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Comments

provided by eFloras
The fruit are eaten raw and are used for making jam, jelly, juice, wine, and vinegar. The dried fruit are used in medicine. The stems and roots are a source of tannin.
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copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 9: 208 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Description

provided by eFloras
Shrubs 1–2 m tall. Branchlets brown or reddish brown, terete, sparsely tomentose when young, with sparse prickles, without stalked glands. Leaves imparipinnate, 5–7-foliolate, rarely 3-foliolate; petiole 3–6 cm, petiolule of terminal leaflet ca. 1 cm, petiolule and rachis tomentose, with sparse, minute prickles, without glandular hairs; stipules linear, pubescent; blade of leaflets narrowly ovate or elliptic, often ovate on terminal leaflet, 3–8 × 1.5–4.5 cm, abaxially densely tomentose, adaxially glabrous or pilose, base rounded, sometimes subcordate on terminal leaflet, margin unevenly coarsely serrate or doubly serrate, sometimes lobed on terminal leaflet, apex shortly acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, short racemes, rarely several flowers in clusters in leaf axils; rachis, pedicels, and abaxial surface of calyx densely tomentose, with dense or sparse, needle-like prickles, without glandular hairs; bracts linear, soft hairy. Pedicel 1–2 cm. Flowers 1–1.5 cm in diam. Sepals erect, ovate-lanceolate, margin gray tomentose, apex caudate. Petals white, spatulate, puberulous or glabrous, base broadly clawed. Stamens many, shorter than petals; filaments broadened and flattened. Pistils shorter than stamens; ovary and base of style densely gray tomentose. Aggregate fruit red or orange, subglobose, 1–1.4 cm in diam. densely shortly tomentose; pyrenes prominently pitted. 2n = 14*.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 9: 208 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Distribution

provided by eFloras
Hebei, S Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shanxi, Xinjiang [Japan, Russia; Europe, North America].
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 9: 208 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Habitat

provided by eFloras
Forests, forest margins, thickets, valleys, slopes, meadows, roadsides, waste places; 500--2500 m.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 9: 208 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: fuel

In an Alberta study, both dead and live woody stems remained where fuel
loadings of 0.00, 0.17, and 0.87 kg/m sq were recorded [52].  However,
all foliage was completely consumed on plots with fuel loadings of 3.94
and 9.65 kg/m sq [52].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: prescribed fire, severity

In some areas, significant differences in postfire recovery of red
raspberry have been noted after fires of varying intensity and severity.
The following data document postfire recovery in ponderosa pine stands
of the southern Black Hills of South Dakota [7,6]:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  # of stems per subplot
fire type       preburn     1st year     2nd year      5th year

  light burn       0            0          0.07         ---
  crown fire      ---          ---         0.01        116.8

                       # of individuals
fire type               1st year     2nd year     3rd year     5th year

  cool ground fire          0            0           3           ---
  hot crown fire           ---          ---         ---         4,672
------------------------------------------------------------------------
   
For further information on red raspberry response to fire, see Fire Case Studies. Hamilton's Research Papers (Hamilton 2006a, Hamilton 2006b)
also provide information on prescribed fire and postfire response
of plant community species, including red raspberry, that was not
available when this species review was originally written.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
red raspberry
American red raspberry
black-haired red raspberry
brilliant red raspberry
raspberry
smoothleaf red raspberry
wild raspberry
wild red raspberry

grayleaf raspberry
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Cover Value

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Dense red raspberry thickets serve as favorable nesting habitat for many
small birds [14].  Small mammals such as rabbits and squirrels also find
shelter in raspberry thickets [91].  The degree to which red raspberry
provides environmental protection during one or more seasons is rated as
follows [23]:

                      CO      UT      WY
Pronghorn            ----    poor    poor
Elk                  ----    poor    poor 
Mule deer            ----    poor    poor
White-tailed deer    ----    ----    poor  
Small mammals        fair    fair    fair
Small nongame birds  ----    fair    fair
Upland game birds    ----    good    fair
Waterfowl            ----    poor    poor
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cyme, fruit, perfect, rootstock, shrub

Red raspberry is a deciduous, erect or arching, thicket-forming shrub
which grows from 1.6 to 9.8 feet (0.5-3 m) in height [36,80,86,93].  The
total height and extent of growth is largely attributable to climatic
factors [101].  Woody stems are bristly or prickly with shreddy,
exfoliating yellow-brown bark [36,93].  Leaves are alternate and
pinnately compound in leaflets of three to five [86,93].  Leaves are
green and glabrous to hairy above but white or gray, hairy to glabrate
and greenish beneath [98].  Small showy perfect white flowers are
borne in clusters of one to four in a compound cyme [36,55,80,93].
Fruit of the red raspberry is made up of many to several, red or
pinkish-purple drupelets [80,98].  Aggregates of drupelets are commonly
referred to as a "berry."

Red raspberry is made up of mostly biennial canes (stems) on a
long-lived perennial rootstock [45,99].  This rootstock initially forms
from seedling establishment or the production of root suckers [99],
which gradually separate from parent plants as the connecting root
tissue dies [45].  Sterile first-year stems, or primocanes, develop from
buds at or below the ground surface and generally bear only leaves
[36,99].  During the second year, lateral branches, known as floricanes,
develop in the axils of the primocanes which produce both leaves and
fruit [36,100].  A "typical" raspberry rootstock system is made up of at
least one floricane and several primocanes [99].  It should be noted
that some commercially grown strains of red raspberry are
primocane-fruiting; that is, they are capable of bearing fruit during
the fall of the first year of development [21,92].  Primocane-fruiting
appears to be absent entirely or represents an atypical situation in
native-growing populations of red raspberry.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Red raspberry occurs throughout most of the temperate regions of the
world [20].  In North America it grows from Alaska through Canada to
Newfoundland, southward to North Carolina and Tennessee in the East, and
to Arizona, California, and northern Mexico in the West [36,93,98].  The
native North American red raspberry is Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus [36].
R. i. ssp. idaeus grows across northern Europe to northwestern Asia
[36].  It is cultivated in Hawaii [109] and throughout much of North
America and has naturalized in many locations [36].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Ecology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire regime, fire suppression, seed

The life cycle of red raspberry is integrally associated with
disturbances such as fire.  In many areas of vigorous fire suppression,
both plant vigor and abundance have decreased [66].  Red raspberry
typically flourishes, completes its life cycle and declines within the
early years after disturbance [73].  As shade levels increase in the
postfire community and soil nitrate levels drop (generally during the
first 5 years after fire), red raspberry shifts resource allocation from
vegetative growth to seed production [39,99].

Although the plants themselves soon senesce and die, viable seed
persists for decades [62,73], germinating in great numbers after the
next fire [100] creates favorable conditions for growth and
establishment.  Seed is effectively scarified by heat [78,94], and
exposed mineral soil serves as a favorable substrate for early growth
and development [26].  Underground regenerative structures appear to be
well protected from the damaging effects of heat [28,52], and
reestablishment is typically rapid where plants were present in the
preburn community.

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: bulb, duff, duff moisture code, fire intensity, fire management, fire severity, forest, fuel, fuel loading, fuel moisture, prescribed fire, severity

Fire generally benefits animals that consume the fruits of species
within the genus Rubus [58].

FIRE CASE STUDY
SPECIES: Rubus idaeus
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION :
Tirmenstein, D., compiler. 1990. Effects of prescribed fire on red raspberry
on Elk Island, Alberta. In: Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information
System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [
var months = new Array(12);
months[0] = "January";
months[1] = "February";
months[2] = "March";
months[3] = "April";
months[4] = "May";
months[5] = "June";
months[6] = "July";
months[7] = "August";
months[8] = "September";
months[9] = "October";
months[10] = "November";
months[11] = "December";
var date = new Date();
var year = date.getFullYear();
var month = date.getMonth();
var day = date.getDate();
document.write(year+", "+months[month]+" "+day);
].


REFERENCE :
Johnston, Mark; Woodard, Paul. 1985. The effect of fire severity level
on postfire recovery of hazel and raspberry in east-central Alberta.
Canadian Journal of Botany. 63: 672-677. [52].


SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION :
May 5, 1980/variable


STUDY LOCATION :
The study site is located in Elk Island National Park, approximately 23
miles (37 km) east of Edmonton, Alberta.



PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY :
Preburn overstory vegetation was made up of quaking aspen (Populus
tremuloides) and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), which ranged from 50 to
70 years of age.  Understory vegetation was dominated by red raspberry
(Rubus idaeus), beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta), strawberry (Fragaria
spp.), fleabane (Erigeron spp.), and reedgrass (Calamagrostis spp.).



TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE :
not reported.



SITE DESCRIPTION :
     Soil - orthic gray luvisol
     Elevation - not reported
     Topography - not reported
     Size of treated area - 9.9 acres (4 ha)
     Weather conditions - dry



FIRE DESCRIPTION :
Seven artificial fuel beds (24 x 24 inches [60 x 60 cm]) were
constructed of varying amounts of excelsior, or excelsior mixed with
white spruce slats.  The prescribed head fire did not spread to the beds
because of discontinuous fuels.  The beds were ignited with matches
after the passage of the flame front.  Specific weather and fire
behavior characteristics were as follows:

     Fire weather:

     Dry bulb temperature (C) - 14.5
     Relative humidity (%) - 33
     Wind speed at 10 m (kh/h) - 6
     Fine fuel moisture code - 88
     Duff moisture code - 57
     Drought code - 106
     Initial spread index - 4
     Buildup index - 58
     Fire weather index - 12

     Estimated fire behavior characteristics recorded for the seven
     fuel beds ignited with matches -
    
     fuel loading     flame length     frontal fire     residence time
     (kg/m sq.)       (m)              intensity        (minutes)
                                       (kW/m)
     0.17             0.5                  57            1.5
     0.87             1                   258            2
     0.87             1                   258            2
     3.94             1.5                 622            4
     3.94             1.5                 622            4
     9.65             1.5               1,162           10
     9.65             2.5               1,905           10    


FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES :
All aboveground red raspberry stems were killed where fuels were added.
On fuel-free plots, only portions of the aboveground stems were killed.
Plants sprouted from underground regenerative structures where
aboveground mortality was complete, but from both aboveground and
belowground tissues where portions of the aerial stems were killed.
Depth of underground regenerative structures ranged from 0 to 2 inches
(0-5 cm), with mortality of tissues occasionally extending to 0.4 to 1.2
inches (1-3 cm) below the duff surface.  Portions of most deeper
"rhizomes" apparently survived.  Red raspberry also reproduces through
lateral buds located on small, shallow, succulent, poorly protected
roots which can be damaged by fires of high intensity.

The number of sprouts produced per plant did not vary according to burn
treatment.  Height growth and the number of leaves did vary by
treatment, indicating that red raspberry recovery may be affected by
fire intensity and severity.  Specific recovery rate data for red
raspberry were as follows:

  date     response                     fuel loading (kg/m sq.)
           parameter              0.00    0.17    0.87    3.94    9.65

  July 4   #sprouts/plot          5       4       4       4       5
           ht. growth/sprout(cm)  52.0    32.7    17.4    12.2    8.8
           avg. # leaves/sprout   --      8       6       5       3

  July 22  #sprouts/plot          6       4       5       4       7
           ht. growth/sprout(cm)  58.7    36.5    19.5    16.1    12.8
           avg. # leaves/sprout   --      8       6       5       5

  Aug. 1   #sprouts/plot          3       4       4       4       7
           ht. growth/sprout(cm)  58.4    36.8    19.1    16.2    13.5
           avg. # leaves/sprout   --      8       6       5       5

  Aug. 16  #sprouts/plot          3       4       5       4       7
           ht. growth/sprout(cm)  60.0    37.2    21.0    16.7    13.5
           avg. # leaves/sprout   --      7       7       6       6

  Aug. 30  #sprouts/plot          3       2       4       3       7
           ht. growth/sprout(cm)  60.2    37.0    20.8    16.8    13.8
           avg. # leaves/sprout   --      7       6       5       6

Mean abovegrd. ovendry biomass
           (grams/plot)           2.5     4.1     5.0     4.6     4.4


FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS :
Red raspberry may be somewhat susceptible to high intensity fires
because of shallow, fairly poorly protected root buds.  This study
suggests that hot prescribed fires may be useful in reducing red
raspberry in some carefully selected instances.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Management Implications

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Red raspberry may be somewhat susceptible to high intensity fires
because of shallow, fairly poorly protected root buds.  This study
suggests that hot prescribed fires may be useful in reducing red
raspberry in some carefully selected instances.

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

  
   Hemicryptophyte
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: shrub

Red raspberry grows across a wide range of sites throughout most of the
world's temperate regions [20].  It commonly occurs in clearings or
borders in boreal forests, in ravines, on bluffs and streambanks of
prairie regions, and on talus or scree above timberline [39,86,93,95].

Soil:  Raspberries are tolerant of a wide range of soil pH and texture
but do require adequate soil moisture [14].  Red raspberry grows on
imperfectly to well-drained sandy loam to silty clay loam, but best
growth occurs on moderately well-drained soils [95].  Although red
raspberry grows well on barren and infertile soils, it reportedly has a
relatively high demand for soil nutrients and is most abundant on
nutrient-rich soils [39].  This shrub is moderately tolerant of acidic
soils [95].

Elevation:  Generalized elevational ranges for selected locations are as
follows [23,98]:

               from 6,500 to 11,700 feet (1,981 to 3,569 m) in CO
                    2,400 to 7,000 feet (732 to 2,134 m) in MT
                    5,500 to 9,600 feet (1,676 to 3,420 m) in UT
                    6,500 to 11,000 feet (1,981 to 3,355 m) in WY
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

     1  Jack pine
     5  Balsam fir
    12  Black spruce
    13  Black spruce - tamarack
    15  Red pine
    16  Aspen
    17  Pin cherry
    18  Paper birch
    21  Eastern white pine
    22  White pine - hemlock
    25  Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch
    30  Red spruce - yellow birch
    31  Red spruce - sugar maple - beech
    32  Red spruce
    33  Red spruce - balsam fir
    35  Paper birch - red spruce - balsam fir
    37  Northern white cedar
    39  Black ash - American elm - red maple
    42  Bur oak
    60  Beech - sugar maple
   107  White spruce
   108  Red maple
   109  Hawthorn
   201  White spruce
   202  White spruce - paper birch
   204  Black spruce
   210  Interior Douglas-fir
   211  White fir
   212  Western larch
   213  Grand fir
   215  Western white pine
   217  Aspen
   218  Lodgepole
   222  Black cottonwood - willow
   224  Western hemlock
   226  Coastal true fir - hemlock
   227  Western redcedar - western hemlock
   228  Western redcedar
   229  Pacific Douglas-fir
   230  Douglas-fir - western hemlock
   235  Cottonwood - willow
   236  Bur oak
   237  Interior ponderosa pine
   239  Pinyon - juniper
   252  Paper birch
   253  Black spruce - white spruce
   254  Black spruce - paper birch
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

   FRES10  White - red - jack pine
   FRES11  Spruce - fir
   FRES15  Oak - hickory
   FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood
   FRES18  Maple - beech - birch
   FRES19  Aspen - birch
   FRES20  Douglas-fir
   FRES21  Ponderosa pine
   FRES22  Western white pine
   FRES23  Fir - spruce
   FRES24  Hemlock - Sitka spruce
   FRES25  Larch
   FRES26  Lodgepole pine
   FRES28  Western hardwoods
   FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub
   FRES35  Pinyon - juniper
   FRES37  Mountain meadows
   FRES38  Plains grasslands
   FRES39  Prairie
   FRES44  Alpine
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the terms: forest, woodland

   K001  Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest
   K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest
   K004  Fir - hemlock forest
   K011  Western ponderosa forest
   K012  Douglas-fir forest
   K014  Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest
   K015  Western spruce - fir forest
   K016  Eastern ponderosa forest
   K017  Black Hills pine forest
   K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest
   K020  Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest
   K021  Southwestern spruce - fir forest
   K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland
   K025  Alder - ash forest
   K037  Mountain mahogany - oak scrub
   K052  Alpine meadows and barren
   K064  Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass
   K067  Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass
   K074  Bluestem prairie
   K081  Oak savanna
   K093  Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
   K095  Great Lakes pine forest
   K096  Northeastern spruce - fir forest
   K097  Southeastern spruce - fir forest
   K098  Northern floodplain forest
   K102  Beech - maple forest
   K106  Northern hardwoods
   K107  Northern hardwoods - fir forest
   K108  Northern hardwoods - spruce forest
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: duff, fire intensity, fuel, seed, severity

Red raspberry is described as "resistant" to fire [39,103].  However,
foliage is extremely susceptible to fire-induced mortality [52].  In an
Alberta study, all aboveground stems were completely killed wherever
supplemental fuels contributed to relatively intense fires [52].  Where
fuels were reduced and fires less intense, the stems of many plants were
only partially killed [52].  However, all aerial stems experienced at
least partial mortality, regardless of fire intensity.

Belowground regenerative structures appear to be relatively resistant to
fire [39].  Johnston and Woodard [52] observed belowground mortality
only on plots with high surface fuel loadings (3.94 or 9.65 kg/m sq).
Here, tissue mortality extended as far as 0.4 to 1.2 inches (1-3 cm)
below the duff surface.  Raspberry is capable of sprouting from lateral
buds on relatively shallow roots.  These roots, which are small and
succulent, are poorly protected by duff and can be damaged by fires of
high intensity and severity [52].  However, at least some regenerative
structures typically grow to 2 inches (5 cm) below the soil surface, and
many are apparently unharmed by fires of even high intensity and
severity [52].  In general, the effects of fire on red raspberry are
much less pronounced wherever nutrients and water are abundant [39].
The long-lived seed of red raspberry is generally unharmed by fire when
protected by overlying soil [39,78,94].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cover, fruit

Raspberries provide food and cover for a wide range of wildlife species
[10,100].  Some herbivores browse raspberry, but in general, it offers
relatively poor forage.  Red raspberry is browsed by moose in Alaska
but is not considered to be of primary importance [79].  In some
locations, deer, rabbits, mountain beaver, and elk eat the foliage of
raspberries [14,91].  Porcupine and beaver occasionally consume buds,
twigs, or cambium of species within the genus Rubus [91].  However,
thorns generally prevent excessive wildlife use of red raspberry [95].
In general, raspberries have little forage value for domestic livestock
[91].

Fruits of many species within the genus Rubus are eaten by ruffed
grouse, blue grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, greater
prairie chicken, California quail, northern bobwhite, gray catbird,
northern cardinal, yellow-breasted chat, American robin, thrushes,
towhees, brown thrasher, orchard oriole, summer tanager, pine grosbeak,
gray (Hungarian) partridge, and band-tailed pigeon [14,91].  Mammals
such as the coyote, raccoon, black bear, common opossum, squirrels,
Townsend's chipmunk, skunks, red fox, and gray fox also seek out the
fruits of many raspberries [14,91].  The eastern chipmunk, western
chipmunk, deer mice, and grizzly bear consume red raspberry fruit where
available [59,105].  Flowers of red raspberry provide nutritious food
for bees [40].
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Key Plant Community Associations

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More info for the terms: association, bog, codominant, hardwood, taiga

Red raspberry is well represented in many plant communities throughout
North America.  It grows within the understory of many quaking aspen
(Populus tremuloides), mixed conifer, cottonwood (Populus spp.), cedar
(Thuja spp.)-hemlock (Tsuga spp.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa),
spruce (Picea spp.)-fir (Abies spp.), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga
menziesii) forests of the West [6,23,37].  In the Lake States and
Northeast, red raspberry frequently grows in old-field communities, or in
association with jack pine (Pinus banksiana), white spruce (Picea
glauca), black spruce (P. mariana), red spruce (P. rubens), Atlantic
white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), aspen
(Populus spp.), beech (Fagus spp.), maple (Acer spp.), red pine (Pinus
resinosa), and eastern white pine (P. strobus) [1,3,29,30,34,41,40,77].
It is a common component of northern hardwood forests and often assumes
dominance on sites which have been subject to windthrow, fire, or timber
harvest [100].  Red raspberry is a prominent component of many taiga
communities in Alaska [25] and the Canadian North.

Associated species:  Red raspberry grows with a wide variety of plants
across its extensive geographic range.  The following species are
particularly common plant associates [1,40,12,13,95]:  Canada beadruby
(Maianthemum canadense), thimbleberry, bunchberry (Cornus canadensis),
huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium),
bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), kinnikinnick
(Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), Virginia strawberry (Fragaria virginiana),
green alder (Alnus viridis ssp. crispa), twinflower (Linnaea borealis),
sedges (Carex spp.), prickly rose (Rosa acicularis), twinberry (Lonicera
spp.), lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), bog Labrador tea
(Ledum groenlandica), red currant (Ribes triste), highbush cranberry
(Viburnum edule), and red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea).

Red raspberry occurs as a dominant in a number of plant communities.  It
has been included as a codominant in rocky, high elevation alpine scree
communities with Colorado columbine (Aquilegia coerulea) and
littleflower alumroot (Heuchera parvifolia).  Red raspberry has been
listed as an indicator or dominant member of a plant community in the
following publications:

Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of
  Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas [51]
Habitat types on selected parts of the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National
  Forests [56]
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

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More info for the term: shrub

Shrub
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management considerations

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More info for the terms: competition, forest, hardwood, seed, shrub

Competition:  Red raspberry typically increases dramatically after fire
or timber harvest [27,39].  In many areas this shrub can compete
vigorously with conifer seedlings for light, moisture, nutrients, and
space [30,34,62,74].  Dense thickets of red raspberry reportedly
suppress the growth of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and spruce (Picea
spp.) seedlings after spruce-fir forests of northern Maine are clearcut
[30] and after timber harvest in the boreal forests of Ontario [82].
Raspberries also compete effectively with jack pine (Pinus banksiana)
and red pine (P. resinosa) following timber harvest in northeastern
Minnesota and Manitoba [3,74].  Graber and Thompson [34] observed that
relatively few red raspberry seeds are present within the soil of
northeastern hardwood forest harvested at 100-year intervals.  However,
in forests harvested at more frequent intervals, large numbers of red
raspberry seed are present and massive simultaneous germination results
in intense competition with conifer seedlings [34].
 
Chemical control:  Red raspberry is susceptible to a number of
herbicides [9].  Glyphosate is commonly used as a mid-to-late summer
foliar spray [82].  A number of herbicides have been suggested for use
in reducing weeds in cultivated red raspberry patches [8].
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Nutritional Value

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Browse:  Red raspberry browse is rated as poor in both energy and
protein value [23].  Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations
are highest in young leaves but decrease as leaves mature [46].
Conversely, calcium and magnesium concentrations are generally highest
in mature leaves but lowest in young, developing leaves [46].  Zinc
typically increases through the growing season whereas manganese
decreases [46].  Levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium
generally decline as the growing season progresses but may increase in
the fall if additional rainfall allows plants to resume growth [46].

Fruit:  Raspberry fruits are sweet and contain relatively high amounts
of both mono and disaccharides [88].  Relative glucose, starch, and
sugar content has been documented for a number of red raspberry
cultivars [16].
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

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     AK  AL  AZ  AR  CA  CO  CT  DE  GA  HI
     ID  IL  IN  IA  KY  ME  MD  MA  MI  MN
     MO  MT  NV  NH  NJ  NM  NY  NC  ND  OH
     OR  PA  RI  SC  SD  TN  UT  VA  WA  WV
     WI  WY  AB  BC  MB  NB  NF  ON  PQ  SK
     MEXICO
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Other uses and values

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More info for the terms: fresh, fruit

The red raspberry was traditionally an important food of many Native
American peoples.  It was eaten fresh or preserved for winter use [66].
Approximately 0.27 quarts (250 ml) of wild red raspberry fruit can be
hand-harvested within 30 minutes in good stands [66].  The fruit, bark
of roots, and stems of raspberries have been used to make various
medicinal preparations [10].

The unique edible fruit of the red raspberry is delicious fresh or
preserved.  Raspberries make excellent jams and jellies [93] and provide
flavorful additions to pies and other baked goods, candies, and dairy
products such as yogurt or ice cream.  Raspberry tea is commercially
available and good although mild in flavor.  The raspberry industry in
North America is a growing, multimillion dollar business [63].  Five
primary regions produce most of the raspberries grown commercially in
North America [63]:

     1)  Northeast-Atlantic Provinces: southern Quebec through
              Pennsylvania
     2)  Central Atlantic Region:  Maryland to South Carolina, eastern
              Kentucky and Tennessee, northern Georgia and Alabama
     3)  Central Great Lakes Region:  Michigan, southern Ontario, Indiana,
              Illinois, Ohio to Iowa, Missouri, western Kentucky and
              Tennessee
     4)  Prairie States Region:  Minnesota, southern Manitoba, eastern North 
              and South Dakota, and Wisconsin
     5)  Pacific Northwest:  southern British Columbia, western Washington
              and Oregon

Cultivars:  Many cultivars have been developed to meet the needs of
raspberry growers in a variety of climatic situations.  Most are derived
from the European subspecies idaeus [98].  Desirable traits for red
raspberry cultivars include spinelessness, winter hardiness, high fruit
yields, resistance to disease, perennial stems, and primocane (or
autumn) fruiting [49].  Reviews of particular cultivars document the
extreme plasticity of this species and consider the suitability of each
to various geographic locations [20,20,22,69,83,67,63,97,16,48].
Cultivars exhibit great genetic variation in time of flowerbud
initiation, number of drupelets produced per fruit, time of fruit
ripening, amount and timing of root suckering, length of dormancy,
winter hardiness, fruit yield, and disease resistance
[19,22,48,67,69,71,83,92].  Consequently, care should be taken to select
cultivars with desirable traits which would enhance suitability for
growth in a specific location [20].  The commonly cultivated loganberry
may have been derived from a red raspberry-trailing blackberry hybrid
[17].

Commercial cultivation:  A wide array of studies detail commercial
propagation of the red raspberry.  Traditional techniques include hill
culture of canes (stems), removal of weeds, and elimination of intercane
suckers to increase fruit yield [64].  Older and weaker canes may be
mowed or otherwise pruned annually to improve yield, enhance access to
fruit, and to maintain the general health of the cane [67,102].  Trends
in red raspberry propagation include increasing mechanization [63].
Various cultivation techniques have been shown to improve fruit yields
[16,65,72].  In some instances, application of nitrogen fertilizers can
increase both cane growth and the number of flowers produced per node
[67].  However, in other situations fertilizers appear to be of little
benefit [33].  Following the addition of nitrogen fertilizer, Lawson and
Waister [65] observed increased yields for two years, little effect
during the third year, and decreased yields during the next two years.
Similarly, irrigation appears to increase yields in some locations while
having little effect elsewhere [72].
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Palatability

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Red raspberry browse appears to be relatively unpalatable to most
ungulates.  However, the fruits are highly palatable to many birds and
mammals.  The degree of use shown by livestock and wildlife species for
red raspberry is rated as follows [23]:

                       CO       MT       ND       UT       WY
Cattle                poor     poor     poor     fair     poor
Sheep                 poor     fair     fair     good     fair
Horses                poor     poor     poor     poor     poor
Pronghorn             poor     ----     ----     poor     poor
Elk                   ----     poor     ----     fair     fair
Mule deer             ----     fair     ----     good     fair
White-tailed deer     fair     ----     ----     ----     ----
Small mammals         good     ----     ----     good     fair
Small nongame birds   poor     ----     ----     good     fair
Upland game birds     ----     ----     ----     good     fair
Waterfowl             ----     ----     ----     poor     poor  
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

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More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: fruit, phase

Red raspberry is typically biennial, with each shoot passing through
well-defined phenological stages during its 2-year lifespan [45].
Vegetative shoots develop from the roots or stems of parent plants, or
as seedlings, during the first year [45,99,100,101].  Lateral flowering
stalks (floricanes) are produced during the second year [22,99,100].
Floricanes leaf out early and exhibit rapid growth [99].  After
producing fruit in late summer, the leaves of floricanes senesce and the
cane gradually dies [99].  Stages of the 2-year growth cycle of red
raspberry are detailed below [45]:

                       
                            YEAR 1
       Phases              

phase 1:  initiation of root buds                 
phase 2:  subterranean suckering          
phase 3:  emergent suckers; elongation slows or stops
          as sucker reaches surface; leaves form a rosette
          at or above the soil surface.
phase 4:  1st winter dormancy-most leaves shed    

                            YEAR 2

phase 5:  elongating shoot; rapid elongation.     
phase 6:  initiation of flower buds; shoot stops  
          elongation at end of growing season. 
          secondary rosettes form; axillary meristems
          initiate flower primordia; dormant fruit buds;
          leaves become senescent and fall.
phase 7:  breaking dormancy of flower buds; require
          cold to break dormancy; buds grow in spring
          (some cultivars produce fruit before dormancy).
phase 8:  flowering and fruiting; basal buds elongate
          into a vegetative replacement shoot which
          repeats the biennial cycle.
phase 9:  senescence and death.  (after fruiting the
          shoot dies back "to the position from which
          a replacement shoot has grown").

Flowering:  Flowerbud initiation is influenced by temperature, genetics
(cultivar), and geographic location [21,48,69,92].  Flowering is also
related to the age and vigor of the plant and the date at which
vegetative growth terminates [16,67].  Flowerbud initiation is triggered
by low temperatures and short days and generally begins in late summer
or autumn [16,21].  Flowerbud initiation can be induced by exposure to
temperatures of 55 degrees F (12.8 degrees C) at 9 hour days or 50
degrees F (10.0 degrees C) at 16 hour days [21].  Although flowerbud
initiation occurs over winter in most red raspberries, initiation in
primocane-fruiting cultivars begins in summer [92].  Bud break typically
occurs in early spring [16].  Evidence suggests that higher spring
temperatures may promote earlier and more rapid flowering [67].

Fruiting:  Fruit maturation begins soon after flowering [88].  Timing of
flowerbud initiation largely determines fruiting season [21], although
fruiting dates also vary according to cultivar and geographic location
[21].  Annual variation in fruit ripening has also been reported [21].
Both flowering and fruiting proceeds from the top of the floricane
downward [22].  After maturation, fruit spoils rapidly [88].
Generalized fruiting and flowering dates by geographic location are as
follows [21,23,36,54,80,84,86,88,93]:

     location        flowering             fruiting

       AK            June-July             July-September
       AZ            June-July             -----
       BC            -----                 July-August
       CO            June-July             -----
     East            -----                 July-October
 Great Plains        May-July              -----
       MT            June-August           -----
    NC, SC           June-August           July-August (or later)
       ND            June                  -----
  New England        ----                  late June-August
  nc Plains          June-July             July-August
       UT            May-July              -----
       WY            June-August           -----
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Plant Response to Fire

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More info for the terms: cover, duff, fire intensity, forest, scarification, seed, severity, tree

Red raspberry is well adapted to reoccupy a site quickly after fire.
This common "fire follower" is favored by increased amounts of nitrates
present on burned sites and generally exhibits rapid and vigorous
postfire growth through sprouting and/or seedling establishment [4,95].

Vegetative response:  Red raspberry typically sprouts readily after fire
wherever present in preburn communities [18,95].  Most belowground
regenerative structures appear to be well protected from the damaging
effects of heat [52].  Postfire sprouting of root buds is commonly
observed.  Although more shallow root buds may be damaged or killed by
heat, root bud depths can range from 1.9 to 2.4 inches (5-6 cm) or
greater [28,52] and many escape serious damage.  Postfire sprouting from
rhizomes may also occur [39], although a number of researchers have
reported no evidence of any rhizomes with regenerative capabilities in
the red raspberry [28].  Where light fires damage but do not kill the
aboveground foliage, aerial stems generally sprout and quickly resume
growth [52].  Consequently, red raspberry is reported to be
"rejuvenated" by fire [103].

Johnston and Woodard [52] reported that fire intensity and severity had
little effect on the sprouting ability of red raspberry in aspen
communities of east-central Alberta.  Both the number of sprouts
produced per plant and total biomass appeared unaffected by fire
intensity and severity.  However, the height growth of individual
sprouts was greatest after fires of low severity.  Thus, although high
severity fires reduced the rate of sprout growth, they did not affect
the number of sprouts produced by each plant [52].

Seedling establishment:  Rapid postfire establishment through on-site
seed is common in the red raspberry [95].  Long-lived seed, which is
produced in abundance, accumulates in seed banks in the soil or duff
[35,38].  Germination is enhanced by exposure to heat [78,94], and large
numbers of seed germinate soon after disturbance [100].  Mineral soil
creates a favorable seedbed [26] and elevated nitrate levels enhance
early seedling growth.  Most germination occurs within the first year
after fire [38]. 

Limited evidence suggests that fires of high intensity and severity may
promote red raspberry seedling establishment more than light fires.
Bock and Bock [6] observed vigorous seedling establishment after crown
fires in ponderosa pine forest of the southern Black Hills.  However,
large increases in red raspberry did not occur after lighter, cooler
ground fires in the same area [6,7].  Extremely light fires may provide
insufficient heat scarification and do little to prepare a seedbed.

Postfire recovery:  Postfire recovery of red raspberry is generally
rapid, with vigorous expansion in cover during early seral stages.  This
shade-intolerant species [95,100] declines as tree cover increases [29].
In many communities, red raspberry begins to decline within only 3 or 4
years after fire [18,103].  It is important to note that many variables
can significantly influence the speed of postfire recovery and
subsequent persistence within the community.  Such variables may include
season of burn, fire intensity and severity, site characteristics,
genetic variation, and climatic factors.  Specific postfire response of
red raspberry by community is discussed in the 'Successional Status'
slot.
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

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More info for the terms: geophyte, ground residual colonizer, rhizome, root crown, shrub

   Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown
   Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
   Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
   Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
   Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
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Regeneration Processes

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More info for the terms: apomixis, competition, forest, fresh, fruit, layering, natural, root crown, root sucker, seed, severity, shrub, stratification

Red raspberry reproduces through seed and also regenerates vegetatively.
It is capable of forming dense thickets through sprouting.  Reproductive
versatility is well represented in the Rubus genus, with sexual
reproduction, parthenogenesis (development of the egg without
fertilization), pseudogamy (a form of apomixis in which pollination is
required), and parthenocarpy (production of fruit without fertilization)
occurring widely [17].  The following types of reproduction have been
documented within the genus:  (1) sexual reproduction, (2) nonreduction
at meiosis on the female, male, or both sides, (3) apomixis with
segregation, (4) apomixis without segregation, and (5) haploid
parthenogenesis [17].  These modes of asexual reproduction are important
because they help contribute to the vigorous, aggressive spread of red
raspberry.

Red raspberry is capable of vigorous sprouting after disturbance [18]
but also expands in clonal area through vegetative regeneration
[95,100].  Natural vegetative regeneration occurs through root sprouts
or "suckers" [95,100,101], "stolons" [95], "rhizomes" [39,52], and basal
stem buds or root crowns [45,95,101].  The precise mode of vegetative
regeneration depends on the type and severity of disturbance.  Dense
raspberry thickets form from the roots or stems of parent plants which
separate to form individual plants with the deterioration of connecting
tissue [45].  Red raspberry allocates most energy to vegetative
regeneration on recently disturbed sites with favorable growing
conditions [99].  With time, initially elevated nutrient levels decline,
and shading increases.  As growing conditions deteriorate, red raspberry
shifts its reproductive effort to the production of large numbers of
seed [39,100].

Red raspberry sprouts readily from portions of aboveground stems which
survive disturbance [52].  Many raspberry species are capable of rooting
from the stem nodes, and layering has been widely reported in the red
raspberry [95].  This shrub is also capable of sprouting from axillary
buds located "well above the ground level" [45].  Root crown or stembase
sprouting is an important regenerative mode, which in the raspberry
gives rise to biennial stems even in the absence of disturbance [36,45].
Red raspberry typically sprouts from the root crown if aerial foliage is
cut late in the growing season [95].  In related species such as
salmonberry (R. spectabilis), apical dominance exerted by extant
root crowns inhibits sprouting from belowground structures such as roots
or rhizomes [106].

Root "suckering" is a normal, on-going process in red raspberry stands
[45,101].  However, particularly vigorous root suckering is often
observed after the aboveground vegetation is damaged or destroyed.  This
shrub regenerates from buds located on the larger main roots as well as
those present on lateral roots which are often located fairly close to
the soil surface [52,101].  The mean depth of these underground
regenerative structures (root buds) was estimated at 2.4 inches (6 cm)
in a New Brunswick study [28].  During the first 2 to 3 years after
establishment, root suckers fill in spatial gaps in the clone [100].
Root sucker mortality is generally high during the third and fourth
years because of intense intraspecific competition for sunlight, space,
and nutrients which result in "self thinning" of stands [45,100].
Suckering ability declines with age, with production decreasing from an
average of 1.5 per square foot (16.0/sq m) in 3-year-old stands to 0.77
per square foot (8.25/sq m) in 4-year-old stands [100].  Although
relatively few root suckers actually reach the canopy, survival rates of
those that do is high [100].  Most root suckers live for only 1 or 2
months [100].  Several researchers report that red raspberry is capable
of sprouting from rhizomes after fire or other disturbance [39,52].
However, others have observed that red raspberry lacks rhizomes with any
regenerative capability [28].  The term "rhizome" may have been loosely
applied to rhizomelike roots which do possess the ability to sprout.
Geographic or genetic differences in red raspberry morphology and
physiology are also possible.

Seed:  Immature fruit, commonly referred to as "berries," are pink and
hard [10].  Ripe fruit is generally red, but less commonly white or
yellow [43].  Several to many small individual drupelets form an
aggregate fruit [10,98].  Fruit size appears to be related to soil
moisture [72], although significant genotypic variation has also been
noted in the size and number of fruits produced annually [22].
Decreased stored nutrient availability and water stress can influence
overall fruit production [16].  It is estimated that 70 to 90 percent of
red raspberry flowers eventually mature into fruit which results in an
abundance of seed [99].  Whitney [100] observed that 77 percent of all
plants flowered, with 85 percent of those flowering producing seed.
Most species of raspberry produce good seed crops nearly every year
[10], but seed production does vary annually in the red raspberry
according to climatic factors and the age of the cane.  Whitney [100]
observed average seed production of 65 seeds per square foot (700 seeds/
sq m) in 2-year-old canes, with maximum production of 1,301 seeds per
square foot (14,000 seeds/sq m) in 4-year-old canes.  Annual seed
production averaged 604 seeds per square foot (6,500 seeds/sq m) over a
4-year period [100].

Pollination:  Red raspberry is primarily pollinated by bees, although
flies and beetles also pollinate some flowers [40].  Under natural
conditions, it is almost exclusively self-incompatible [55] which
contributes to morphological variability.

Germination:  Seed of the red raspberry is relatively large [31], with
viability averaging up to 92 to 99 percent in laboratory tests [95].  Red
raspberry seeds have a hard, thick, impermeable coat and dormant embryo
[10].  Seeds have the ability to become dormant a second time in
response to environmental factors [50].  Consequently, germination is
often slow.  Most raspberry seeds require, as a minimum, warm
stratification at 68 to 86 degrees F (20 to 30 degrees C) for 90 days,
followed by cold stratification at 36 to 41 degrees F (2 to 5 degrees C)
for an additional 90 days [10].  Cold stratification alone is
insufficient to induce germination in red raspberry [59].  Laboratory
tests indicate that exposure to sulfuric acid solutions or sodium
hyperchlorite prior to cold stratification can improve germination
[10,43,50,95].  Evidence suggests that the digestive enzymes of mammals
can also enhance germination, with seeds eaten by chipmunks and deer
mice exhibiting better germination than untreated seeds [59].  Sowing
seeds at greater depths with subsequent exposure to light can produce
better germination than shallow plantings, presumably because of greater
soil moisture [50].  Results of specific germination tests have been
documented in a number of studies [10,50,59].

Seed banking:  Red raspberry amasses large numbers of seed which persist
in the soil until favorable germination conditions are encountered
[31,35,100].  Often, many seeds remain buried in the soil of stands
which lack any sign of the parent plants [31].  Red raspberry seed can
remain viable for 60 to 100 years or more [62,73,100].  Seeds are less
likely to germinate when fresh [50,62], and may reach maximum viability
at 50 to 100 years of age [34].  In a New Hampshire study, approximately
90 percent of Rubus (R. idaeus and R. alleghaniensis) seed germinated
during the first summer after disturbance in 38-, 95-, and >
200-year-old stands, whereas only 60 percent of those in 5-year-old
stands germinated [34].  More than 4,048,583 Rubus seeds per acre (10
million/ha) have been found in the soil of 5-year-old beech (Fagus
spp.)-birch (Betula spp.)-maple (Acer spp.) stands [34].  Numbers
declined to 48,588 per acre (120,000/ha) in 200-year-old stands [34].
Annual reductions in stored seed have been attributed to: (1)
degeneration resulting in death, (2) fungi or animal predation, and (3)
annual germination of some seeds.  Fyles [31] reported 237 to 1,883
seeds per foot square (22-175/m sq) in organic soil and 0 to 2,582 per
foot square (0-240 m sq) in mineral soil of upland coniferous forests of
central Alberta.  Distribution of germinating seeds by stand age in
beech-birch-maple forests of New Hampshire were as follows [34]:

                           stand age in years

                          5       38        95        200 +
#seeds/m sq.            1,016    286        68        12

Seed dispersal:  Red raspberry seed is readily dispersed by birds and
mammals [87,100].  After they mature, the highly sought-after fruit
rarely remains on the plants for long [10].  Birds have been observed to
deposit 2,429 to 2,834 viable seeds per acre (6,000 to 7,000/ha)
annually in beech-birch-maple forests of New Hampshire [34].  Mammals
such as mice and chipmunks may be important dispersal agents in some
areas [59].

Seedling establishment:  Most seedlings germinate during the first year
after disturbance [99,100] and produce stands which are primarily
even aged.  In many instances, as much as 70 to 90 percent of all
individuals establish during the first year after disturbance [100].
Researchers have observed minimal recruitment in the second, third, and
fourth years after fire [100].  Little seedling establishment occurs
beneath the shade of a closed forest canopy [100].
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    1  Northern Pacific Border
    2  Cascade Mountains
    3  Southern Pacific Border
    5  Columbia Plateau
    8  Northern Rocky Mountains
    9  Middle Rocky Mountains
   10  Wyoming Basin
   11  Southern Rocky Mountains
   12  Colorado Plateau
   13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont
   14  Great Plains
   15  Black Hills Uplift
   16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Season/Severity Classification

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May 5, 1980/variable

Site Description

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     Soil - orthic gray luvisol
     Elevation - not reported
     Topography - not reported
     Size of treated area - 9.9 acres (4 ha)
     Weather conditions - dry

Successional Status

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More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: duff, forest, hardwood, mesic, shrubs

Red raspberry vigorously invades and colonizes many types of disturbed
sites [62,95,100].  It is generally considered a pioneer or early seral
species [35] which flourishes and completes its life cycle during the
first years after disturbance [100].  This shade-intolerant species
often dominates sites during early successional stages but decreases as
the canopy closes [62,100].  Although the plants themselves remain
prominent for only a relatively brief period, viable seeds can persist
for 60 years or more in the soil or duff [73].  Widespread germination
after disturbance frequently leads to the development of even-aged
stands [100].  In many areas, red raspberry is absent beneath the canopy
of mature forests but persists in forest openings [39].  Whitney [99]
reports that few stands of red raspberry persist for longer than 5 to 12
years.

Red raspberry invades black and white spruce stands in Alaska during the
first years after disturbance but declines as taller shrubs and trees
become established [29,39].  In many northern black spruce forests, red
raspberry is present only in early successional stages [29].  On mesic
and submesic sites in sub-boreal forests of British Columbia it
typically increases during the first 10 years after timber harvest or
fire but is virtually eliminated within 14 years because of rapid
increases in shade [39].  Red raspberry often dominates jack pine stands
of Minnesota within 5 years after disturbance [2,39] and subsequently
declines as the canopy develops.  In parts of western Montana, red
raspberry initially grows rapidly but begins to decline within 3 to 4
years after disturbance as nutrient levels decrease [18].  Red raspberry
can persist for up to 4 or 5 years in northern hardwood forests as long
as stands remain relatively open [47,73].  In birch-maple forests of New
Hampshire, red raspberry reaches peak abundance in the second through
fourth years after disturbance [100].  However, it rarely persists for
more than 10 years [100].  Red raspberry is subsequently replaced by
species such as aspen, chokecherry (Prunus spp.), and birch [100].
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Synonyms

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R. idaeus ssp. sachalinensis (Levl.) Focke = R. i. ssp. strigosus
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: shrub

The scientific name of red raspberry is Rubus idaeus L. There
are two subspecies [53]:

Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus, red raspberry
Rubus idaeus subsp. strigosus (Michx.) Focke, grayleaf raspberry

Numerous red raspberry hybrids have been reported, although many are
infertile [43,104]. This shrub hybridizes with many species in the
Rubus genus including R. arcticus, R. ursinus, R. occidentalis, R.
rubrisetus, and R. odoratus [49,55,68,104]. Red raspberry has
hybridized with thimbleberry (R. parviflorus) in the laboratory [49].
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: natural, reclamation, seed

Some ecotypes of red raspberry have value in reclamation [95].  Suitable
ecotypes are rated as having low to moderate value for short-term
revegetation, and at least moderate value for long-term revegetation
projects [23].  Red raspberry exhibits good potential for erosion
control on some sites [10,91,95].  It has been successfully used to
stabilize roadcuts and other disturbed sites in Utah and to revegetate
bare soils in subalpine zones of Colorado [95].  Red raspberry is
recommended for revegetation projects on well-drained sites in interior
Alaska where maximum spacing of 3.3 feet by 3.3 feet (1 meter x 1 meter)
is suggested [95].  Natural seedling establishment has been observed on
many types of harsh sites, such as on tailings and surface soil of oil
sand extraction plants in northern Alberta [95].  Red raspberry is
capable of establishing on acidic tailings which have been treated with
lime and on tar sands [95].

Propagation:  Red raspberry can be propagated through leaf bud cuttings,
"rooted handles," stem cuttings, or root cuttings (suckers)
[24,67,89,95].  Success of establishment through root cuttings varies
according to the cultivar and planting date [89].  However, root cutting
success has ranged up to 60 percent in experimental tests [89].  Correct
choice of planting dates and techniques are important and significantly
influence subsequent growth and establishment [14,89].  In vitro
micropropagation techniques have also been developed for mass production
of red raspberry [97].

Red raspberry seedlings may be transplanted, or seed may be sown
directly onto disturbed sites.  Seed which has been scarified can be
successfully planted in the late summer or fall [10].  Cold treatment is
not required for fall seedings.  Previously stratified and scarified
seed can be planted in the spring [10].  Good results have been obtained
after seeds were planted with a drill and covered with 1/8 to 3/16 inch
(0.3-0.5 cm) of soil.  Cleaned seed averages approximately 328,000 per
pound (722,467/kg) [10].  Detailed information is available on
appropriate methods to obtain and plant red raspberry seed [95].
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Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Rubus idaeus L. Sp. PI. 492. 1753
Rubus idaeus vulgatus Arrh. Rub. Suec. Monog. 12. 1839. Batidaea itascica Greene, Leaflets 1: 239. 1906.
Stems biennial, erect, light-colored, finely tomentose when young, but glabrate the second year, sparingly armed with bristles or weak prickles; leaves of the turions mostly pinnately 5-foliolate, those of the floral branches mostly 3-foliolate; petioles, rachis, and midveins finely tomentose and with a few small curved prickles; stipules subulate; petioles 3-6 cm. long; terminal leaflet petioluled, broadly ovate, short-acuminate at the apex, rounded or cordate at the base, coarsely double-serrate with ovate, mucronate teeth, dark-green and rather closely but finely pubescent or glabrate above, white-tomentose beneath, 5-10 cm. long; lateral leaflets similar, but somewhat smaller, sessile and rounded at the base; inflorescence short-racemose, terminal and with branches in the upper axils ; peduncles and pedicels more or less tomentose, with a few small slightly recurved piickles or bristles, but without glands; sepals ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, tomentose, not glandular; petals white, elliptic, about 5 mm. long, shorter than the sepals; fruit red, thimble-shaped, sweet; drupelets many, tomentose.
Type locality: Stony places in Europe.
Distribution: Escaped from cultivation and sparingly established from New England to
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Per Axel Rydberg. 1913. ROSACEAE (pars). North American flora. vol 22(5). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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North American Flora

Rubus idaeus

provided by wikipedia EN

 src=
Halved raspberry

Rubus idaeus (raspberry, also called red raspberry or occasionally European red raspberry to distinguish it from other raspberry species) is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions.[2][3]

Taxonomy

A closely related plant in North America, sometimes regarded as the variety Rubus idaeus var. strigosus, is more commonly treated as a distinct species, Rubus strigosus (American red raspberry), as is done here.[4] Red-fruited cultivated raspberries, even in North America, are generally Rubus idaeus or horticultural derivatives of hybrids of R. idaeus and R. strigosus; these plants are all addressed in the present article.

Description

Plants of Rubus idaeus are generally perennials, which bear biennial stems ("canes") from a perennial root system. In its first year, a new, unbranched stem ("primocane") grows vigorously to its full height of 1.5–2.5 m (5.0–8.3 feet), bearing large pinnately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets, but usually no flowers. In its second year (as a "floricane"), a stem does not grow taller, but produces several side shoots, which bear smaller leaves with three or five leaflets. The flowers are produced in late spring on short racemes on the tips of these side shoots, each flower about 1 cm (0.4 inches) diameter with five white petals. The fruit is red, edible, and sweet but tart-flavoured, produced in summer or early autumn; in botanical terminology, it is not a berry at all, but an aggregate fruit of numerous drupelets around a central core. In raspberries (various species of Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus), the drupelets separate from the core when picked, leaving a hollow fruit, whereas in blackberries and most other species of Rubus, the drupelets stay attached to the core.[5][6][7][8]

Biotope

As a wild plant, R. idaeus typically grows in forests, forming open stands under a tree canopy, and denser stands in clearings. In the south of its range (southern Europe and central Asia), it only occurs at high altitudes in mountains.[7] The species name idaeus refers to its occurrence on Mount Ida near Troy in northwest Turkey, where the ancient Greeks were most familiar with it.[8]

Cultivation and uses

 src=
A red raspberry plant in a nursery in Cranford, New Jersey.
 src=
Raspberries

R. idaeus is grown primarily for its fruits, but occasionally for its leaves, roots, or other parts.

Fruits

The fruit of R. idaeus is an important food crop, though most modern commercial raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus.[8] The fruits of wild plants have a sweet taste and are very aromatic.

Leaves and other parts

Red raspberries contains 31 μg/100 g of folate.[9] Red raspberries have antioxidant effects that play a minor role in the killing of stomach and colon cancer cells.[10][11]

Young roots of Rubus idaeus prevented kidney stone formation in a mouse model of hyperoxaluria.[12] Tiliroside from raspberry is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor and might be used as a skin-whitening agent and pigmentation medicine.[13]

Raspberry fruit may protect the liver.[14]

Chemistry

Vitamin C and phenolics are present in red raspberries. Most notably, the anthocyanins cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside) and cyanidin-3-glucoside, the two ellagitannins sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C are present together with trace levels of flavonols, ellagic acid and hydroxycinnamate.[15]

Polyphenolic compounds from raspberry seeds have antioxidant effects in vitro,[16][17] but have no proven antioxidant effect in humans.[18] Raspberry ketones are derived from various fruits and plants, not raspberries, and are marketed as having weight loss benefits.[19] There is no clinical evidence for this effect in humans.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Rubus idaeus L.". Richard Pankhurst et al. Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh – via The Plant List.CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ "Rubus idaeus". Flora Europaea.
  3. ^ "Rubus idaeus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  4. ^ "Rubus idaeus var. strigosus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  5. ^ "Rubus idaeus". Flora of NW Europe.
  6. ^ Lu, Lingdi; Boufford, David E. "Rubus idaeus". Flora of China. 9 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  7. ^ a b Blamey, M.; Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2..
  8. ^ a b c Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-47494-5..
  9. ^ Martin, H; Comeskey, D; Simpson, RM; Laing, WA; McGhie, TK (2010). "Quantification of folate in fruits and vegetables: a fluorescence-based homogeneous assay". Anal Biochem. 402 (2): 137–145. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2010.03.032. PMID 20361923.
  10. ^ Nutr Res. 30(11):777-782
  11. ^ McDougall, GJ; Ross, HA; Ikeji, M; Stewart, D (2008). "Berry extracts exert different antiproliferative effects against cervical and colon cancer cells grown in vitro". J Agric Food Chem. 56 (9): 3016–3023. doi:10.1021/jf073469n. PMID 18412361.
  12. ^ Ghalayini, IF; Al-Ghazo, MA; Harfeil, MN (2011). "Prophylaxis and therapeutic effects of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) on renal stone formation in Balb/c mice". Int Braz J Urol. 37 (2): 259–267. doi:10.1590/S1677-55382011000200013. PMID 21557843.
  13. ^ Lu, YH; Chen, J; Wei, DZ; Wang, ZT; Tao, XY (2009). "Tyrosinase inhibitory effect and inhibitory mechanism of tiliroside from raspberry". J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 24 (5): 1154–1160. doi:10.1080/14756360802694252. PMID 19772488.
  14. ^ Gião, MS; Pestana, D; Faria, A; Guimarães, JT; Pintado, ME; Calhau, C; Azevedo, I; Malcata, FX (2010). "Effects of extracts of selected medicinal plants upon hepatic oxidative stress". J Med Food. 13 (1): 131–136. doi:10.1089/jmf.2008.0323. PMID 20136446.
  15. ^ Mullen, W.; Stewart, A. J.; Lean, M. E.; Gardner, P.; Duthie, G. G.; Crozier, A. (2002). "Effect of freezing and storage on the phenolics, ellagitannins, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of red raspberries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50 (18): 5197–5201. doi:10.1021/jf020141f. PMID 12188629.
  16. ^ Godevac, D; Tesević, V; Vajs, V; Milosavljević, S; Stanković, M (2009). "Antioxidant properties of raspberry seed extracts on micronucleus distribution in peripheral blood lymphocytes". Food Chem Toxicol. 47 (11): 2853–2859. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.09.006. PMID 19748543.
  17. ^ Aiyer, HS; Kichambare, S; Gupta, RC (2008). "Prevention of oxidative DNA damage by bioactive berry components". Nutr Cancer. 60 (Suppl 1): 36–42. doi:10.1080/01635580802398448. PMID 19003579. S2CID 205494444.
  18. ^ Gross, P (2009). "New Roles for Polyphenols. A 3-Part report on Current Regulations & the State of Science". Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Media. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
  19. ^ "The Sweet Taste of Weight Loss". Ohio State University Food Innovation Center. 2014. Retrieved 3 Sep 2014.
  20. ^ "Raspberry Ketone". WebMD.

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Rubus idaeus: Brief Summary

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 src= Halved raspberry

Rubus idaeus (raspberry, also called red raspberry or occasionally European red raspberry to distinguish it from other raspberry species) is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions.

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