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Specimens of Salix sinica from N and NW China have been misidentified as this species. Salix caprea differs from S. sinica follows: leaves thick, pubescent; filaments longer, 6-7 × as long as than bracts; ovary slightly longer than stipe.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 248 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Description

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Shrubs or small trees. Branchlets yellowish green to yellowish red, pilose or glabrous. Stipules semiorbicular, apex acute; petiole ca. 1 cm; leaf blade ovate-oblong, broadly ovate to obovate-oblong 5-7 × 2.5-4 cm, slightly thick, abaxially tomentose or downy, adaxially dull green, wrinkled, more conspicuously so when fresh, glabrous, base rounded, margin irregularly notched, dentate, or subentire, usually slightly recurved, apex acute or apiculate, usually contorted; reticulate veins conspicuous abaxially. Flowering precocious. Male catkin ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, 1.5-2.5 × ca. 1.5 cm, sessile; bracts 2-colored, light proximally, black distally, lanceolate, ca. 2 mm, long pubescent. Male flower: gland adaxial; stamens 2, distinct; filaments 6-8 mm, slender; anthers yellow, oblong. Female catkin shortly cylindric, ca. 2 × 0.8-1 cm, to 6 × 1.8 cm in fruit, shortly pedunculate; bracts as in male catkin. Female flower: gland as in male flowers; ovary narrowly conical, 2.5-3 mm, downy; stipe ca. 2 mm; style short; stigma 2-4-lobed. Capsule to 9 mm. Fl. Apr, fr. May-Jun. 2n = 38.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 248 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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Habitat & Distribution

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Mountain slopes, woods. Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol [N Asia, Europe]
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copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 248 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Salix bakko

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Salix bakko is a species of willow native to mountains of Japan.

It is a deciduous tree, reaching a height of 3–10 m.

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Salix caprea

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Salix caprea, known as goat willow, pussy willow or great sallow, is a common species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia.[1]

Description

It is a deciduous shrub or small tree, reaching a height of 8–10 m (26–33 ft), rarely to 13 m.

The leaves are 3–12 cm long and from 2–8 cm wide, broader than most other willows.

The flowers are soft silky, and silvery 3-7-cm-long catkins are produced in early spring before the new leaves appear; the male and female catkins are on different plants (dioecious). The male catkins mature yellow at pollen release, the female catkins mature pale green.

The fruit is a small capsule 5–10 mm long containing numerous minute seeds embedded in fine, cottony hairs. The seeds are very small (about 0.2 mm) with the fine hairs aiding dispersal; they require bare soil to germinate.[1][2]

The two varieties are:[1]

  • S. c. var. caprea - lowland regions throughout the range, leaves thinly hairy above, densely hairy below, 5–12 cm long, stipules persistent until autumn
  • S. c. var. sphacelata (Sm.) Wahlenb. (syn. S. caprea var. coaetanea Hartm.; S. coaetanea (Hartm.) Floderus) - high altitudes in the mountains of central and northern Europe (Alps, Carpathians, Scotland, Scandinavia), leaves densely silky-hairy on both sides, 3–7 cm long, stipules early deciduous

The scientific name, and the common name goat willow, probably derive from the first known illustration of the species in Hieronymus Bock's 1546 Herbal, where the plant is shown being browsed by a goat. The species was historically also widely used as a browse for goats, to which Bock's illustration may refer.[3]

Ecology

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Male catkins

S. caprea occurs both in wet/damp environments, such as riverbanks and lake shores, and in drier sites, wherever bare soil becomes available due to ground disturbance.[1]

Hybrids with several other willow species are common, notably with Salix cinerea (S. × reichardtii), Salix aurita (S. × multinervis), Salix viminalis (S. × smithiana), and Salix purpurea (S. × sordida). Populations of S. caprea often show hybrid introgression.[1][2]

Unlike almost all other willows, pure specimens do not take root readily from cuttings; if a willow resembling the species does root easily, it is probably a hybrid with another species of willow.[2]

The leaves are used as a food resource by several species of Lepidoptera, and are also commonly eaten by browsing mammals. Willows are very susceptible to gall inducers, and the midge Rhabdophaga rosaria forms the camellia gall on S. caprea.[4]

Cultivation and uses

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A willow flute

A small number of cultivars have been selected for garden use. The most common is S. caprea 'Kilmarnock', discovered by James Smith, with stiffly pendulous shoots forming a mop-head; it is a male clone. A similar female clone is S. caprea 'Weeping Sally'. As they do not form a leader, they are grafted on erect stems of other willows; the height of these cultivars is determined by the height at which the graft is made.[2] Plants can also be grown from greenwood cuttings, which make attractive creeping mounds. Hardwood cuttings are often difficult to root.

Both tannin and salicin can be extracted from goat willow bark. The tree is not considered a good source of timber, as its wood is both brittle and known to crackle violently if burned.

As with the closely related Salix discolor (American pussy willow), it is also often grown for cut flowers. See Pussy willow for further cultural information, which apply to both species.

In Scandinavia it has been fairly common to make willow flutes from goat willow cuttings.

In Hungary, north of Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine, the just opened catkins, are used like the olive branches on Palm Sunday.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Meikle, R. D. (1984). Willows and Poplars of Great Britain and Ireland. BSBI Handbook 4. ISBN 0-901158-07-0.
  2. ^ a b c d Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins. ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  3. ^ Bean, W. J. (1980). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. ISBN 0-7195-2428-8.
  4. ^ Gall Inducers Archived June 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine

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Salix caprea: Brief Summary

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Salix caprea, known as goat willow, pussy willow or great sallow, is a common species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia.

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Salix hultenii

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Salix hultenii is a species of willow native to Hokkaidō (Japan), (South Korea), Kuriles, Sakhalin and Kamchatka (Russia). It is a deciduous small tree or large shrub, reaching a height of 15 m.

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