghorn during
winter months and during spring and summer green-up [51] while providing seeds
for sharp-tailed grouse in western states [116,117].

Tarragon in the northern Great Plains was rated 30% in palatability for cattle.
It is aromatic but not bitter and does not do well under heavy browsing pressure [108]. Elsewhere in the Great Plains, tarragon is considered to have little
value as forage [64] and in Nebraska is not browsed by cattle in June or July
[21]. In Trans-Pecos Texas, it is considered good forage for cattle and wildlife
[100].

Tarragon provides valuable forage for domestic sheep but has little
value for cattle in western states [116,117]. Dittberner and Olson [27] report the
palatability and nutritional value of
tarragon for wildlife and domestic livestock in several western states as
follows:

  Colorado North Dakota Utah Montana Wyoming
Cattle Poor Poor Fair Poor Poor
Domestic sheep Fair Fair Good Fair Fair
Horses Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor
Pronghorn ---- Poor Fair Poor ----
Elk Poor ---- Fair Poor ----
Mule deer Poor Poor Good Poor ----
Small mammals ---- ---- Fair ---- ----
Small nongame birds ---- ---- Fair ---- ----
Upland nongame birds ---- ---- Fair ---- ----
Waterfowl ---- ---- Poor ---- ----

Cover value:
Tarragon cover for wildlife is rated as follows [27]:

  Colorado North Dakota Utah
Elk ---- ---- Poor
Mule deer ---- Fair Poor
White-tailed deer ---- Poor ----
Pronghorn ---- Fair Poor
Small mammals Fair ---- Good
Upland game birds ---- ---- Poor
Small nongame birds Poor ---- Fair
Waterfowl ---- ---- Poor
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Life Form

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More info for the terms: forb, shrub

Shrub-forb
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Management considerations

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More info for the terms: density, presence

Extracts derived from leaf material of tarragon displayed various effects on the
germination of 18 species. Growth was inhibited in field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense),
lacy tansyaster (Haplopappus spinulosus), and largebracted plantain (Plantago patagonica) while
growth in needle-and-thread grass was enhanced [59]. Treatments of a 2,4-D,
diesel oil mixture applied to control little spikemoss (Selaginella
densa) on rangeland resulted in a 90%-95%
reduction in tarragon density [106].

In western Colorado, the effects of spraying, burning, and chaining were
evaluated for their effectiveness in increasing forage for deer, elk,
and cattle. Although none of the treatments were significantly different
(P<0.05) with effect to tarragon production, spraying reduced percent composition from
0.46%-0.01%, burning from 0.11%-0.01%, and chaining increased percent composition
from 0.00%-0.01% [68].


Tarragon is one species of sagebrush which is fed upon in small amounts by
the sagebrush grasshopper (Melanoplus bowditchi) [97]. In
semiarid mountain ecosystems, the presence of ant mounds was positively correlated (p less than 0.01)
to the occurrence of tarragon within a 3m radius of the mound [18].



Volatile oils found in tarragon can cause skin irritation in livestock [116,117].
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Other uses and values

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More info for the term: herb

Tarragon leaves are cultivated for beverages and used as a cooking herb [7,24].
Native Americans constructed brooms from tight bundles of stems and utilized the
leaves to treat rheumatism [116,117] and swelling [132]. Tarragon has been used as a
diuretic and emmenagogue (to promote menstrual discharge) and was thought to alleviate toothaches [112].
Tarragon can also be used in lotions and as a hair rinse [121].
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Phenology

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Flowering dates of tarragon are July to October [127].
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Plant Response to Fire

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Current literature suggests that the response of tarragon to fire is variable
[28,37,68]. It is likely that tarragon sprouts from rhizomes after being
top-killed by fire.
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Post-fire Regeneration

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More info for the terms: geophyte, rhizome, shrub

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [114]:




Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil

Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Regeneration Processes

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More info for the terms: rhizome, seed

Tarragon reproduces both sexually and vegetatively [27]. Vegetative reproduction is from rhizomes [116,123].

Breeding system:
Population outcrossing has been documented for sagebrush species [80].



Pollination:
Sagebrush species are wind and self-pollinated [80], with insect-assisted pollination likely [120].


Seed production:
When grown for culinary or medicinal purposes, it is reported that tarragon rarely produces seed [112].
When grown hydroponically, tarragon was reported to produce no seed at all
[1].


Seed dispersal:
Artemisia species are not able to disperse seeds far from the
mother plant [120].


Seed banking:
No information is available on this topic.


Germination:
Commercially grown tarragon requires 10 to 14 days to germinate. Germination is dependant upon soil
characteristics and weather conditions [131].


Seedling establishment/growth:
No information is available on this topic.


Asexual regeneration:
Tarragon regeneration is most commonly a result of rhizome sprouts [116,123].

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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [8]:




2 Cascade Mountains

3 South Pacific Border

4 Sierra Mountains

5 Columbia Plateau

6 Upper Basin and Range

7 Lower Basin and Range

8 Northern Rocky Mountains

9 Middle Rocky Mountains

10 Wyoming Basin

11 Southern Rocky Mountains

12 Colorado Plateau

13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont

14 Great Plains

15 Black Hills Uplift

16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

States or Provinces

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(key to state/province abbreviations)


UNITED STATES

AK AZ CA CO CT ID IL
IA KS MA MN MO MT NE
NV NJ NM ND OR SD TX
UT WA WI WY



CANADA

AB BC MB ON SK YK



MEXICO

Chic.
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Successional Status

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More info for the terms: climax, cover, density, frequency, xeric

Tarragon grows in the pine-oak (Pinus-Quercus spp.) woodlands on shaded slopes of the Rincon
Mountains in Arizona [10]. In Utah, tarragon is recognized as a weedy plant species due to its
ability to colonize disturbed sites [96]. In southeastern North Dakota, tarragon is considered a pioneer, transitional,
and climax species with greatest frequency and cover as a climax species and the
least as a pioneer species [16].

On a subalpine Earth flow that occurred in Colorado around 1923, tarragon
was characteristic of both flow and slump areas during the 7-year period in
which vegetation studies were being conducted (1947-1954, with the exception of
1953). It occupied both areas of disturbance with equal density and was
important in both floodplain and xeric site revegetation [73].

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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Synonyms

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Artemisia dracunculoides Pursh

Artemisia dracunculus var. glauca (Pallas ex Willd.) Bess.

Artemisia dracunculus ssp. glauca (Pallas ex Willd.) Hall & Clements

Artemisia glauca Pall. [58]

Oligosporus dracunculus ssp. dracunculinus (S. Wats.) W.A. Weber

Oligosporus dracunculus ssp. glaucus (Pallas ex Willd.) A.& D. Löve [123]
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Taxonomy

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The currently accepted scientific name for tarragon is Artemisia dracunculus
L. (Asteraceae) [9,20,26,30,31,32,41,42,58,65,72,79,87,100,124,127].
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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

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More info for the terms: reclamation, seed, shrub




Tarragon is difficult to root [1] and does not establish well from seed.
In southeastern Montana, tarragon was examined for future land reclamation
possibilities on sites disturbed by coal mines. Hand-stripping the seed was
necessary and optimum germination was obtained from 12 month old seed exposed to
68 ºF (20 ºC) temperatures without light or by alternating
light with 68 ºF to 77 ºF (20º-25 ºC) temperatures. This study determined that there
was no optimal planting time[33].

In western North Dakota, tarragon made up 28% of the species found in unbrowsed
plains grasslands bordering active mining sites, indicating a potential source for seed
when reclaiming surface mine sites [63]. It has been suggested that tarragon
also be investigated for its ability to regenerate salt desert shrub ranges [99].

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Groen, Amy H. 2005. Artemisia dracunculus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/artdra/all.html

Tarragon

provided by wikipedia EN

Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), also known as estragon, is a species of perennial herb in the sunflower family. It is widespread in the wild across much of Eurasia and North America, and is cultivated for culinary and medicinal purposes.[3][4][5][6]

One subspecies, Artemisia dracunculus var. sativa, is cultivated for use of the leaves as an aromatic culinary herb. In some other subspecies, the characteristic aroma is largely absent. The species is polymorphic.[7] Informal names for distinguishing the variations include "French tarragon" (best for culinary use), "Russian tarragon", and "wild tarragon" (covers various states).

Tarragon grows to 120–150 cm (4–5 ft) tall, with slender branches. The leaves are lanceolate, 2–8 cm (1–3 in) long and 2–10 mm (0.1–0.4 in) broad, glossy green, with an entire margin. The flowers are produced in small capitula 2–4 mm (0.1–0.2 in) diameter, each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. French tarragon, however, seldom produces any flowers (or seeds).[8] Some tarragon plants produce seeds that are generally sterile. Others produce viable seeds. Tarragon has rhizomatous roots that it uses to spread and readily reproduce.

Cultivation

 src=
Dried tarragon leaves

French tarragon is the variety used for cooking in the kitchen[9] and is not grown from seed, as the flowers are sterile; instead it is propagated by root division.

Russian tarragon (A. dracunculoides L.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavor when compared to the French variety.[8] However, Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant, spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavorsome as its French cousin, but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. Russian tarragon loses what flavor it has as it ages and is widely considered useless as a culinary herb, though it is sometimes used in crafts. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. Horticulturists recommend that Russian tarragon be grown indoors from seed and planted out in the summer. The spreading plants can be divided easily.

A better substitute for French tarragon is Spanish tarragon (Tagetes lucida), also known as Mexican mint marigold, Mexican tarragon, Texas tarragon, or winter tarragon.[10] It is much more reminiscent of French tarragon, with a hint of anise. Although not in the same genus as the other tarragons, Spanish tarragon has a stronger flavor than Russian tarragon that does not diminish significantly with age.

Health

Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise, due to the presence of estragole, a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100–1,000 times the typical consumption seen in humans.[11] Estragole concentration in fresh tarragon leaves is about 2900 mg/kg.[12]

Uses

Culinary use

Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking, and is particularly suitable for chicken, fish, and egg dishes. Tarragon is the main flavoring component of Béarnaise sauce. Fresh, lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon are steeped in vinegar to produce tarragon vinegar.

Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (where it originally comes from) and, by extension, Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. The drink, named Tarkhuna, is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green.

In Iran, tarragon is used as a side dish in sabzi khordan (fresh herbs), or in stews and in Persian style pickles, particularly khiar shoor (pickled cucumbers).

In Slovenia, tarragon is used in a variation of the traditional nut roll sweet cake, called potica. In Hungary a popular kind of chicken soup is flavored with tarragon.

cis-Pellitorin, an isobutyramide eliciting a pungent taste, has been isolated from the tarragon plant.[13]

Chemistry

A. dracunculus oil contained predominantly phenylpropanoids such as methyl chavicol (16.2%) and methyl eugenol (35.8%).[14] Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oil revealed the presence of trans-anethole (21.1%), α-trans-ocimene (20.6%), limonene (12.4%), α-pinene (5.1%), allo-ocimene (4.8%), methyl eugenol (2.2%), β-pinene (0.8%), α-terpinolene (0.5%), bornyl acetate (0.5%) and bicyclogermacrene (0.5%) as the main components.[15] The organic compound capillin was initially isolated from Artemisia capillaris in 1956.[16]

Quotes

James Andrew Beard, American cookbook author, teacher, syndicated columnist and television personality, was quoted as saying, "I believe that if ever I had to practice cannibalism, I might manage if there were enough tarragon around."[17]

Fernand Point, French chef and restaurateur, was quoted as saying "A Bearnaise sauce is simply an egg yolk, a shallot, a little tarragon vinegar, and butter, but it takes years of practice for the result to be perfect."[18]

References

  1. ^ Artemisia dracunculus was described in Linnaeus's Species Plantarum 2:849. 1753. "Artemisia dracunculus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  2. ^ "Artemisia dracunculus". The Global Compositae Checklist (GCC) – via The Plant List.
  3. ^ Shultz, Leila M. (2006). "Artemisia dracunculus". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 19. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  4. ^ Lin, Yourun; Humphries, Christopher J.; Gilbert, Michael G. "Artemisia dracunculus". Flora of China. 20–21 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  5. ^ "Artemisia dracunculus L.". Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2018-08-19 – via Tropicos.org.
  6. ^ "Artemisia dracunculus [Assenzio dragoncello] - Flora Italiana". luirig.altervista.org. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  7. ^ "Artemisia dracunculus". Missouri Botanical Garden.
  8. ^ a b McGee, R. M.; Stuckey, M. (2002). The Bountiful Container. Workman Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7611-1623-3.
  9. ^ Yeoman, Andrew (25 April 2014). "French Tarragon". FineGardening. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  10. ^ Raghavan, Susheela (2006). Handbook of Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings. CRC Press. p. 178. ISBN 9781420004366.
  11. ^ Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (2015-03-31). "Public statement on the use of herbal medicinal products containing estragole" (PDF). European Medicines Agency (Rev 1): 3. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  12. ^ Zeller, A.; Rychlik, M. (2007). "Impact of estragole and other odorants on the flavour of anise and tarragon". Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 22 (2): 105–113. doi:10.1002/ffj.1765.
  13. ^ Gatfield, I. L.; Ley, J. P.; Foerstner, J.; Krammer, G.; Machinek, A. Production of cis-pellitorin and use as a flavouring. World Patent WO2004000787 A2
  14. ^ Lopes-Lutz, D. S.; Alviano, D. S.; Alviano, C. S.; Kolodziejczyk, P. P. (2008). "Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils". Phytochemistry. 69 (8): 1732–1738. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.02.014. PMID 18417176.
  15. ^ Sayyah, M.; Nadjafnia, L.; Kamalinejad, M. (2004). "Anticonvulsant activity and chemical composition of Artemisia dracunculus L. Essential oil". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 94 (2–3): 283–287. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.05.021. PMID 15325732.
  16. ^ Nash, B. W.; Thomas, D. A.; Warburton, W. K.; Williams, Thelma D. (1965). "535. The preparation of capillin and some related compounds, and of some substituted pent-4-en-2-yn-1-ones". J. Chem. Soc.: 2983–2988. doi:10.1039/JR9650002983.
  17. ^ "A quote by James Beard". www.goodreads.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  18. ^ "Food Quotes: Tarragon". www.foodreference.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.

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Tarragon: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), also known as estragon, is a species of perennial herb in the sunflower family. It is widespread in the wild across much of Eurasia and North America, and is cultivated for culinary and medicinal purposes.

One subspecies, Artemisia dracunculus var. sativa, is cultivated for use of the leaves as an aromatic culinary herb. In some other subspecies, the characteristic aroma is largely absent. The species is polymorphic. Informal names for distinguishing the variations include "French tarragon" (best for culinary use), "Russian tarragon", and "wild tarragon" (covers various states).

Tarragon grows to 120–150 cm (4–5 ft) tall, with slender branches. The leaves are lanceolate, 2–8 cm (1–3 in) long and 2–10 mm (0.1–0.4 in) broad, glossy green, with an entire margin. The flowers are produced in small capitula 2–4 mm (0.1–0.2 in) diameter, each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. French tarragon, however, seldom produces any flowers (or seeds). Some tarragon plants produce seeds that are generally sterile. Others produce viable seeds. Tarragon has rhizomatous roots that it uses to spread and readily reproduce.

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