Brief Summary

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Apocynum cannabinum has a broad bioregional distribution in North America ranging from California to British Columbia on the west coast and spreading broadly across the Great Basin Floristic Province and thence further eastward in the USA. Preferred habitats are moist places near streams, springs and floodplains at elevations less than 2000 meters.

With the common name Hemp dogbane, this stout plant is more or less stiffly erect and branched near the top. The leaves are petioled with blades five to eight centimeters, with a base tapered to cordate, sometimes clasping stem; leaf tips are obtuse to acute. Flower corollae are 2.5 to 5.0 millimeters in extent, and cylindric to urn-shaped in shape. Fruits are six to nine cm in characteristic size.
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Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

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More info for the terms: rhizome, root crown

The development of new Indianhemp plants 100 days following severe fire in Ontario, on a site previously dominated by white spruce and quaking aspen, resulted from rhizome and root crown sprouts [27].
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Common Names

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Indianhemp

common dogbane

dogbane

hemp dogbane

prairie dogbane
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Description

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More info for the terms: cyme, herb, trichasium

This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available [17,31,38,50,57,91,112,125,134,155,158].

Indianhemp is a native, perennial, broadleaf herb. In some cases, it is considered a weed [15,77,104,119]. It has an erect to ascending growth habit and reaches heights of 2 to 6 feet (0.6-1.8 m) from a spreading root stalk [15,28,77,119,156] Branching is opposite or sub-opposite [156]. The leaves are opposite, ovate to lanceololate, entire, and glabrous to sparingly pubescent beneath [5,15,28,119,156]. The flowers consist of 5 petals occurring in terminal clusters from the leaf axils [15,119]. The inflorescence of Indianhemp is a trichasial cyme. The lateral cymes of the trichasium can continue growing vegetatively to form a complete stem with their own terminal trichasiums [156]. The fruits are slender, pencil-like, hanging pods that are 4 to 8 inches (10-20 cm) long and occur in pairs. Seeds are flat, thin, and tufted with soft hairs [15,77,119]. Indianhemp leaves, stems, and roots all contain milky juice [14,15,28,119].

Indianhemp has 2 underground organs: the 1st are thick, branched, horizontal rhizomes that produce new aerial shoots at variable depths. The 2nd are slender, well-branched, vertical, absorbing roots [99]. These large roots/rhizome systems have been found as deep as 13 feet (4 m) below the soil surface and may extend up to 20 feet (6 m) in radial spread [76,104].

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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Indianhemp occurs in North America [156]. It is found throughout all of the lower 48 United States and most of Canada, including Newfoundland. Historic populations in Maryland have been extirpated [72]. Plants Database provides a distributional map of Indian hemp.
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Fire Ecology

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More info for the terms: fire regime, rhizome, root crown, seed, top-kill

Fire adaptations: Indianhemp has an extensive, deep root and rhizome system, and sprouts from the root crown and rhizomes after top-kill by fire. For example, populations near Ottawa, Ontario, sprouted from both rhizomes and root crowns following severe fire [27]. Indianhemp also reproduces from wind-blown seed [96,97], so postfire establishment from seed is possible. The ability of Indianhemp to colonize disturbed areas may give it an advantage on burned soils.

FIRE REGIMES: The extensive distribution of Indianhemp places it in a wide range of fire regimes. Plains and mountain grasslands where Indianhemp occurs have short fire-return intervals and could burn in any year if fuels are cured [20]. Indianhemp is found in communities with mixed-severity and understory FIRE REGIMES as described by Brown and Smith [20]. The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where Indianhemp occurs. Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find FIRE REGIMES".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years) maple-beech Acer-Fagus spp. 684-1,385 [30,144] maple-beech-birch Acer-Fagus-Betula spp. >1,000 [144] Nebraska sandhills prairie Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium <10 bluestem-Sacahuista prairie Andropogon littoralis-Spartina spartinae <10 sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [106] basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [120] birch Betula spp. 80-230 [136] plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. 106,157] blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii 106,118,157] blue grama-buffalo grass Bouteloua gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides 106,157] grama-galleta steppe Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis jamesii 106] cheatgrass Bromus tectorum 107,153] black ash Fraxinus nigra 144] green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica <35 to >300 [47,144] wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii <5-47+ [106,111,157] Great Lakes spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to >200 northeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35-200 [45] jack pine Pinus banksiana 30,45] shortleaf pine Pinus echinata 2-15 shortleaf pine-oak Pinus echinata-Quercus spp. <10 [144] longleaf-slash pine Pinus palustris-P. elliottii 1-4 [103,144] longleaf pine-scrub oak Pinus palustris-Quercus spp. 6-10 [144] interior ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [7,10,85] red pine (Great Lakes region) Pinus resinosa 3-18 (x=3-10) [29,53] eastern white pine Pinus strobus 35-200 [136,144] Virginia pine Pinus virginiana 10 to <35 Virginia pine-oak Pinus virginiana-Quercus spp. 10 to <35 sycamore-sweetgum-American elm Platanus occidentalis-Liquidambar styraciflua-Ulmus americana <35 to 200 [144] eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides <35 to 200 [106] quaking aspen-paper birch Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera 35-200 [45,144] quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains) Populus tremuloides 7-120 [7,60,95] mountain grasslands Pseudoroegneria spicata 3-40 (x=10) [6,7] Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir* Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca 25-100 [7,8,9] oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. <35 [144] Oregon white oak Quercus garryana <35 [7] oak savanna Quercus macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [106,144] post oak-blackjack oak Quercus stellata-Q. marilandica <10 [144] little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. <35 [106] *fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Fire Management Considerations

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The current body of research provides no clear direction for using fire as a management tool for Indianhemp populations. The results of studies done to date, 2006, are conflicting. Further research is needed on the fire ecology of Indianhemp.
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info for the terms: geophyte, hemicryptophyte

RAUNKIAER [114] LIFE FORM:
Hemicryptophyte
Geophyte
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Habitat characteristics

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More info for the terms: mesic, tree, woodland

Indianhemp can grow in diverse environments [113]. It prefers damp locations along streams and ditches and in marshes, though it can be found growing less abundantly in drier locations such as thickets, open woods, and open ground [35,70].

Indianhemp is seldom found on soils low in fertility. It grows best on fertile, medium- to heavy-textured soils [116,160].

The following table describes site characteristics for Indianhemp throughout its distribution.

State/Region/Province Site Characteristics Arizona Streambeds in woodlands and riparian woodlands between 3,000 to 7,500 feet (910-2,300 m) [18,74] California Damp/moist places near streams, springs, and ditches below 7,000 feet (2,100 m), sometimes in deserts or a weed in orchards [28,63,101,102] Colorado Roadside ditches and floodplains between 3,500 and 7,500 feet (1,100-2,300 m) [61,145,146] Illinois Prairies, fields, abandoned fields and rocky woods [89,98] Kansas Prairies, streambanks, roadsides, and "waste grounds" [11] Minnesota Pipestone National Monument: rock outcrops, woodlands, and tallgrass prairies [13] Montana Hills, slopes, moist, shady areas, and disturbed areas [17,42]; sometimes found in wetlands, but also occurs in drier sites [115]      west-central Montana Along rivers below high water marks, on islands, and low banks. Often in half shade beneath tree canopies, also on gravelly, vernally moist to wet places, and on disturbed sites. Dry to moist valleys [81,82] Nevada Gravelly slopes, damp ditch banks or canyon bottoms from 2,800 to 6,500 feet (850-2,000 m) [73] Nebraska Occurs in patches in field crops and may occur as a dense infestation throughout the field [160]; ravines and wet meadows [131] New Mexico Moist, open, or "waste ground" between 3,500 and 7,500 feet (1,100-2,300 m) [91] New York

Wet meadows and margins of bogs [126]. Rarely found on Fire Island (off Long Island, New York) on dry, open sandflats and sandy dredged material [44]

North Carolina Disturbed areas, old fields, and roadsides [94] Ohio Moist to mesic fields and thickets, pond and stream margins, moist to mesic woodland openings and borders, railways, roadsides, and other "waste places" [5] Oregon "Wastelands" and seldom cultivated areas, especially in orchards [139] South Dakota - Black Hills Hills, streambanks, and railroad embankments [41,93] Texas Open or disturbed, often moist ground. Sandy, gravelly, or eroding clayey soils [38] Utah Roadsides, fields, streambanks, and disturbed sites mainly in riparian communities between 3,200 to 7,700 feet (970-2,350 m). "Poorly kept" agricultural lands [57,152] Virginia Low woods [151] Wyoming Hills, slopes, and disturbed areas [43] Great Plains Prairies, river floodplains, terraces, open or woodland waterways or lakeshores, disturbed roadsides or fields, ditches, and sparsely wooded slopes [58,70] Intermountain west Moist to moderately moist, disturbed areas along roadsides and ditch-banks between 1,600 to 7,200 feet (500-2,200 m) [34] Northern Great Plains Borders of marshes, lakes, streams and other moist to wet places, often in disturbed areas [83] Ozark Mountains Glades, prairies, open woods, and "waste ground" [33] Pacific Northwest A "serious" weed on "wasteland" areas that are infrequently plowed, occasionally a problem in orchards [64,65] western U.S. Grows on plains and foothills at elevations up to 7000 feet (2,100 m). Commonly found on gravelly or sandy fields, in meadows, and along creekbeds, irrigation ditches, and fence lines in cultivated pastures [69,140] British Columbia Collected in draws and exposed banks [1] Nova Scotia Gravelly beaches and cobbley or sandy stream banks [117] Baja California Streams and ditches, meadows, and hillsides [154]
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

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SAF COVER TYPES [49]:




1 Jack pine

16 Aspen

17 Pin cherry

18 Paper birch

20 White pine-northern red oak-red maple

37 Northern white-cedar

39 Black ash-American elm-red maple

40 Post oak-blackjack oak

46 Eastern redcedar

61 River birch-sycamore

63 Cottonwood

70 Longleaf pine

71 Longleaf pine-scrub oak

75 Shortleaf pine

76 Shortleaf pine-oak

78 Virginia pine-oak

79 Virginia pine

83 Longleaf pine-slash pine

95 Black willow

107 White spruce

108 Red maple

210 Interior Douglas-fir

217 Aspen

222 Black cottonwood-willow

233 Oregon white oak

235 Cottonwood-willow

237 Interior ponderosa pine

252 Paper birch
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

ECOSYSTEMS [54]:




FRES10 White-red-jack pine

FRES11 Spruce-fir

FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine

FRES14 Oak-pine

FRES15 Oak-hickory

FRES16 Oak-gum-cypress

FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood

FRES18 Maple-beech-birch

FRES19 Aspen-birch

FRES20 Douglas-fir

FRES21 Ponderosa pine

FRES28 Western hardwoods

FRES29 Sagebrush

FRES32 Texas savanna

FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe

FRES36 Mountain grasslands

FRES38 Plains grasslands

FRES39 Prairie
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

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KUCHLER [79] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:




K011 Western ponderosa forest

K012 Douglas-fir forest

K026 Oregon oakwoods

K038 Great Basin sagebrush

K053 Grama-galleta steppe

K054 Grama-tobosa prairie

K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe

K063 Foothills prairie

K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass

K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass

K069 Bluestem-grama prairie

K074 Bluestem prairie

K081 Oak savanna

K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100

K084 Cross Timbers

K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest

K095 Great Lakes pine forest

K096 Northeastern spruce-fir forest

K098 Northern floodplain forest

K100 Oak-hickory forest

K101 Elm-ash forest

K104 Appalachian oak forest

K111 Oak-hickory-pine

K112 Southern mixed forest
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: cover, woodland

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [127]:




101 Bluebunch wheatgrass

401 Basin big sagebrush

411 Aspen woodland

601 Bluestem prairie

602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed

604 Bluestem-grama prairie

606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass

609 Wheatgrass-grama

610 Wheatgrass

731 Cross timbers-Oklahoma
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Immediate Effect of Fire

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More info for the term: rhizome

Fire likely top-kills Indianhemp. It is probably resistant to fire-induced mortality because of its deep root and rhizome system.
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

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More info for the terms: cover, fresh

Indianhemp is poisonous to all livestock, although domestic sheep are affected more than other animals [15,33,35,69,110,119,123,129,140]. However, actual cases of livestock poisoning from Indianhemp are rare [15,35]. Traces of Indianhemp were found in rumen samples of pronghorn and white-tailed deer in Montana, but no animals were observed eating it [2,32].

Indianhemp is a primary host for 2 species of leaf beetle [40]. It is also a host plant for Chrysochus auratus (a root beetle) in Iowa. Chrysochus auratus mating and ovipositing occur on Indianhemp throughout the summer. Once hatched, the larvae drop to the ground and tunnel to the roots of the host plants, where they feed and overwinter [130].

Butterfly gardeners grow Indianhemp because it is a valuable native nectar plant [68].

Palatability/nutritional value: Indianhemp is unpalatable at all seasons, even to livestock that are virtually starving [46]. Animals usually avoid Indianhemp because of the bitter, sticky, milky-white juice; however, domestic sheep may eat large quantities if other forage is scarce [69,140].

All parts of Indianhemp, fresh or dried, are poisonous because of the toxic glycoside it contains [33,35,69,123,140]. The levels of the glycoside, cymarin, in Indianhemp are disputed. Knight [77] claims the levels of cymarin are low and Majak [90] states that there are high concentrations. Death from Indianhemp poisoning may occur 6 to 12 hours after animals eat the plant. A lethal dose for domestic sheep is about 0.5 to 1 ounce/100 pounds of body weight. A lethal dose for cattle and horses is about 0.5 to 0.75 ounce/100 pounds of body weight [69,140].

Cover value: Cover of Indianhemp for wildlife has been rated as follows [39]:

  UT MT elk poor ---- mule deer poor ---- white-tailed deer ---- fair pronghorn poor ---- small mammals fair ---- small nongame birds fair ---- upland game birds poor ---- waterfowl poor ----
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Key Plant Community Associations

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More info for the terms: association, marsh, natural

Indianhemp is not an indicator or dominant species in vegetation typings. It is
considered a characteristic (secondary) plant species in the wet-meadow
vegetation of the Prairie Potholes in North Dakota [132].
In Virginia, Indianhemp is "particularly characteristic" of the Rocky Bars and
Shores communities of the palustrine-alluvial floodplain communities
[52].

Other communities where Indianhemp is known to occur:






  • Freshwater tidal marsh of the Merrimack River, Massachusetts in the high tide zone [25]




  • Weeping alkali grass (Puccinellia distans) association and seeps in canyons
    (vertical, loose, sandy soils) in Tsegi Canyon, Arizona [66]




  • Cultivated and uncultivated field crops [64,65,69,89,98,104,140,160]




  • Natural (vs. restored) prairie wetlands in northwest Iowa [124]


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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Life Form

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More info for the term: forb

Forb
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Management considerations

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More info for the terms: rhizome, root crown

Indianhemp is considered a serious weed problem in agricultural fields in the
Midwest and can cause decreases in yield [14,22,76,104,116,147,148,149,150,160].
Infestations tend to occur in agricultural crops where no-tillage systems have
been implemented, which allow for Indianhemp's rhizome and root system to become
well established [56,147,148,149]. Reductions in yield are reportedly due
to allelopathic influences of Indianhemp [122,159]. Indianhemp is also considered
a weed species in nurseries, plantations where Christmas
trees are grown, and in orchards [64,65,80].

Indianhemp increases on grazed pastures in South Dakota [87].

Control:
Many management strategies have been used to try to control Indianhemp,
with different levels of success. Complete control is difficult due to
Indianhemp's persistent and extensive root and rhizome system [104].


Integrated management:
A successful management program to control Indianhemp likely
includes a combination of cultural, mechanical (tillage including the usage of plows, disks, or
cultivators), and chemical methods [119] as well as an appropriate schedule for
implementing these methods. There is widespread agreement that timing of control methods is
critical and can make weed management very difficult [56,104,147,149]. Fall herbicide treatments
have provided better control than spring treatments. The
spring treatments can effectively control Indianhemp, but the timing often occurs
when the most damage can be done to other herbs [14,116,160].
Becker [15] states that herbicide application timing should coincide
with late bud to early flower set, or beyond. Mechanical methods such as mowing,
cultivation, or tilling practices should be implemented at mid- to full-flower,
before root carbohydrate levels begin, to recover to maximize carbohydrate depletion [14].


Physical/mechanical:
Mechanical control has been shown to decrease and increase infestations. Numerous Indianhemp
sprouts occurred on study plots that had the soil scraped off. The scraping and deep plowing
destroyed most of the perennating tissues except for the some deeply buried
rhizomes. The following
year Indianhemp continued to spread and increase in height. A steady decrease was
observed in the following years, until it was absent
or of little importance [75]. Buhler and others [22] state that Indianhemp can be
controlled by tillage systems. Tillage can reduce infestations if done
frequently (every 2 to 3 weeks) enough to deplete underground root reserves [119].
Increases in infestations where tillage practices are used have been attributed
to tillage equipment moving parts of the root systems to new areas and by breaking
dormancy of underground buds, resulting in new shoot growth [122,160].



Chemical control has also had mixed success. The seedlings are
"easily controlled" by most soil-applied herbicides including 2, 4-D and glyphosate.
Once seedlings become established, control becomes much more difficult [15].
A broad range of herbicides was reported to be effective (80% to
≥92%) on Indianhemp seedlings in a greenhouse study in Delaware [142]. Depending on the herbicide,
applications made during the vegetative stage of growth provide a shorter-term
control than applications made during the early reproductive stage. Applying
herbicides during the early
reproductive stage provides the longer-term control but can be harmful to other
herbs [104]. Applications of the "traditionally safe" herbicides sulfometuron
methyl and imazapyr were used on Indianhemp in eastern white pine plantations were unsuccessful [80].
Glenn and Anderson [56] report good Indianhemp control
with herbicide applications of 1 or more of the following: 2, 4-D,
dicamba, nicosulfuron, and triclopyr; however, regrowth from the root crown occurred
occasionally. Herbicide treatments reduce the vigor of Indianhemp plants but
often do not kill them [160].
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Other uses and values

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Indianhemp is known for its importance to early Native Americans. The strong, fibrous root and stem fibers were used to make fish nets, rope, thread, baskets, cloth, and bags [1,4,15,28,35,78,105,121,128,138,156].

Indianhemp is known to have many medicinal purposes. The glycoside, cymarin, was used as a cardiac stimulant, a diuretic, a diaphoretic, a febrifuge, a rheumatism remedy, and a treatment for gall stones [35,69,78,128,140]. The dried milky fluid in the stems can be used as a chewing gum substitute [78].

The fragrant flowers attract honeybees for nectar, making a "superior," almost colorless honey [33].

There may be potential for using Indianhemp as a hydrocarbon-producing crop as an energy alternative [21].

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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Phenology

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Seasonal development of Indianhemp begins with emergence in late spring or early summer [69,140]. Established plants initiate growth in the spring from root crown and rhizome buds [116,160]. The lateral cymes continue to add vegetative tissue, prolonging the productive potential of the plant. In this manner Indianhemp may continue bloom and vegetative growth from spring until late in the autumn, giving it a distinct advantage over the much shorter periods of growth of the other Apocynum species [156].

The seasonal nonstructural carbohydrate levels of Indianhemp decline with vegetative growth in the spring, reach seasonal lows during flowering, and then increase until fall dormancy [14].

The following table details the different flowering periods of Indianhemp throughout its distribution.

State/Region/Province Anthesis Period Arizona May to August [74] California June to August [101,102] Illinois May to August [89,98] Kansas Mid-May to mid-August [11] Nebraska June to August [131] Nevada June to August [73] New Mexico May to September [91] North Dakota June to July [26] Ohio June to August [5] Texas April to July [38,46] Utah - Uinta Basin June to August [57] Great Plains May to September [58,135] Intermountain west May to August [34] Northern Great Plains June to August, fruiting August to October [83] Pacific Northwest June to September [64,65] Nova Scotia July to August [117] Baja California June to July [154]

Phenological data for Indianhemp growing along a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) waterway at Lincoln, Nebraska is given below [122].

Growth Stage 1977 1978 Emergence April 18 April 29 Bud May 20 June 2 Early flower May 26 June 13 Full bloom June 4 June 21 Pod initiation June 17 not produced
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Plant Response to Fire

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More info for the terms: cover, density, fire frequency, frequency, graminoid, prescribed burn, prescribed fire

There are conflicting results as to how Indianhemp responds to fire. Johnson and Knapp [71] stated that populations of Indianhemp increased with increased fire frequency on tallgrass prairie in Kansas [71]. However, Tester [137] found a nonsignificant negative effect of burn frequency on Indianhemp in an oak savanna of east-central Minnesota [137].

Indianhemp was found on all 5 burned study plots 100 days after fire in a white spruce-quaking aspen site in Ontario [27]. Indianhemp also produced new spring growth within days following a prescribed burn in a tallgrass prairie in Kansas [71].

Prescribed burns were implemented in consecutive years in an oak savanna in east-central Illinois. The 1st fire resulted in a "hot, intense" fire, and the fire the following year was not as hot or intense. Indianhemp increased on burned sites but only in the 2nd postfire year [67]. It increased in percent cover on both control and burn plots studied after a prescribed fire on a mid-elevation wetland in southeastern Arizona [51].

Conversely, the findings of Bowles and others [19] indicate that Indianhemp populations did not survive after 8 dormant-season prescribed burns on graminoid fens in Cook County, Illinois. Indianhemp plants were recorded on the study plots before burning, but were not present after 5 years [19]. On study plots dominated by post oak, winged elm (Ulmus alata), and white ash (Fraxinus americana) in southern Illinois, Indianhemp was observed during prefire sampling and not found in postfire months 5 or 6 (burns characterized as "moderate, at best") [62]. In a sedge-beaked spikerush-Kentucky bluegrass (Carex spp.-Eleocharis rostellata-Poa pratensis) wetland near Tucson, Arizona, Indianhemp density increased more on control plots than burned plots. Indianhemp increased on high-frequency repeat spring burns (every 2-3 years), medium-frequency repeat spring burns (every 5-7 years), and unburned control plots [51]. However, analyses of variance failed to demonstrate a significant (p=0.70) effect of burning on Indianhemp cover.

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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Post-fire Regeneration

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More info for the terms: geophyte, herb, rhizome, secondary colonizer, seed

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [133]:
Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Regeneration Processes

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More info for the terms: adventitious, coma, competition, rhizome, root crown, seed, stratification

Indianhemp regenerates by seed and vegetative means. Regeneration is largely by vegetative means from rhizomes or from root crown buds located at the woody base of stems [15,55,104,119,147].

Pollination: Indianhemp is visited by 19 species of bees and wasps, 17 species of flies, 2 species of butterflies and/or moths, 1 species of beetle, and 2 species of bugs and/or aphids. However, it appears that these visits do not succeed in pollination. Successful transfer of pollen seems to occur only when the insect is trapped in the flower and struggles to escape, in turn collecting pollen [156]. Bees, butterflies, and flies were observed as nectar feeders on Apocynum flowers. Pollen was not observed on any of these insects after visiting the flowers [70]. Indianhemp does not self pollinate [70,156].

Breeding system: Apocynum flowers depend largely on cross-pollination for sexual reproduction [156]. Cross-pollination is frequent in the genus [3].

Seed production: Indianhemp can produce numerous seeds [69,113]. A study by Shultz and Burnside [122] in Nebraska reveals that the number of seeds produced by an individual plant is dependent on the amount of competition for water, light, and nutrients. Grown without any competition Indianhemp produced up to 150 pods with 81 seeds per pod. When grown with soybeans (Glycine max), Indianhemp only produced 2 pods/plant on average [122]. Seed production in disturbed areas was around 600/plant [109].

Seed dispersal: Indianhemp seeds are dispersed by wind and gravity [96,97,139]. The small seeds are specialized for dispersal over long distances. They have a very large, fine coma (a tuft of hairs on the seed) that facilitates wind dispersal [92,108,109,139,147].

Seed banking: Seed dormancy of Indianhemp is unclear, though viability of Indianhemp seed declines rapidly in soil [23,113]. Burial studies indicated that the seeds are not long-lived and that the seeds do not persist after 1 year in the soil [12,24]. In Pennsylvania Indianhemp has been found in the aboveground vegetation and not in the seed bank [84]. Conversely, Indianhemp emerged from the seed bank of a Delaware River freshwater tidal wetland [86]. Further research is needed on the seed dormancy of Indianhemp.

Germination: Germination ability of Indianhemp seed depends on burial depth and seed age. A long-term study done by Burnside and others [23] tested the viability of seeds buried at a depth of 8 inches (20 cm). At the 1st study site there was 74% seed germination at year 0, 22% seed germination after burial of 1 year, and 0% in years after that. At the 2nd site germination rates were 74% at year 0, 52% after year 1, 13% in year 2, and 1% in year 4 and 6 [23]. In another laboratory study the greatest germination occurred when seeds were buried at 0.4 inch (1 cm), and germination declined greatly at greater depths [116].

A study by Everetts and Burnside [48] comparing temperature and germination of Indianhemp seed revealed that successful germination occurred between 59 ºF to 95 ºF (15-35 ºC). The highest germination rate occurred at 95 ºF (35 ºC).

Stratification inhibited Indianhemp seed germination in a greenhouse study done by Greene and Curtis [59]. After 3 months of stratification 0% of the seeds germinated, while 10% of unstratified seed germinated.

Seedling establishment/growth: A study by Everetts and Burnside [48] comparing Indianhemp seedling development and temperature found seedling establishment occurred at 59 ºF to 95 ºF (15-35 ºC). Indianhemp could not establish seedlings at or below 50 ºF (10 ºC) or at or above 100 ºF (40 ºC) [48]. Best establishment occurs on moist sites [108].

Asexual regeneration: Apocynum species spread by cloning [70]. Indianhemp reproduces by rhizomes or sprouting from the root crown [15]. Aerial shoots arise from adventitious rhizome buds. Rhizomes spread extensively, forming new plants at "considerable" distances [76,99]. Seedlings are capable of sprouting within 10 to 41 days of emergence [15,119].

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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [16]:




1 Northern Pacific Border

2 Cascade Mountains

3 Southern Pacific Border

4 Sierra Mountains

5 Columbia Plateau

6 Upper Basin and Range

7 Lower Basin and Range

8 Northern Rocky Mountains

9 Middle Rocky Mountains

10 Wyoming Basin

11 Southern Rocky Mountains

12 Colorado Plateau

13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont

14 Great Plains

15 Black Hills Uplift

16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

States or Provinces

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(key to state/province abbreviations)
UNITED STATES AL AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY DC PR VI
CANADA AB BC MB NB NF NT NS ON PQ SK
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Successional Status

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Indianhemp is most often referred to as an early successional species. It colonizes disturbed sites, abandoned agricultural fields, and prairie pot hole wetlands [75,100,108]. On restored prairies in Arkansas, Indianhemp established during the 2nd year after disturbance, declined during the 3rd year, and generally disappeared or was greatly diminished by the 4th growing season, when it was overtopped by other species [36].

Indianhemp is occasional in older (20 to 30 years) jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and mixed-hardwood stands in New Brunswick [88].

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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Synonyms

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A. hypericifolium Ait.

A. pubescens Mitchell ex R. Br.

A. sibiricum Jacq.

A. suksdorfii Greene [72]
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Taxonomy

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The scientific name of Indianhemp is Apocynum cannabinum L. (Apocynaceae) [72].
Hybridization is a common occurrence in this genus [3]. Apocynum × floribundum Greene is
a hybrid of spreading dogbane (A. androsaemifolium) and Indianhemp [3,70].
When information specific to Indianhemp is not
available, information on the genus Apocynum is given.
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

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There is value in using Indianhemp for the rehabilitation of disturbed sites. It grows very well in disturbed areas. It is, for example, common on American badger-disturbed sites [108,109]. It is also recognized as a worthwhile native landscaping plant because it spreads rapidly by vegetative means and can help suppress weeds [37].
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Reeves, Sonja L. 2006. Apocynum cannabinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/apocan/all.html

Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Apocynum suksdorfii Greene, Pittonia 5: 65. 1902
Apocynum laurinum Greene, Pittonia 5: 65. 1902.
Apocynum oUganthum Greene, Leaflets 1: 58. 1904.
Apocynum myriantkum Greene, Leaflets 1: 59. 1904.
Apocynum cannabinum var. oUganthum B6g. & Bel. Mem. Accad. Lincei V. 9: 694. 1913.
Apocynum cannabinum var. Suksdorfii Beg. & Bel. Mem. Accad. Lincei V. 9: 695. 1913.
Apocynum hyperictfolium var. myriantkum B^g. & Bel. Mem. Accad. Lincei V. 9: 708. 1913.
Apocynum hypericifolium var. pseudosuksdorfii B6g. & Bel. Mem. Accad. Lincei V. 9: 708, 1913.
Stems erect or somewhat ascending, 4—7 dm. tall, glabrous throughout, the' branches opposite to subopposite; leaves petiolate, or the lower subsessile, ascending or only slightly spreading, oblong-ovate, 4-8 cm. long, 1.5-2.5 cm. broad, glabrous throughout; calyx-lobes oblong to lanceolate, 1-1,5 mm. long, glabrous; corolla cylindric, white, 2-4 mm. long, glabrous externally, the lobes erect or only slightly spreading; follicles 9-10 cm. long, pendulous, glabrous.
Type locality: [Klickitat County, Washington.]
Distribution: Colorado to Washington, and southward to Arizona and California.
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Robert Everard Woodson, Jr. 1938. (ASCLEPIADALES); APOCYNACEAE. North American flora. vol 29(2). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Comprehensive Description

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Apocynum cannabinum I/. Sp. PL 213. 1753
Apocynum platyphylluw. Greene, Leaflets 2: 166. 1912.
Apocynum cannabinum var. puberulum B6g. & Bel. Mem. Accad. Lincei V. 9: 691. 1913.
Apocynum cannabinum var. incanum Beg. & Bel. Mem. Accad. Lincei V. 9: 691. 1913.
Apocynum Greeneanum B^g. & Bel. Mem. Accad. Lincei V. 9: 701. 1913.
Cynopaema cannabinum Lunell, Am. Midi. Nat. 4: 509. 1916.
Apocynum. cannabinum. var. Greeneanum Woodson, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 17: 132. 1930.
Stems erect or ascending, 3-9 dm. tall, glabrous, the branches opposite to subopposite; leaves opposite, rarely verticillate, petiolate, or the lowermost subsessile, ascending or only slightly spreading, ovate to lanceolate, 2-14 cm. long, 1-7 cm. broad, glabrous above, more or less densely pilosulous to tomentulose beneath; calyx-lobes lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 3-4 mm. long, glabrous; corolla cylindric to urceolate, 3-6 mm. long, white to greenish, the lobes erect or only slightly spreading; follicles 12-20 cm. long, glabrous, pendulous at maturity.
Type locality: Virginia.
Distribution: Throughout the United States.
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Robert Everard Woodson, Jr. 1938. (ASCLEPIADALES); APOCYNACEAE. North American flora. vol 29(2). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Apocynum cannabinum

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Apocynum cannabinum (dogbane, amy root, hemp dogbane, prairie dogbane, Indian hemp, rheumatism root, or wild cotton)[2] is a perennial herbaceous plant that grows throughout much of North America—in the southern half of Canada and throughout the United States.[1][3] It is a poisonous plant: Apocynum means "poisonous to dogs". All parts of the plant are poisonous and can cause cardiac arrest if ingested. However, some Lepidoptera feed on this plant, such as two hummingbird moths.[4] The specific epithet cannabinum and the common names hemp dogbane and Indian hemp refer to its similarity to Cannabis as a fiber plant (see hemp), rather than as a source of a psychoactive drug.

Although dogbane is poisonous to livestock, it likely got its name from its resemblance to a European species of the same name.[5]

Description

Apocynum cannabinum grows up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) tall. The stems are reddish and contain a milky latex capable of causing skin blisters. The leaves are opposite, simple broad lanceolate, 7–15 cm (2+34–6 in) long and 3–5 cm (1+14–2 in) broad, entire, and smooth on top with white hairs on the underside. It flowers from July to August, has large sepals, and a five-lobed white corolla. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by moths and butterflies.[6]

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Apocynum cannabinum fruits and seeds

Distribution and habitat

Apocynum cannabinum grows in open wooded areas, ditches, and hillsides. It is found in gravelly or sandy soil, mainly near streams in shady or moist places.[6]

This species is native to North America. However, in gardens it can be unwanted, growing from spreading roots. When growing among corn, Apocynum cannabinum can reduce yields by up to 10% and when growing among soybeans, by up to 40%. It can be controlled through mechanical means, although it is difficult to control with herbicides.

Ecology

The plant serves as a larval host for the snowberry clearwing (Hemaris diffinis) and hummingbird clearwing (Hemaris thysbe) moths. These moths are pollinators that resemble small hummingbirds.

Uses

The plant can be used for various purposes. The most used parts are the seeds, the root, and the bark.

Fiber

Apocynum cannabinum was used as a source of fiber by Native Americans[7] to make bows, fire-bows, nets, tie down straps, hunting nets, fishing lines, and clothing.[5] It is called qéemu [qǽːmu] in Nez Perce and [taxʷɨ́s] in Sahaptin. The Concow tribe call the plant (Konkow language).[8]

Food

The seeds have an edible use as a meal (raw or cooked) when ground into a powder.[6]

Chewing gum

After the latex has been squeezed from the plant, it is allowed to stand overnight to harden into a white gum which can be used (sometimes mixed with clean clay) as chewing gum.[6]

Phytoremediation

Apocynum cannabinum is a phytoremediation plant, a hyperaccumulator used to sequester lead in its biomass.

Medicinal

It is used in herbal medicine to treat fever,[9] and dysentery. Although the toxins from the plant can cause nausea and catharsis, it has also been used for slowing the pulse,[9] and it is also a sedative and mild hypnotic. It is an unpleasantly bitter stimulant irritant herb that acts on the heart, respiratory and urinary systems, and also on the uterus. Apocynum cannabinum was much employed by various Native American tribes who used it to treat a wide variety of complaints including rheumatism, coughs, pox, whooping cough, asthma, internal parasites, diarrhoea and also to increase milk flow in lactating mothers.[6] The root has been used as a tonic, cardiotonic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic (induces vomitting) and expectorant.[9][6] It is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. The fresh root is the most active part medicinally.[6] A weak tea made from the dried root has been used for cardiac diseases and also as a vermifuge (an agent that expels parasitic worms).[6] The milky sap is a (presumably topically applied) folk remedy for venereal warts.[6] The plant is still used in modern herbalism, though it should be used with great caution and only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner if taken internally.

References

  1. ^ a b "Apocynum cannabinum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved June 18, 2014 – via The Plant List.
  2. ^ "Apocynum cannabinum". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  3. ^ "Apocynum cannabinum". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
  4. ^ "Hummingbird Moth (Hemaris spp.)". Retrieved July 23, 2017.
  5. ^ a b Heiser, C. B. (2003). Weeds in my Garden: Observations on some Misunderstood Plants. Portland, OR: Timber Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-88192-562-4.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Apocynum cannabinum". Plants for a Future. Retrieved Jan 4, 2015.
  7. ^ Coville, F. V. (1897). "Notes On The Plants Used By The Klamath Indians Of Oregon" (PDF). Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium. 5 (2): 87–108 (p. 103).
  8. ^ Chesnut, V. K. (1902). "Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California". Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium. 7 (3): 295–408 (p. 407). LCCN 08010527.
  9. ^ a b c Felter, Harvey (1922). The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Eclectic Medical Publications. ISBN 1888483032.

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Apocynum cannabinum: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Apocynum cannabinum (dogbane, amy root, hemp dogbane, prairie dogbane, Indian hemp, rheumatism root, or wild cotton) is a perennial herbaceous plant that grows throughout much of North America—in the southern half of Canada and throughout the United States. It is a poisonous plant: Apocynum means "poisonous to dogs". All parts of the plant are poisonous and can cause cardiac arrest if ingested. However, some Lepidoptera feed on this plant, such as two hummingbird moths. The specific epithet cannabinum and the common names hemp dogbane and Indian hemp refer to its similarity to Cannabis as a fiber plant (see hemp), rather than as a source of a psychoactive drug.

Although dogbane is poisonous to livestock, it likely got its name from its resemblance to a European species of the same name.

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Apocynum venetum

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Apocynum venetum, commonly known as sword-leaf dogbane,[2] is a plant species in the dogbane family, poisonous but used as a source of fiber, medicine, and nectar for production of honey.[3] Apocynum venetum leaves have been used in the traditional medicine for hypertension treatment.[4]

Distribution

Apocynum venetum is considered to be native to a wide range in northern Asia and SE Europe: Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Ex/Yugoslavia, Turkey, Ukraine, Russia, Siberia, Central Asia, Iran, Iraq, Cyprus, Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, and Japan.[1][3][5]

Uses

Apocynum venetum fibers can be extracted from the A. venetum bast; these fibers possess the luster of silk, smoothness of ramie, malleability of cashmere, and the softness of cotton.[6]

Subspecies

 src=
Dried Apocynum venetum tea leaves ("Luobuma")

Subspecies include:[1]

  1. Apocynum venetum subsp. armenum (Pobed.) ined. - Turkey, Iran, Caucasus
  2. Apocynum venetum subsp. basikurumon (H.Hara) ined. - Japan
  3. Apocynum venetum subsp. lancifolium (Russanov) ined. - Siberia, China (including Tibet + Xinjiang), Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan
  4. Apocynum venetum subsp. russanovii (Pobed.) ined. - Ostriv Dzharylhach Peninsula in Ukraine
  5. Apocynum venetum subsp. sarmatiense (Woodson) ined. - Bulgaria, Russia, Ukraine, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Caucasus
  6. Apocynum venetum subsp. scabrum (Russanov) ined. - Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan
  7. Apocynum venetum subsp. tauricum (Pobed.) ined. - Cape St. Ilya in Crimea
  8. Apocynum venetum subsp. venetum - Italy

References

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Apocynum venetum: Brief Summary

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Apocynum venetum, commonly known as sword-leaf dogbane, is a plant species in the dogbane family, poisonous but used as a source of fiber, medicine, and nectar for production of honey. Apocynum venetum leaves have been used in the traditional medicine for hypertension treatment.

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