dcsimg

Comments

provided by eFloras
Indian Hemp is widely cultivated in many countries for its valuable fibres for making ropes, strings etc. A strong narcotic is derived from the resin of stem, leaves, flowers and even the fruits, and the following products are obtained. (1) Ganja is derived from the resinous exudation from the female flowering top and unfertilized female flowers. (2) Charas is obtained by rubbing of the leaves, young twigs, flowers and young fruits (3) Bhang is derived from older leaves and mature fruits. Ganja and charas are smoked and Bhang is either used in the preparation of green intoxicating beverage known as “Hashish” or the manu¬facture of sweetmeet known as Majun. Bhang is much weaker than Charas and Ganja. The seeds are occasionally eaten and much valued for feeding birds. The seed oil is used as luminant and in making of paints, varnishes and soap.

A very adaptable species from plains to 10000 ft., grows abundantly on roadside especially in Northern regions.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Comments

provided by eFloras
Cannabis sativa has been reported as cultivated illegally and as apparently ruderal in all provinces and states except Alaska. It has been collected least frequently in Mississippi and Idaho. It seems to be best established in the prairies and plains of central North America.

Hemp is a short-day plant; flowering depends upon the latitude of origin. Races originating closer to the equator (and generally higher in psychointoxicant) require a longer induction period for flowering than races originating farther north.

The taxonomy of Cannabis sativa , a polymorphic species, has been debated in scientific and legal forums. The name C . sativa subsp. indica (Lamarck) E. Small & Cronquist has been applied to plants with a mean leaf content of the psychotomimetic (hallucinatory) delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol of at least 0.3%; those with a lesser content fall under C . sativa subsp. sativa . When separate species are recognized, the name C . indica Lamarck has generally been applied to variants with high levels of the intoxicant chemical, whereas the name C . sativa Linnaeus, interpreted in a restricted sense, has generally been applied to plants selected for their yield of bast fibers in the stems. (The latter generally have taller, hollow stems with longer internodes and less branching than races selected for drug content.)

Superimposed on this dimension of variation is selection for nonabscising achenes in cultivation and abscising achenes in the wild (i.e., outside of cultivation). This is analagous to selection of nonshattering cereals from wild, shattering grasses. Achenes selected for cultivation tend to be longer than 3.8 mm and lack a basal constricted zone; by contrast, achenes selected for wild existence tend to be shorter than 3.8 mm and to have a basal constricted zone that seems to facilitate disarticulation and a mottled, persistent perianth apparently serving as camouflage.

Within Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa , the wild phase has been named C . sativa var. spontanea Vavilov (= C . ruderalis Janishevsky), in contrast to the domesticated C . sativa var. sativa . Within C . sativa subsp. indica , the wild phase (not to be expected in North America) has been designated C . sativa var. kafiristanica (Vavilov) E. Small & Cronquist, as distinct from the domesticated C . sativa var. indica . The chemical and morphologic distinctions by which Cannabis has been split into taxa are often not readily discernible, appear to be environmentally modifiable, and vary in a continuous fashion. For most purposes it will suffice to apply the name Cannabis sativa to all plants encountered in North America. *

The Iroquois used Cannabis sativa medicinally to convince patients that they had recovered. They also found it useful as a stimulant (D. E. Moerman 1986).

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Comments

provided by eFloras
Cannabis sativa is probably originally native to Central Asia, but its long cultivation makes it difficult to know its exact original distribution. This long cultivation and human selection for different desirable characteristics has resulted in considerable variation, but separation of it into either several species or the recognition of several varieties is probably not justified beyond the level of cultivated forms. Cannabis ruderalis Janischewsky, from Russia, is considered by some to be a distinct species from C. sativa.

The long, strong fibers are used in the paper-making industry and for weaving cloth, the seeds are a source of oil, the leaves, flowers, and fruit are used medicinally, and the female inflorescences (particularly the glandular leafy bracts and bracteoles) are used as a drug.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 75 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Description

provided by eFloras
Annual, 75 cm—1.5 (-2 5) in tall, slender; stem and branches slightly angular with appressed hairs (dense on younger shoots). Leaves palmately 3-9 (-11) foliolate, petiole ( .5) 2-10 (-12), cm pubescent, hairs white, appresed; lobes sessile, narrowly lanceolate, narrowed at base, palmtinerved, serrate, accuminate-caudate, 2-11 (14) cm long, 3-15 ( 20) mm broad; upper surface scabrid with stiff hairs topping the cystoliths; lower surface more or less densely pubescent, covered with sessile glands, stipules 4-6 mm long. Male flowers 4-6 mm across, greenish, pedicel 1-1.5 mm long, filiform. Tepals elliptic or oblong, finely pubescent, 3-4 ( 5) mm long, 1.5-2 mm broad, entire, acute. Stamen 4-5 mm long, Female flower as large as the perigonium; bracts foliaceous (-2) 4-13 mm long, covered with small glandular hairs, bracteole linear, 1.5-2.5 mm long. Perigonium entire, membranous, broadly ovate, beaked at the tip, compressed, much enlarged, contorted and rolled above the upper half in the fruit, up to 5-8 mm long, densely hispid or pilose, prominently ridged. Ovary sessile, sub-globose, C 0.5 mm long, styles 2-3 (-4) mm long, brown, caducous-pubescent. Achene 3-4 mm in diameter, shining, yellowish brown, minutely pilose to glabrous, ovate; seed only with fleshy unilateral endosperm.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Description

provided by eFloras
Staminate plants usually taller, less robust than pistillate plants. Stems 0.2-6 m. Leaves: petioles 2-7 cm. Leaflet blades mostly 3-9, linear to linear-lanceolate, 3-15 × 0.2-1.7 cm, margins coarsely serrate; surfaces abaxially whitish green with scattered, yellowish brown, resinous dots, strigose, adaxially darker green with large, stiff, bulbous-based conic hairs. Inflorescences numerous. Flowers unisexual, often transitional flowers and flowers of opposite sex developing later. Staminate flowers: pedicels 0.5-3 mm; sepals ovate to lanceolate, 2.5-4 mm, puberulent; stamens caducous after anthesis, somewhat shorter than sepals; filaments 0.5-1 mm. Pistillate flowers ± sessile, enclosed by glandular, beaked bracteole and subtended by bract; perianth appressed to and surrounding base of ovary. Achenes white or greenish, mottled with purple, ovoid, somewhat compressed, 2-5 mm, with ± persistent perianth that sometimes flakes off. 2 n = 20.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Description

provided by eFloras
Plants 1-3 m tall. Branchlets densely white pubescent. Stipules linear. Leaves alternate; petiole 2-7 cm; leaf blade abaxially whitish green, strigose, and with scattered brownish resinous dots, adaxially dark green and with cystolith hairs; leaflets usually lanceolate to linear, (3-)7-15 × (0.2-)0.5-1.5(-2) cm with longest in middle, margin coarsely serrate, apex acuminate. Male inflorescences ca. 25 cm. Male flowers: yellowish green, nodding; pedicel 2-4 mm, thin; sepals ovate to lanceolate, 2.5-4 mm, membranous, with sparse prostrate hairs; petals absent; filament 0.5-1 mm; anthers oblong. Female inflorescences crowded in apical leaf axils among leaflike bracts and bracteoles. Female flowers: green, sessile; calyx sparsely pubescent; ovary globose, ± enclosed by appressed calyx, surrounded closely by bract and bracteoles. Persistent bracts yellow. Achene flattened ovoid, 2-5 mm; pericarp crustaceous, finely reticulate. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Jul.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 75 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Distribution

provided by eFloras
Distribution: Russia, China, India, Pakistan, Iran and cultivated elsewhere.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Distribution

provided by eFloras
introduced; principal naturalized range (see map) Ont., Que.; Ark., Conn., Del., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.; native to Asia.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Flower/Fruit

provided by eFloras
Fl. Per. April-September.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Flowering/Fruiting

provided by eFloras
Flowering early summer-fall; staminate plants generally dying after anthesis, pistillate plants remaining dark green, persisting until frost.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Habitat

provided by eFloras
Well-manured, moist farmyards, and in open habitats, waste places (roadsides, railways, vacant lots), occasionally in fallow fields and open woods; 0-2000m.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Habitat & Distribution

provided by eFloras
Cultivated. throughout China, native or naturalized in Xinjiang [native or naturalized in Bhutan, India, and Sikkim; C Asia].
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 75 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Synonym

provided by eFloras
Cannabis indica Lamarck; C. sativa var. indica (Lamarck) E. Small & Cronquist.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 75 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

ruderalis

provided by EOL authors
in addition to indica and sativa, cannabis has a third subspecies that is far less known. Cannabis ruderalis has been around for quite some time, but has been neglected due to it's losing the traits valued among harvesters. it's key characteristics are it's adaptation toward it's environment without help from humans. This includes resilience to odd weather patterns and great immunity toward local insects and such. The extra energy put toward these adaptations has rendered the plant virtually blank when it comes to THC content however. Many cultivators of today are beginning to cross breed indica or sativa strains with one of the ruteralis group in order to create healthy and hardy plants of moderate THC count. The hardy Ruderalis is also being crossed with lower hemp strains in order to increase the production of hemp products, such as paper, clothing, textiles, soaps, shampoos, lotions, etc. This could lead to a comeback for the ruderalis subspecies in the public eye. This crossing of the subspecies could lead to a greater abundance of hemp and/or cannabis, and ease the world view upon the misunderstood plant.

Derivation of specific name

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
sativa: cultivated, not wild
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Cannabis sativa L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=120470
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Aromatic annual herb, up 3 m. Stems branched or not, angular; most parts with minute swollen-based hairs. Leaves palmate-digitate with 3-7 leaflets on a petiole up to 6 cm long; leaflets sessile, narrowly lanceolate, up to 15 cm; margin coarsely toothed or scalloped. Flowers in numerous clusters in the upper leaf axils, greenish-white, unisexual on different plants; male plants usually larger with more flowers and living longer after flowering. Fruit round to ovoid, up to c. 4 × 3.5 mm, often with conspicuous reticulate vein-patterns, when still surrounded by the persistent perianth.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Cannabis sativa L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=120470
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Frequency

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Occasional
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Cannabis sativa L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=120470
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Worldwide distribution

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Native to Central Asia and widely naturalised in other parts of the world
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Cannabis sativa L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=120470
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Cannabis sativa

provided by wikipedia EN

Part of a series onCannabisCannabis
 src=
Male Cannabis sativa in flower

Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation.[1] It has been cultivated throughout recorded history, used as a source of industrial fiber, seed oil, food, recreation, religious and spiritual moods and medicine. Each part of the plant is harvested differently, depending on the purpose of its use. The species was first classified by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.[2] The word "sativa" means things that are cultivated.

Plant physiology

The flowers of Cannabis sativa are unisexual and plants are most often either male or female.[3] It is a short-day flowering plant, with staminate (male) plants usually taller and less robust than pistillate (female or male) plants.[4] The flowers of the female plant are arranged in racemes and can produce hundreds of seeds. Male plants shed their pollen and die several weeks prior to seed ripening on the female plants. Under typical conditions with a light period of 12 to 14 hours both sexes are produced in equal numbers because of heritable X and Y chromosomes.[5] Although genetic factors dispose a plant to become male or female, environmental factors including the diurnal light cycle can alter sexual expression.[6] Naturally occurring monoecious plants, with both male and female parts, are either sterile or fertile but artificially induced "hermaphrodites" can have fully functional reproductive organs. "Feminized" seed sold by many commercial seed suppliers are derived from artificially "hermaphroditic" females that lack the male gene, or by treating the plants with hormones or silver thiosulfate.

Pharmacology

 src=
Cannabis sativa, scientific drawing from c1900

Although the main psychoactive constituent of Cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the plant is known to contain more than 500 compounds, among them at least 113 cannabinoids; however, most of these "minor" cannabinoids are only produced in trace amounts.[7] Besides THC, another cannabinoid produced in high concentrations by some plants is cannabidiol (CBD), which is not psychoactive but has recently been shown to block the effect of THC in the nervous system.[8] Differences in the chemical composition of Cannabis varieties may produce different effects in humans. Synthetic THC, called dronabinol, does not contain cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), or other cannabinoids, which is one reason why its pharmacological effects may differ significantly from those of natural Cannabis preparations.

Chemical constituents

Beside cannabinoids, Cannabis chemical constituents include about 120 compounds responsible for its characteristic aroma. These are mainly volatile terpenes and sesquiterpenes.

Difference between C. sativa and C. indica

Human intervention has produced variation within the species and some authorities only recognize one species in the genus that has had divergent selective pressure to either produce plants with more fiber or plants with greater THC content.[11] Large variability exists within either species, and there is an expanding discussion whether the existing paradigm used to differentiate species adequately represents the variability found within the genus Cannabis.[12][13][14] There are five chemotaxonomic types of Cannabis: one with high levels of THC, one which is more fibrous and has higher levels of CBD, one that is an intermediate between the two, another one with high levels of cannabigerol (CBG), and the last one almost without cannabinoids.[15]

Cannabis strains with relatively high CBD:THC ratios are less likely to induce anxiety than vice versa.[16] This may be due to CBD's antagonistic effects at the cannabinoid receptors, compared to THC's partial agonist effect.[17] CBD is also a 5-HT1A receptor (serotonin) agonist, which may also contribute to an anxiolytic-content effect.[18] The effects of sativa are well known for its cerebral high, while indica is well known for its sedative effects which some prefer for night time use.[18] Both types are used as medical cannabis. Indica plants are normally shorter and stockier than sativas.[19] Indicas have broader, deeply serrated leaves and a compact and dense flower cluster.

Common uses

Cannabis sativa seeds are chiefly used to make hempseed oil which can be used for cooking, lamps, lacquers, or paints. They can also be used as caged-bird feed, as they provide a source of nutrients for most animals. The flowers and fruits (and to a lesser extent the leaves, stems, and seeds) contain psychoactive chemical compounds known as cannabinoids that are consumed for recreational, medicinal, and spiritual purposes. When so used, preparations of flowers and fruits (called marijuana) and leaves and preparations derived from resinous extract (e.g., hashish) are consumed by smoking, vaporising, and oral ingestion. Historically, tinctures, teas, and ointments have also been common preparations. In traditional medicine of India in particular C. sativa has been used as hallucinogenic, hypnotic, sedative, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory agent.[20]

Cultivation

A Cannabis plant in the vegetative growth phase of its life requires more than 12–13 hours of light per day to stay vegetative. Flowering usually occurs when darkness equals at least 12 hours per day. The flowering cycle can last anywhere between nine and fifteen weeks, depending on the strain and environmental conditions. When the production of psychoactive cannabinoids is sought, female plants are grown separately from male plants to induce parthenocarpy in the female plant's fruits (popularly called "'sin semilla' which is Spanish for 'without seed'" ) and increase the production of cannabinoid-rich resin.

In soil, the optimum pH for the plant is 6.3 to 6.8. In hydroponic growing, the nutrient solution is best at 5.2 to 5.8, making Cannabis well-suited to hydroponics because this pH range is hostile to most bacteria and fungi.

Tissue culture multiplication has become important in producing medically important clones,[21] while seed production remains the generally preferred means of multiplication.[11]

Cultivars

Broadly, there are three main cultivar groups of cannabis that are cultivated today:

  • Cultivars primarily cultivated for their fibre, characterised by long stems and little branching.
  • Cultivars grown for seed which can be eaten entirely raw or from which hemp oil is extracted.
  • Cultivars grown for medicinal or recreational purposes. A nominal if not legal distinction is often made between industrial hemp, with concentrations of psychoactive compounds far too low to be useful for that purpose, and marijuana.

See also

References

  1. ^ Mary-Lou E. Florian; Dale Paul Kronkright; Ruth E. Norton (21 March 1991). The Conservation of Artifacts Made from Plant Materials. Getty Publications. pp. 49–. ISBN 978-0-89236-160-1.
  2. ^ Greg Green, The Cannabis Breeder's Bible, Green Candy Press, 2005, pp. 15-16 ISBN 9781931160278
  3. ^ SHARMA (2011). PLANT TAXONOMY 2E. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 459–. ISBN 978-1-259-08137-8.
  4. ^ http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200006342
  5. ^ Robert Clarke; Mark Merlin (1 September 2013). Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany. University of California Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-0-520-95457-1.
  6. ^ Schaffner, John H. (1921-01-01). "Influence of Environment on Sexual Expression in Hemp". Botanical Gazette. 71 (3): 197–219. doi:10.1086/332818. JSTOR 2469863.
  7. ^ Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Soydaner, Umut; Öztürk, Ekin; Schibano, Daniele; Simsir, Yilmaz; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz (2016-02-02). "Evolution of the Cannabinoid and Terpene Content during the Growth ofCannabis sativaPlants from Different Chemotypes". Journal of Natural Products. 79 (2): 324–331. doi:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00949. PMID 26836472.
  8. ^ Russo, Ethan B (2011-08-01). "Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects". British Journal of Pharmacology. 163 (7): 1344–1364. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x. ISSN 1476-5381. PMC 3165946. PMID 21749363.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Novak J, Zitterl-Eglseer K, Deans SG, Franz CM (2001). "Essential oils of different cultivars of Cannabis sativa L. and their antimicrobial activity". Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 16 (4): 259–262. doi:10.1002/ffj.993.
  10. ^ Essential Oils
  11. ^ a b Suman Chandra; Hemant Lata; Mahmoud A. ElSohly (23 May 2017). Cannabis sativa L. - Botany and Biotechnology. Springer. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-3-319-54564-6.
  12. ^ Piomelli, Daniele; Russo, Ethan B. (2016-01-14). "The Cannabis sativa Versus Cannabis indica Debate: An Interview with Ethan Russo, MD". Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. 1 (1): 44–46. doi:10.1089/can.2015.29003.ebr. PMC 5576603. PMID 28861479.
  13. ^ Aizpurua-ppOlaizola, Oier; Omar, Jone; Navarro, Patricia; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz (2014-10-23). "Identification and quantification of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. plants by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 406 (29): 7549–7560. doi:10.1007/s00216-014-8177-x. ISSN 1618-2642. PMID 25338935.
  14. ^ Hazekamp, A.; Fischedick, J. T. (2012-07-01). "Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar". Drug Testing and Analysis. 4 (7–8): 660–667. doi:10.1002/dta.407. ISSN 1942-7611. PMID 22362625.
  15. ^ Mandolino, Giuseppe; Bagatta, Manuela; Carboni, Andrea; Ranalli, Paolo; Meijer, Etienne de (2003-03-01). "Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects of the Inheritance of Chemical Phenotype in Cannabis". Journal of Industrial Hemp. 8 (2): 51–72. doi:10.1300/J237v08n02_04. ISSN 1537-7881.
  16. ^ Ethan B Russo; Virginia M Tyler (22 December 2015). Handbook of Psychotropic Herbs: A Scientific Analysis of Herbal Remedies for Psychiatric Conditions. Routledge. pp. 233–. ISBN 978-1-136-38607-7.
  17. ^ 2015. "Marijuana Chemicals Cannabinoids, Terpenes, Flavonoids (THC and CBD)." Howtogrowmarijuana.com. Retrieved from http://howtogrowmarijuana.com/cannabinoids-terpenes-flavonoids-cbd-thc/.
  18. ^ a b J.E. Joy; S. J. Watson, Jr.; J.A. Benson, Jr (1999). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing The Science Base. Washington D.C: National Academy of Sciences Press. ISBN 978-0-585-05800-9.
  19. ^ Fischedick, Justin Thomas; Hazekamp, Arno; Erkelens, Tjalling; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Rob (December 2010). "Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes". Phytochemistry. 71 (17–18): 2058–2073. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.10.001. PMID 21040939.
  20. ^ Bonini, Sara Anna. “Cannabis Sativa: A Comprehensive Ethnopharmacological Review of a Medicinal Plant with a Long History.”
  21. ^ Rajesh Arora (2010). Medicinal Plant Biotechnology. CABI. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-1-84593-692-1.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Cannabis sativa: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
 src= Male Cannabis sativa in flower

Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation. It has been cultivated throughout recorded history, used as a source of industrial fiber, seed oil, food, recreation, religious and spiritual moods and medicine. Each part of the plant is harvested differently, depending on the purpose of its use. The species was first classified by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. The word "sativa" means things that are cultivated.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN