Comments

provided by eFloras
Solidago canadensis is cultivated and introduced in more western states and in Europe. Very narrow limits for the species are followed here. Alternatively, the species has been defined broadly to include most other species of the subsection (e.g., A. Cronquist 1994).

Solidago ×bartramiana Fernald [S. canadensis var. bartramiana (Fernald) Beaudry] is considered to be a hybrid between S. canadensis and S. uliginosa. Its growth form and array are more like those of the latter.

Two sometimes difficult-to-distinguish varieties with greatly overlapping ranges are recognized.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 20: 146, 150, 151, 152, 153, 156, 157 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Plants 30–150(–200) cm; rhizomes short to long creeping. Stems 1–20+, erect, glabrate proximally or sparsely strigoso-villous, becoming more densely so distal to mid stem. Leaves: basal 0; proximal to mid cauline usually withering by flowering, tapering to sessile bases, blades narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 50–190 × 5–30 mm, margins sharply serrate, 3-nerved, apices acuminate, abaxial faces glabrous or more commonly hairy along main nerves, adaxial glabrous or slightly scabrous; mid to distal similar, 30–50(–120) × 8–12 mm, largest near mid stem, reduced distally, margins usually serrate or serrulate (teeth 3–8), sometimes entire proximal to arrays. Heads (70–)150–1300+ , secund, in secund pyramidal-paniculiform arrays (obscurely so and club-shaped thyrsiform in small plants or shoots with small arrays), branches divergent and recurved, branches and peduncles hairy. Peduncles 3–3.4 mm, bracteoles 0–3, linear-triangular. Involucres narrowly campanulate, 1.7–2.5(–3) mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, strongly unequal, acute to obtuse; outer lanceolate, inner linear-lanceolate. Ray florets (5–)8–14(–18); laminae 0.5–1.5 × 0.15–0.3(–0.5) mm. Disc florets (2–)3–6(–8); corollas 2.2–2.8(–3) mm, lobes 0.4–0.8(–1) mm. Cypselae (narrowly obconic) 1–1.5 mm (ribbed), sparsely strigose; pappi 1.8–2.2 mm.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 20: 146, 150, 151, 152, 153, 156, 157 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Synonym

provided by eFloras
Aster canadensis (Linnaeus) Kuntze
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bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 20: 146, 150, 151, 152, 153, 156, 157 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
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Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire use, prescribed fire

The Research Project Summary Understory recovery after low- and high-intensity
fires in northern Idaho ponderosa pine forests
provides information on
prescribed fire use and postfire response of plant community species
including Canada goldenrod.
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Canada goldenrod
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Cover Value

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: cover

Canada goldenrod provides poor cover for elk, deer, pronghorn, and
upland game birds [5].
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: achene, fruit, herb

Canada goldenrod is an erect, rhizomatous perennial herb growing to
heights of about 6 feet (1.8 m) and forming large clonal colonies
[13,38,39]. Alternate leaves surround the central stem with the larger
leaves occurring on the lower stem. Flowers are borne on numerous small
flower heads. The fruit is an achene [30]. The rhizomes arise mostly
from the base of the aerial stems, and are usually 2 to 5 inches (5-12
cm) long [27,30,34].
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Canada goldenrod is widespread across North America. It occurs in
almost every state and throughout Canada [4,16,34,37].
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Ecology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire regime, seed

Canada goldenrod is generally enhanced by fire. It regenerates after
fire from on-site soil-stored seed and underground rhizomes [25,40].

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

Hemicryptophyte
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Canada goldenrod occurs on abandoned farmlands, infrequently grazed
pastures, waste areas, and tallgrass prairies [38]. It is also found
along roadsides and fence lines, in dry open fields, and in open woods
or damp meadows that dry out every year [18]. It can tolerate a fairly
wide range of soil fertility and texture conditions, but is typically
found in fairly moist soils. It is not found on waterlogged sites and
is found only rarely on very dry sites [31,38].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

Canada goldenrod occurs in most SAF Cover Types.
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

Canada goldenrod occurs in most ecosystems.
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

Canada goldenrod occurs in most Kuchler Plant Associations.
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the term: cover

Canada goldenrod occurs in most SRM Cover Types.
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Fire top-kills all aerial portions of Canada goldenrod [12,25].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
White-tailed deer selectively graze Canada goldenrod, particularly in
late summer and autumn after inflorescence development [17,38].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Key Plant Community Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: codominant, fern, forb, forest, herbaceous

Canada goldenrod is sometimes dominant or codominant in disturbed forest
understories [38]. It also may dominate or codominate Midwestern
prairies [11]. Canada goldenrod is named as an herbaceous layer
dominant in the following publication :

Subalpine forb community types of the Bridger-Teton National Forest,
Wyoming [14].

Common understory associates of Canada goldenrod include red clover
(Trifolium pratense), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia),
Carolina nightshade (Solanum carolinense), Missouri goldenrod (Solidago
missouriensis), small white ladyslipper (Cypripedium candidum), sticky
geranium (Geranium viscosissimum), northern bedstraw (Galium boreale)
and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) [6,9,16,36].
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: forb

Forb
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: forest, herbaceous

Canada goldenrod is not a serious weed in annual crops, and it seldom
reaches densities that are a problem in rangelands. It does, however,
invade poorly managed pastures and can be a pest in forest nurseries,
perennial gardens, and crops [38,39].

Canada goldenrod has an allelopathic effect on sugar maple (Acer
saccharum) seedlings and reduces germination of herbaceous species,
including itself [38].

Response to herbicides: The response of Canada goldenrod to herbicides
is affected by population age. In Quebec, a young population which had
recently invaded a disturbed site was less susceptible to 2,4-D than an
old, established population. Conversely, susceptibility to paraquat,
simazine, and diuron declined with population age [38].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA
ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA
MI MN MS MO MT NE NH NJ NY NC
ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX
UT VT VA WA WV WI WY AB BC MB
NB NF NT NS ON PE PQ SK YT
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Other uses and values

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Canada goldenrod is an important source of nectar for honeybees [38].
Several shades of dye can be produced from Canada goldenrod [1].
license
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Palatability

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
In Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming, Canada goldenrod
is rated good to fair in palatability for cattle, sheep, and horses [5].
license
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

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More info on this topic.

Canada goldenrod rhizomes are usually produced in late autumn and lie
dormant during the winter months. Shoot extension occurs the following
spring [38]. Canada goldenrod flowers from July through September,
although the length of its flowering season varies with geographic
location. Seeds are gradually dispersed during the autumn and winter
[3,20].
license
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cover, density, forest, frequency, prescribed fire, succession

Canada goldenrod responds positively following low- to moderate-severity
fires [23,27]. On a northwestern Minnesota prairie site, Canada
goldenrod showed increased flowering following a prescribed spring fire
[25]. In Wisconsin, prescribed fire had little effect on percent cover
of Canada goldenrod but accounted for an increase in stem density [15].

In a 53-year record of forest succession following fire in northern
lower Michigan, Canada goldenrod had its greatest frequency index 24
years after fire [28].

In a study of plant succession in the Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii)
brush zone after fire, Canada goldenrod showed a higher average number
of plants on burned areas than on unburned areas, even after 18
years [22].

In May and June, fires in wetland margins of southeastern North Dakota
were conducted for the purpose of increasing cover and forage for
waterfowl. In the summer after fires and the next year, Canada goldenrod
was either unchanged or reduced in cover as compared to control plots
[24].
license
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: ground residual colonizer, herb, rhizome

Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
license
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regeneration Processes

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: rhizome, seed

Canada goldenrod reproduces from seed and from creeping rhizomes
[25,30]. The flowers are self-incompatible and are pollinated by
insects. The seed is wind dispersed, with most seeds falling within
6.5 feet (2.0 m) of the parent plant [38].

Vegetative reproduction: Canada goldenrod reproduces from rhizomes after
the first year of growth. One erect stem usually forms at a rhizome
node. Each rhizome can produce a single shoot from its apical tip
[2,38].
license
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

2 Cascade Mountains
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Successional Status

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More info for the term: shrubs

Canada goldenrod is fairly shade intolerant although it occurs in
sparsely wooded areas [38]. It is one of the first species to invade
following disturbances including fire [23]. Canada goldenrod is
eventually replaced by shrubs [32].
license
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: fern

The currently accepted scientific name for Canada goldenrod is Solidago
canadensis L. [10]. Five varieties are recognized [10]:

Solidago canadensis var. canadensis L.
Solidago canadensis var. gilvocanescens Rydb.
S. c, var. salebrosa (Piper) M. E. Jones
Solidago canadensis var. scarbra T. & G.
Solidago canadensis var. hargeri Fern.

Taxonomy within the genus Solidago is complicated due to great
intraspecific variation and geographic clines in characteristics [38].
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Solidago canadensis

provided by wikipedia EN

Solidago canadensis, known as Canada goldenrod or Canadian goldenrod, is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae.[2] It is native to northeastern and north-central North America[3] and often forms colonies of upright growing plants, with many small yellow flowers in branching inflorescence held above the foliage. It is an invasive plant in other parts of the continent and several areas worldwide, including Europe and Asia. It is grown as an ornamental in flower gardens.

Description

Solidago canadensis is a herbaceous perennial plant with stems that grow 2-4 feet and sometimes to 6 feet (30–150(–200) cm) tall. It has a wide distribution with several varieties,[4] which have significant variability.[5] The lanceolate to broadly linear shaped leaves are alternately arranged on the stems.[6] The leaves are 4-6" long and 1" wide. The stems have lines of white hairs, while the undersides of the leaves are pubescent. The leaves are often prominently toothed.[7] The flowers have yellow rays and are arranged into small heads on branched pyramidal shaped inflorescences,[8] flowering occurs from July to October.[9] It has a rhizomatous growth habit, which can produce large colonies of clones.[10] This goldenrod can be found growing on distributed sites, along dry road sides to moist thickets.[11]

Ecology and distribution

Solidago canadensis is sometimes browsed by deer and is good to fair as food for domestic livestock such as cattle or horses.[12]

It is found in a variety of habitats. It typically is one of the first plants to colonize an area after disturbance (such as fire) and rarely persists once shrubs and trees become established. It is found in very dry locations and also waterlogged ones.[12]

Although utilized by a variety of insects to some degree for its floral rewards, it is especially strongly favored as a nectar source by paper wasps, such as Polistes parametricus and Polistes fuscatus.[13] Aside from wasps, it is also fairly popular with honeybees and bumblebees. It is generally passed over by monarchs and other larger-sized butterflies in favor of other flowers.

It can be extremely aggressive and tends to form monocultures and near-monocultures in parts of its native range, such as in Southwest Ohio clay loam. It often outcompetes competitive species in such habitat.[14] It not only seeds a great deal, but also spreads rapidly via running rhizomes. Its root system is very tough, and plants that have been pulled out of the ground prior to freezing and left exposed atop soil have survived -14 Fahrenheit (-26C) winter temperatures.

Usually a large monoculture of yellow flowers in early-fall is a sure sign that you are dealing with Canada goldenrod. These colonies can exclude all other plant growth and grow to a substantial size, making them a concern for land managers.

— Frank Hassler, [14]

Solidago canadensis is winter hardy in USDA zones 3-9.[15]

Invasive species

In many parts of Europe, Japan and China, it is established as an invasive weed.[16][17][18][19]

In eastern and southeastern China, particularly the provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Jiangxi and Shanghai, its invasion has caused widespread concern. It has been reported that the spread of invasive plants including Canada goldenrod has caused the extinction of 30 native plants in Shanghai.[20] In the city of Ningbo, Zhejiang, it has reduced local orange harvests.[21] It is still spreading across China, and sightings have been reported in as far as Yunnan province.[22]

Medicinal uses

The stems and leaves of goldenrod have been dried and used in folk medicine. Its main use has been on the skin to treat wounds and as a diuretic. It has been used to get rid of kidney stones and other kidney ailments by flushing them out. Other uses have included as a mouth rinse and gargle, and treatment for inflammation, tuberculosis, allergies, gout, hemorrhoids, arthritis, asthma, internal bleeding. Animal testing has shown it to be effective in reducing hypertension, muscle spasms, and inflammation, as well as fighting infections.[23] It contains alkaloids that can mask bitterness,[24] possibly making it an alternative to artificial substances or licorice allergies in medicinal combinations.

Allergic skin reactions can occur when coming into contact with the living plant. However, it is generally recognized that the plant does not cause allergic rhinitis. It is often confused with ragweed, which does cause pollen allergies.[23]

References

  1. ^ "Solidago canadensis". The Global Compositae Checklist (GCC) – via The Plant List.
  2. ^ "Solidago canadensis". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Solidago canadensis". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
  4. ^ Hong Qian; K. Klinka (1998). Plants of British Columbia: Scientific and Common Names of Vascular Plants, Bryophytes, and Lichens. UBC Press. pp. 440–. ISBN 978-0-7748-0652-7.
  5. ^ http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200024550
  6. ^ Steven Foster; Christopher Hobbs (2002). A Field Guide to Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 131–. ISBN 0-395-83806-1.
  7. ^ Leonard Adkins (10 August 2006). Wildflowers of the Appalachian Trail. Menasha Ridge Press. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-0-89732-974-3.
  8. ^ France Royer; Richard Dickinson (December 1996). Wildflowers of Calgary and Southern Alberta. University of Alberta. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-0-88864-283-7.
  9. ^ Donald D. Cox (1 January 2005). A Naturalist's Guide to Field Plants: An Ecology for Eastern North America. Syracuse University Press. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-0-8156-0780-9.
  10. ^ David J. Gibson (2015). Methods in Comparative Plant Population Ecology. Oxford University Press. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-0-19-967147-2.
  11. ^ John C. Kricher; National Audubon Society; National Wildlife Federation (1998). A Field Guide to Eastern Forests, North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 2–. ISBN 0-395-92895-8.
  12. ^ a b c Coladonato, Milo (1993). "Solidago canadensis". Fire Effects Information System (FEIS). US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service (USFS), Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Retrieved 2009-08-24 – via https://www.feis-crs.org/feis/.
  13. ^ a b Buck, Matthias (26 October 2012). "Taxonomic adventures in the world of paper wasps". Research Blogging. Entomological Society of Canada. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  14. ^ a b c Hassler, Frank (21 August 2014). "Canada Goldenrod" (PDF). goodoak.com. Good Oak Ecological Services. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  15. ^ Maureen Heffernan (1 February 2010). Native Plants for Your Maine Garden. Down East Books. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-0-89272-900-5.
  16. ^ a b Semple, John C.; Cook, Rachel E. (2006). "Solidago canadensis". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 20. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  17. ^ a b Altervista Flora Italiana, Verga d'oro del Canadà, Solidago canadensis L. photos, European distribution map
  18. ^ a b Chen, Yilin; Semple, John C. "Solidago canadensis". Flora of China – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  19. ^ a b Atlas of Living Australia
  20. ^ a b Jiangsu's battle with Canada Goldenrod (Chinese) Archived 2006-06-24 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ a b Jiaodianfangtan (Chinese) Archived 2004-12-17 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ a b Blanchan, Neltje (2005). Wild Flowers Worth Knowing. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.
  23. ^ a b c "Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Penn State Hershey Medical Center - Goldenrod".
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Solidago canadensis: Brief Summary

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Solidago canadensis, known as Canada goldenrod or Canadian goldenrod, is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae. It is native to northeastern and north-central North America and often forms colonies of upright growing plants, with many small yellow flowers in branching inflorescence held above the foliage. It is an invasive plant in other parts of the continent and several areas worldwide, including Europe and Asia. It is grown as an ornamental in flower gardens.

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