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Image of <i>Taxus wallichiana</i> var. <i>mairei</i>
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Chinese Yew

Taxus wallichiana Zucc.

Comments

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Can be used within its native range for afforestation. The wood is an excellent building material, and is also used in making vehicles, agricultural implements, furniture, and stationery. A compound recently isolated from the leaves may prove promising as an antitumor agent.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 90 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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Description

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Dioecious tree 6‑18 m tall. Branches spreading, irregular; bark reddishbrown, scaly. Leaves spirally disposed, linear, 2‑4 cm long, upper surface green, shiny. Staminate cone solitary, globose, axillary on the underside of branches. Sporophylls 6‑10 in number, peltate, each with 5‑8 pendant sporangia; microspores not winged. Female flowers solitary, axillary, green, with 3 pairs of scales, decussate. Seed olive‑green, when young (ovule) partially surrounded by a red fleshy aril.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 185 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
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Description

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Trees or shrubs to 30 m tall; trunk to 1.3 m d.b.h.; bark variably colored, grayish brownish, reddish, or purplish, peeling off in strips or cracking and falling off as thin scales; winter bud scales early deciduous or some persistent at base of branchlets, triangular-ovate, with or without longitudinal ridges abaxially. Leafy branchlets ± flat in living state, 3-9 × 1.5-6 cm in outline. Leaves borne at (50-)60-90° to branchlet axis, subsessile or with petiole to 1 mm; blade dark green and glossy adaxially, paler abaxially, linear to lanceolate, gradually tapered distally, usually falcate, (0.9-)1.5-3.5(-4.7) cm × (1.5-)2-4(-5) mm, midvein slightly elevated adaxially, 0.1-0.2 mm wide, densely and evenly papillate abaxially, or with papillae scattered on midvein or in 1-several lateral rows adjacent to stomatal band, or midvein not papillate, stomatal bands pale yellowish, 0.6-0.9 mm wide, densely and evenly papillate, marginal bands 0.1-0.4 mm wide, base cuneate or attenuate, asymmetric, margin flat to revolute, apex gradually acuminate or abruptly tapered and indistinctly mucronate, mucro 0.1-0.5 mm. Pollen cones scattered along 2nd year branchlet axis, ± sessile or shortly pedunculate (peduncle ca. 0.5 mm), pale yellowish, ovoid, 5-6 × ca. 3 mm; bracts usually 6, broadly ovate, pale green; microsporophylls 8-14, each with (4 or)5 or 6(-8) pollen sacs. Seed-bearing structures borne toward distal end of branchlet axis. Aril red or orange when ripe, often ± translucent. Seed ovoid or obovoid, occasionally columnar-oblong, sometimes slightly flattened, 5-8 × 3.5-5 mm, usually with obtuse ridges (sometimes trigonous and 3-ridged); apex with small mucro; hilum elliptic to suborbicular or rounded-trigonous. Pollination Sep-Apr, seed maturity Aug-Dec.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 90 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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partner site
eFloras

Distribution

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Distribution: Afghanistan, N.W. India, Burma, Indonesia; Phillipines.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 185 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
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eFloras

Distribution

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S Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, N Guangdong, N Guangxi, Guizhou, W Henan, W Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, N India, ?Laos, Myanmar, Sikkim, Vietnam]
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 90 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Habitat

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Our species only differs from the European T. baccata in the longer leaves which are generally not abruptly cuspidate. Possibly it only merits subspecific rank. The leaves are poisonous, but the aril is harmless. The yew tree is fairly common in the Himalayas from 1800‑3000 m. The heartwood is reddish‑brown in colour and of good quality but because of the irregular shape of the tree trunk is not useful. The wood is supple and in olden times was used for the constructing of bows. Flowers appear from mid‑February to early March and the fruits ripen in September‑October.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 185 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Habitat

provided by eFloras
Broad-leaved, coniferous, and mixed forests, thickets, deforested rocks, open slopes; 100-3500 m.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 90 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Taxus celebica

provided by wikipedia EN

Taxus celebica is a large, evergreen shrub or tree of the yew family (Taxaceae), widespread in China at elevations up to 900 meters (3,000 feet). It is commonly called Chinese yew though the term also refers to the Taxus chinensis or Taxus sumatrana.[1]

The tree is up to 14 m (46 ft) tall and wide and bushy when cultivated. The leaves are up to 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) long — broader than those of most other yews — and often end in a very small, sharp point. The underside of each leaf has two broad yellow stripes and is densely covered with minute projections.[1]

It is, along with other yew species, unsustainably harvested across Asia for their bark and needles, which contain a chemical used in the cancer medication Taxol.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c "Taxus celebica". www.worldbotanical.com. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
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Taxus celebica: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Taxus celebica is a large, evergreen shrub or tree of the yew family (Taxaceae), widespread in China at elevations up to 900 meters (3,000 feet). It is commonly called Chinese yew though the term also refers to the Taxus chinensis or Taxus sumatrana.

The tree is up to 14 m (46 ft) tall and wide and bushy when cultivated. The leaves are up to 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) long — broader than those of most other yews — and often end in a very small, sharp point. The underside of each leaf has two broad yellow stripes and is densely covered with minute projections.

It is, along with other yew species, unsustainably harvested across Asia for their bark and needles, which contain a chemical used in the cancer medication Taxol.

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Taxus sumatrana

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Taxus sumatrana is an evergreen shrub and one of the eight species of the yew. It is found in a number of countries, including Afghanistan, Tibet, Nepal, Sumatra, Philippines, Vietnam, India, Burma, Taiwan, and China, and is known both as the Taiwan yew and the Chinese yew. It is typically found at heights ranging from 400–3,100 m[1] in subtropical forest and on highland ridges. It is a protected species in Taroko National Park in Taiwan.

Appearance

Taxus sumatrana is a wide trunked, bushy tree that grows to an average height of 14 m. Its leaves are 1.2–2.7 cm long and 2–2.5 mm wide, and grow in two ranks along the branches, abruptly spiralling into an apex at the tip,[1] with a pale yellow-green colour on top, and light green underneath. The Chinese yew has fleshy seeds that ripen into a red colour, and a grey-red bark which exfoliates in irregular 1.5 mm thick flakes and leaves scars on the trunk that appear yellow quickly after cutting.[1]

Uses

The oil used to mark a red tilaka on the forehead of a Brahmin is made by mixing oil with the bark from this tree. Chinese yews are also used for clogs, whip handles, bed frames and bows.

References

  1. ^ a b c de Laubenfels, Miquel Taxus sumatrana, 1978, link Archived 2007-03-06 at the Wayback Machine retrieved on March 10, 2007

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Taxus sumatrana: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Taxus sumatrana is an evergreen shrub and one of the eight species of the yew. It is found in a number of countries, including Afghanistan, Tibet, Nepal, Sumatra, Philippines, Vietnam, India, Burma, Taiwan, and China, and is known both as the Taiwan yew and the Chinese yew. It is typically found at heights ranging from 400–3,100 m in subtropical forest and on highland ridges. It is a protected species in Taroko National Park in Taiwan.

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Taxus wallichiana

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Taxus wallichiana, the Himalayan yew, is a species of yew, native to the Himalaya and parts of south-east Asia. The species has a variety of uses in traditional medicine. It is currently classified as endangered by the IUCN.

Distribution and habitat

The species favours a reasonably wide range of habitats, growing in montane, temperate, warm temperate, and tropical submontane to high montane forests which may be deciduous, evergreen, or of mixed character. In forests, it tends to present as a low canopy tree; in open situations it usually forms a large, broadly spreading shrub. Elevation ranges from 900 m to 3,700 m.[1]

Growth

It is a medium-sized evergreen coniferous tree growing to 10 m tall, similar to Taxus baccata and sometimes treated as a subspecies of it. The shoots are green at first, becoming brown after three or four years. The leaves are thin, flat, slightly falcate (sickle-shaped), 1.5–2.7 cm long and 2 mm broad, with a softly mucronate apex; they are arranged spirally on the shoots but twisted at the base to appear in two horizontal ranks on all except for erect lead shoots. It is dioecious, with the male and female cones on separate plants; the seed cone is highly modified, berry-like, with a single scale developing into a soft, juicy red aril 1 cm diameter, containing a single dark brown seed 7 mm long. The pollen cones are globose, 4 mm diameter, produced on the undersides of the shoots in early spring.[3]

Species

Similar plants occurring further east through China to Taiwan, Vietnam and the Philippines are included in Taxus wallichiana as T. wallichiana var. chinensis (Pilger) Florin by some authors,[2] but are more often treated as a separate species Taxus chinensis.[3][4]

Medicinal uses

The tree has medicinal use in Ayurveda and Tibetan medicine. Taxus wallichiana is also a source of the chemical precursors to the anticancer drug paclitaxel.[5] Taxus wallichiana is used for making tea by the Bhotiya tribal community in the Garhwal Himalaya. The stem bark of this species, which is locally known as thuner, is collected for this purpose. This species is also used as fuelwood by the local communities. In Himachal it is known to be medicine for some types of cancer.[6]

Conservation

The Himalayan yew has been subject to heavy exploitation for its leaves and bark across most of its range through the Himalayas and western China. Declines have been particularly heavy in India and Nepal, with losses of up to 90% having been reported. The degree of exploitation in other locations in its range is less well known, but is also assumed to be serious. The species is currently classified as endangered by the IUCN. It is present in several protected areas, and at least some conservation and propagation measures are underway, with an eye to its commercial value in the medicine trade.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c Thomas, P. & Farjon, A. (2011). "Taxus wallichiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T46171879A9730085. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T46171879A9730085.en.
  2. ^ a b "Flora of China: Taxus wallichiana var. wallichiana". eFloras.org.
  3. ^ a b Rushforth, K. (1987). Conifers. Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X.
  4. ^ Farjon, A. (1998). World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew ISBN 1-900347-54-7.
  5. ^ Medicinal plants on verge of extinction - environment - 10 January 2009 - New Scientist
  6. ^ Kala, C.P. (2010). Medicinal Plants of Uttarakhand; Diversity, Livelihood and Conservation. Delhi: BioTech Books. p. 188. ISBN 978-8176222099.
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Taxus wallichiana: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Taxus wallichiana, the Himalayan yew, is a species of yew, native to the Himalaya and parts of south-east Asia. The species has a variety of uses in traditional medicine. It is currently classified as endangered by the IUCN.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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