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Anthrax pluto pluto Wiedemann

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Anthrax pluto pluto Wiedemann

Anthrax pluto Wiedemann, 1828, p. 261.—Osten Sacken, 1858, p. 41 [part].—Painter and Painter, 1962, p. 80.—Painter and Painter, 1965, p. 432.

Argyramoeba pluto.—Osten Sacken, 1877, p. 244 [part].—Osten Sacken, 1878, p. 90 [part].—Coquillett, 1894, p. 95 [part].—Kertész, 1909, p. 66 [part].

Spongostylum pluto.—Aldrich, 1905, p. 223 [part] [Spogostylum].

MALE.—Scales on head black and white. Basal antennal segments black; second segment saucer shaped, produced as a sharp flange apically.

Scales on mesonotum and scutellum mostly black; some white scales present, especially along margins. Pile on mesopleuron and pteropleuron mixed black, white, and brown; scales on pleura black and white. Prosternum, propleuron, and anterior margin of mesonotum with mixed black and white pile; sometimes with a few brown hairs, especially on humeral calli; postalar tuft of pile mixed black and white. Scales on coxae black and white.

Cells C and Sc of wing (Plate 2e–f) entirely infuscated or with small subhyaline spots before and after humeral crossvein in costal cell. Cells 1M, 2M, and R entirely infuscated except for a subhyaline or hyaline area submedially in cell R and sometimes a subhyaline area medially or postmedially in cell 2M. Bases of cells 1A and 2A completely infuscated or with small subhyaline areas basally. Spots at bases of cells R2+3, R5, 2M2, and Cu1 broadly coalesced with basal infuscated area; basal third of cell 1M2 infuscated. Discrete or coalesced spots present at bases of cells R4 and M1, at apices of veins R2+3, M2, Cu1, and Cu2, at the medial angle of vein R4 and m crossvein, subapically on vein R2+3, and below tip of vein R1; broad spot extending from vein R1 to vein M1+2 halfway between bases of cells R2+3 and R4.

Fore and middle femora with black scales anteriorly and white or mixed black and white scales posteriorly; scales on hind femur black; a few white scales sometimes posteriorly.

Sides of first abdominal tergum with white pile; some black hairs usually present posteriorly; posterior margin with white scales laterally and black scales medially. Lateral margins of terga two through five with black pile, linear and lanceolate scales, and black setae, few obovate white scales present posteriorly on third; sixth and seventh terga with white scales present submedially on posterior margins of two through five, laterally on five and sublaterally on two and three; terga six and seven with black scales medially and white scales laterally. Sterna one, two, and three with threadlike, mostly white scales; black scales sometimes present on two and three; sterna four through seven with black or mixed black and white scales.

FEMALE.—Similar to male.

MALE GENITALIA (Figure 34).—Apical part of gonocoxites narrow and slightly tapering in lateral view, apex acute. Distal segment of gonostylus rectangular basally with broad apical hook, ventral margin slightly undulating. Apex of epiphallus curled upward and outward dorsally and laterally, with short ventrolateral extensions; basal recurved process sharp, relatively large. Tip of aedeagus not flared, gonopore distoventral; base of aedeagus large, bulbous, tapering gradually to junction with ventral bands; lateral and medial apodemes large in relation to base of aedeagus.

FEMALE GENITALIA (Figure 41).—Tenth tergum with 11 spines apically on each side; ventral extensions at base broadly rounded apically. Apical part of sclerite on each side of apices of spermathecal ducts narrow and clavate laterally, sharply produced dorsally toward the meson; ventral extension very long and narrow, parallel sides and slightly curved mesad. Ducts of spermathecae with one convolution before expanding to bulbs; neck of bulbs broadly and evenly recurved; remainder slightly curved and broadest postmedially.

BODY LENGTH.—7.4 to 12.0 mm.

WING LENGTH.—6.7 to 11.0 mm.

DISTRIBUTION.—The small number of specimens available of pluto pluto indicates that it occurs from the Appalachian Mountains to the Great Plains as far north as Michigan and probably as far south as Oklahoma and Tennessee (Map 6). Wiedemann designated “Kentucky” as the type-locality. Anthrax pluto pluto is allopatric to pluto nigriventris on the south.

TYPES.—Painter and Painter (1962) stated that the three females comprising the type series in the Vienna Museum are well preserved. The largest female, carrying the labels “Pluto det. Wiedemann,” “Col. Winthem” and “Pluto Wied. Kentucky,” was designated lectotype.
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bibliographic citation
Marston, Norman L. 1970. "Revision of New World species of Anthrax (Diptera: Bombyliidae), other than the Anthrax albofasciatus group." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-148. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.43