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Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire use, prescribed fire

The Research Project Summaries Understory recovery after burning and
reburning quaking aspen stands in central Alberta
and
Understory recovery after low- and high-intensity fires in northern
Idaho ponderosa pine forests
provide information on prescribed fire use
and postfire response of plant community species including American vetch.
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Common Names

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American vetch
wild vetch
stiffleaf vetch
wild pea
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Cover Value

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Cover values for American vetch are as follows [12]:

UT WY MT ND
Elk poor poor ---- ----
Mule deer poor poor ---- ----
White-tailed deer ---- poor poor ----
Pronghorn poor poor ---- ----
Upland game birds fair fair ---- fair
Waterfowl poor poor ---- ----
Small nongame birds fair good ---- ----
Small mammals fair good ---- ----
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: forb

American vetch is a native rhizomatous, single-stemmed ascending or
climbing perennial forb up to 30 inches (75 cm) tall [35]. The
inflorescence is a raceme with up to 10 flowers that are 0.5 to 1.5
inches (1.25-3.75 cm) long, each producing a pod 1 to 1.5 inches
(2.5-3.75 cm) long and containing two to several pealike seeds
[32,35,36]. American vetch has a moderate to deeply branched taproot
which reaches a maximum depth of about 40 inches (100 cm) [37]. It has
strong drought tolerance [35].



American vetch on the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, CA. Tendrils at the ends of leaflets aid in securing the plant to climbing structures. Photo ©2016 Keri Morse.

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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
American vetch is widely distributed across North America. It occurs
from central Alaska east across Canada to southern Ontario, south to
southern Virginia, and west across the Great Plains to California,
Oregon, and Washington [32,36]
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Ecology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire regime, seed

American vetch is rated as moderately resistant to fire [22]. It
typically increases following fire [24]. The fibrous roots and rhizomes
are 0.6 (1.5 cm) to 2 inches (5 cm) below the soil surface and sprout
following light- to moderate-severity fires [22]. American vetch also
revegetates burned sites via soil-stored seed [1,2]

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info for the term: geophyte

Geophyte
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
American vetch grows in a wide variety of habitats. It is found in
moist to dry areas, swampy woods and borders, mixed forests, and
clearings. It is common in moist or sheltered foothill canyons and
meadows [8,34,36]. It grows on sandy, clayey, medium-textured soils.
In western mountains it is usually more abundant in deep porous loams
that are rich in organic matter. Soils vary from acidic to moderately
basic and are sometimes moderately saline [35].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

American vetch occurs in most SAF Cover Types.
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

FRES10 White - red - jack pine
FRES11 Spruce - fir
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood
FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
FRES19 Aspen - birch
FRES20 Douglas-fir
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES22 Western white pine
FRES23 Fir - spruce
FRES26 Lodgepole pine
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon - juniper
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES37 Mountain meadows
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie
FRES44 Alpine
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

American vetch occurs in most Kuchler Plant Associations.
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the term: cover

American vetch occurs in most SRM Cover Types.
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Fire probably top-kills American vetch [27,39].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
American vetch provides excellent forage for livestock and wildlife.
Mule deer, black bear, and grizzly bear browse the leaves and flowers.
American vetch also provides forage for game birds and small mammals
[7,18,19,21].
license
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Key Plant Community Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: forb

American vetch is a common understory forb in quaking aspen (Populus
tremuloides) communities in northern Minnesota and northern Michigan
[3].

Some common forb associates of American vetch include western yarrow
(Achillea millefolium), alpine aster (Aster foliaceus), showy aster (A.
conspicuus), Virginia strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), wildwhite
geranium (Geranium richardsonii), sticky geranium (G. viscosissimum),
Canada violet (Viola canadensis), western sagebrush (Artemisia
campestris), goldenrod (Solidago spp.), western snowberry
(Symphoricarpos occidentalis), and sedges (Carex spp.) [23,25,29].
license
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: forb

Forb
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Nutritional Value

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
American vetch is rated poor in protein and energy value [12].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
AK AZ CA CO CT DE ID IL IN IA
KS KY ME MD MA MI MN MO MT NE
NV NH NJ NM NY ND OH OR PA RI
SD UT VT VA WA WV WI WY AB BC
MB NF SK
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Palatability

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Palatability ratings for American vetch are as follows [12]:

UT CO WY MT ND
Cattle fair good good good good
Domestic sheep good good good good good
Horses fair good good good good
Elk good ---- good fair ----
Mule deer good ---- fair good ----
White-tailed deer fair ---- ---- ---- ----
Pronghorn poor ---- good good ----
Small mammals good ---- good ---- ----
Small nongame birds good ---- fair ---- ----
Upland game birds good ---- good ---- fair
Waterfowl poor ---- poor ---- poor
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

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More info on this topic.

American vetch new growth begins in early spring to early summer,
varying with environment. It flowers from May to August and the seeds
mature about 1 month after flowering [11,35].
license
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cover, frequency, habitat type, prescribed burn, succession

American vetch typically increases after low- to moderate-severity fires
[5,6,38]. In a study of plant succession in the Gambel oak (Quercus
gambelii) brush zone in Utah, American vetch showed a higher average
number of plants on burned areas than on unburned areas, even after 9
years [22]. In northeastern North Dakota American vetch canopy cover
was greater on some sites burned 1-3 years before the plant survey than
on unburned sites [24]. In a Douglas-fir habitat type in Idaho,
American vetch cover and frequency on sites burned by low-severity fires
were greater than on unburned or severely burned sites. This effect was
greatest in post-fire year 2 [6].

On a prescribed burn in northeastern Minnesota, the frequency of
American vetch increased greatly on the burned areas during postfire
year 1 [1].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: ground residual colonizer, herb, rhizome

Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regeneration Processes

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: seed

American vetch reproduces from seed and creeping rhizomes [1].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade Mountains
3 Southern Pacific Border
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Successional Status

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More info for the term: succession

American vetch occurs in all stages of succession. It grows in open
sunny sites and invades fire-disturbed areas [17]. It is also shade
tolerant. It is found in the understories of quaking aspen communities
of the upper Great Lakes region [3] and in Engelmann spruce (Picea
engelmannii) communities of the Rocky Mountains [4].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The scientific name for American vetch is Vicia americana Muhl. ex Willd.
[15]. Recognized varieties based on morphological difference are as
follows [16,32]:

Vicia americana var. americana
Vicia americana var. minor Hook., mat vetch
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Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
American vetch is a nitrogen fixer. It may be useful revegetating open
or depleted quaking aspen game rangelands in Utah including burned over
or thinned conifer areas. It is also useful for revegetating coal-mined
lands, roadsides, and in critical-site stabilization and beautification
[30,35]. American vetch has been successfully planted in disturbed
alpine rangelands in the western United States [10].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Perennial, Herbs, Plants with rhizomes or suckers, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems or branches arching, spreading or decumbent, Stems prostrate, trailing, or mat forming, Stems less than 1 m tall, Climbing by tendrils, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Stems or young twigs sparsely to densely hairy, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules green, triangulate to lanceolate or foliaceous, Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Stipules cordate, lobed, or sagittate, Stipules toothed or laciniate, Leaves compound, Leaves even pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets alternate or subopposite, Leaflets 5-9, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Leaves hairy on one or both surfaces, Flowers in axillary clusters or few-floweredracemes, 2-6 flowers, I nflorescences racemes, Inflorescence axillary, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx gibbous, inflated, or spurred, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Corolla papilionaceous, Petals clawed, Petals blue, lavander to purple, or violet, Banner petal ovoid or obovate, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Wing petals auriculate, Wing tips obtuse or rounded, Keel tips obtuse or rounded, not beaked, Stamens 9-10, Stamens diadelphous, 9 united, 1 free, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Style sharply bent, Style hairy, Style hairy on one side only, Style with distal tuft of hairs, Fruit a legume, Fruit stipitate, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruit exserted from calyx, Valves twisting or coiling after dehiscence, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black, Seed surface mottled or patchy.
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Vicia americana

provided by wikipedia EN

Vicia americana is a species of legume in the vetch genus known by the common names American vetch and purple vetch.[1] It includes a subspecies known as mat vetch.

Description

It is a climbing perennial forb that grows from both taproot and rhizome. The leaves are each made up of oblong leaflets and have tendrils for climbing. It bears showy pea like flowers in shades of lavender and fuchsia. The fruit is a hairless flat pod about 3 centimeters long that contains usually two light brown peas. American vetch is widespread across North America.

It is a common understory plant in many types of forest and other habitats such as chaparral and it provides forage for wild and domesticated animals. This vetch is used to reclaim burned or disturbed land, such as that which has been cleared by wildfire or altered by human activities such as mining or construction. It is drought-tolerant and thrives in both dry and moist, and sandy or coarse loamy soil habitats.

References

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Vicia americana: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Vicia americana is a species of legume in the vetch genus known by the common names American vetch and purple vetch. It includes a subspecies known as mat vetch.

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