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Comprehensive Description

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Octopus cyanea Gray, 1849

Octopus cyanea Gray, 1849:15.

Octopus marmoratus Hoyle, 1885:227.

Octopus horsti Joubin, 1898:23.

Polypus herdmani Hoyle, 1904:187,pl. 1.

Polypus glaber “Rüppell, MS” [see Wülker, 1920:51].

Octopus cyanea var. gracilis Robson, 1929:98.

Callistoctopus magnocellatus Taki, 1964:298, figs. 42–46, pl. 4: figs. 1, 2 [after Norman, 1991].

DIAGNOSIS.—Animals large (to 900 mm TL; to 160 mm ML). Mantle broadly ovoid (MWI 54–67–81); head narrow (HWI 42–55–67), demarked from mantle by moderate constriction; eyes large, projecting above surface of head. Funnel large, broad, bluntly tapered (FLI 30–38–48); funnel organ W-shaped, limbs broad, outer limbs length of median limbs. Arms long (ALI 196–582), stout at base, tapering to narrow tips. Arm lengths subequal, arm order IV = III = II > I. Suckers raised above arm surface, moderately large (SI females 7–9–11, males 7–10–12), 10th to 13th suckers usually largest, enlarged on arms II and III of mature males. Right arm III of males hectocotylized, shorter than opposite arm (HAMI 296–351–436; OAI 71–82–88); ligula narrow, very small (LLI 0.4–1.2–1.7); ligula groove shallow, with about 10 fine, transverse ribs; calamus short, blunt (CLI 35–38–41); hectocotylized arm with 160–229 suckers. Web shallow (WDI 14–19–29), web formula C > B = D = E > A or B = C = D = E > A. Radula with A4-5 symmetrical seriation of rachidian. Ink sac present. Gill lamellae 9–11 on outer demibranch. Mature female with small eggs (capsule ~2.7 mm long, 0.5 mm wide); method of attachment to substrate unknown. Penis (PLI 4–14–27) with single-coiled diverticulum; spermatophores short (SpLI 32–40–50), slender (SpWI 1.3–1.5–1.6), with large, coiled sperm reservoir (SpRI 30–33–38).

Integumental sculpture consists of fine reticulations forming patch and groove system on dorsum. Ventral surface smoother. Unbranched papillae present on dorsum. Four large, unbranched papillae in diamond pattern present on dorsal mantle. Pattern of large papillae on brachial crown includes unbranched papilla between and slightly below eyes and pair of papillae midway between eyes and edge of dorsal web. Other smaller, unbranched papillae scattered over dorsum. Single large, unbranched papilla obvious in supraocular region, surrounded by 3 to 4 smaller papillae. Lateral integumentary ridge or fold around mantle circumference absent. In life, color of resting animals cream to white with 2 red, longitudinal bands on dorsum from mantle through eyes to brachial crown; when stimulated, animals turn dark brown, or grey white with marked black ocelli, or produce mottled and sculptured cryptic patterns. Large ocellus on each side of head between eyes and web margin, consisting of black central spot (approximately 0.15 times ML) surrounded by pale ring and narrow, black ring. Ventral faces of arms marked by alternating thin, dark brown and cream-colored bands; 3–7 rows of cream-colored spots run along dorsal surfaces of all arms from web margins distally to arm tips. General color of animals preserved in ethyl alcohol cream to drab, slate grey with ocelli and other markings visible, or dark brown to purple with diagnostic markings obscured.

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION.—Gray, 1849:15.

TYPE LOCALITY.—Australia (as “coast of New Holland”) (no other details).

TYPE.—Lectotype: BMNH 1928.2.4.1, 1 male, 106 mm ML (designated by Norman, 1991). Specimen in good condition, preserved in ethyl alcohol. Another type specimen in the BMNH collection listed in the original description (unknown sex and size, from unknown locality, and unregistered) remains untraced.

DISTRIBUTION AND BIOLOGY.—Northern Australia from North West Cape, Western Australia, to the southern end of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, and also with a widespread, Indo-West Pacific distribution. Found living on shallow coral reefs and islands, at depths of 0–18 m (Norman, 1991).

Aspects of the biology of O. cyanea, including behavioral data, were described by Norman (1991, 1992b). Further information on behavior based on color and body patterns was included in Roper and Hochberg (1988). A review of the life history of O. cyanea was given by Van Heukelem (1983).
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Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume II." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 277-599. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586.277

Comprehensive Description

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Octopus herdmani (Hoyle, 1904)

DIAGNOSIS.—Animals medium-sized to large (to 95 mm ML; to 550 mm TL). Mantle width moderate (MWI 61). Arms moderate in length (ALI 65), stout, arm formula II = IV>III>I. Suckers densely spaced, first 4 dorsal suckers uniserial. Surface of mantle with numerous papillae, some elongate anteroposteriorly; 4 papillae form rhombus centered on midline; 2 or 3 minute warts above and behind each eye. Arms I and III with several elongated papillae. Color in preservation dull brownish grey dorsally. Large ocellus present at base of arms III consisting of pale center surrounded in turn by broad dark ring, narrow pale ring, and narrow dark ring.

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION.—Hoyle, 1904:187, pl. 1, as Polypus herdmani.

TYPE LOCALITIES.—Northern Indian Ocean, Ceylon (= Sri Lanka): Galle; Palk Bay; north of Periya Paar; Pearl Banks, Gulf of Manaar; south end of Cheval Paar.

TYPES.—Syntypes: BMNH 1947.5.5.5, 1, sex undetermined, 10 mm ML, Hoyle no. 216, previously dried, blackened, in alcohol, poor condition; BMNH 1947.5.5.6–8, 3, sex undetermined, 6 mm ML, 6 mm ML, 10 mm ML, Hoyle nos. 224–226, previously dried, darkened, in alcohol, poor condition; disposition of 5 additional syntypes unknown, not traced.
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bibliographic citation
Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume II." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 277-599. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586.277

Comprehensive Description

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Octopus marmoratus Hoyle, 1885

DIAGNOSIS.—See “Discussion.”

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION.—Hoyle, 1885:227.

TYPE LOCALITY.—Hawaiian Islands, Oahu, Honolulu.

TYPES.—Syntypes: BMNH 1889.4.24.25–26, 1 male, 1 female.
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Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume II." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 277-599. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586.277

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Octopus cyanea gracilis Robson, 1929

DIAGNOSIS.—See “Discussion.”

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION.—Robson, 1929:98.

TYPE LOCALITY.—Northern Indian Ocean, western Bay of Bengal, India, Madras.

TYPE.—Holotype: BMNH 1907.9.28.1, female.
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bibliographic citation
Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume II." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 277-599. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586.277

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Octopus horsti Joubin, 1898

DIAGNOSIS.—Animal large. Ocellus present at base of arms III. Irregular series of dark maculations along side of arms between suckers.

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION.—Joubin, 1898:23.

TYPE LOCALITY.—Red Sea, Djeddah.

TYPE.—Holotype: RML, sex undetermined, ML unknown, condition unknown.
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bibliographic citation
Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume II." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 277-599. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586.277

Octopus cyanea

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Octopus cyanea, also known as the big blue octopus[2] or day octopus,[3] is an octopus in the family Octopodidae. It occurs in both the Pacific and Indian Oceans, from Hawaii to the eastern coast of Africa.[4] O. cyanea grows to 16 cm in mantle length with arms to at least 80 cm.[4] This octopus was described initially by the British zoologist John Edward Gray in 1849; the type specimen was collected off Australia and is at the Natural History Museum in London.[5]

Description

Living as it does on coral reefs, and hunting by day, O. cyanea is adept at camouflage and not only can change colour frequently, but also can change the patterns on and texture of its skin. One researcher observed it change its appearance 1000 times in seven hours.[2][3] As it moves across the seabed it makes changes in its colouring and appearance to match the substrate beneath.[6] The colour changes are instantaneous and made by chromatophores under direct control of the brain.[7] This octopus sometimes produces a "passing clouds" display when stationary near prey such as a crab; this mimics a dark shadow passing across its surface and may encourage the crab to move incautiously.[8]

Distribution

O. cyanea is found on reefs and in shallow waters in the Indo-Pacific. Its range extends from the Red Sea, the East African coast, and Madagascar, to southeastern Asia, Oceania, and as far as Hawaii.[6]

Ecology

While most species of octopus are nocturnal, O. cyanea is diurnal,[3] although mostly crepuscular, being active at dawn and dusk. It maintains a den to which it returns after foraging; a rock crevice, a hidden place under an overhang, a hiding place among coral heads, or a hole excavated in rubble or sand.[9]

It is a predator and searches the reef for fish, crabs, shrimp, and molluscs. Small items may be eaten where they are caught, while larger items are carried back to the den for consumption. Crabs may be killed by a bite and given an injection of toxic saliva, then chewed up in the beak of the octopus, while molluscs may have their shells drilled and the animal inside being predigested to ease extraction. Empty mollusc shells and crab carapaces are discarded outside the den, forming a midden.[3][6]

They sometimes engage in cooperative hunting with the roving coral grouper.[10]

O. cyanea has a lifespan of 12-15 months after settling from the planktonic larval state. During this time, it grows from about 67 to 6,500 g (0.1 to 14.3 lb).[11] Its growth curve is nearly exponential and it converts its prey into new growth with an efficiency greater than 50%, relying on protein for growth, energy production, and energy reserves.[12]

In captivity, it breeds at any time of year, probably depending on when the female reaches maturity. The male may mate with several different females, but after this, the suckers on the edge of his webbing expand in size. During the next two to three months, they continue enlarging while the octopus goes into a decline and dies. Meanwhile, the female remains beside her eggs that are deposited in a den, and dies soon after they hatch.[11]

References

  1. ^ a b Bouchet, Philippe (2010). "Octopus cyanea Gray, 1849". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Octopus cyanea:Big blue octopus". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d "Day octopus". Monterey Bay Aquarium. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  4. ^ a b Norman, M.D. 2000. Cephalopods: A World Guide. ConchBooks.
  5. ^ Current Classification of Recent Cephalopoda
  6. ^ a b c "Day Octopuses, Octopus cyanea". MarineBio. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  7. ^ Hanlon, Roger T.; Messenger, John B. (1998). Cephalopod Behaviour. Cambridge University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-521-64583-6.
  8. ^ Mather, Jennifer A.; Mather, D. Lynn (2004). "Apparent movement in a visual display: the 'passing cloud' of Octopus cyanea (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)". Journal of Zoology. 263 (1): 89–94. doi:10.1017/S0952836904004911.
  9. ^ "Octopus cyanea: Big blue octopus". SeaLifeBase. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  10. ^ Vail A.L., Manica A., Bshary R., Referential gestures in fish collaborative hunting, in Nature Communications, vol. 4, 2013.
  11. ^ a b van Heukelem, William F. (1973). "Growth and life-span of Octopus cyanea (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)". Journal of Zoology. 169 (3): 299–315. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1973.tb04559.x.
  12. ^ New Scientist. Reed Business Information. 3 November 1983. pp. 333–334. ISSN 0262-4079.

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Octopus cyanea: Brief Summary

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Octopus cyanea, also known as the big blue octopus or day octopus, is an octopus in the family Octopodidae. It occurs in both the Pacific and Indian Oceans, from Hawaii to the eastern coast of Africa. O. cyanea grows to 16 cm in mantle length with arms to at least 80 cm. This octopus was described initially by the British zoologist John Edward Gray in 1849; the type specimen was collected off Australia and is at the Natural History Museum in London.

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Habitat

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coastal
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Streftaris, N.; Zenetos, A.; Papathanassiou, E. (2005). Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas. <em>Oceanogry and Marine Biology: an Annual Review.</em> 43: 419-453. van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245.
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