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Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Dryxo ornata (Macquart)

Blepharitarsis ornatus Macquart. 1844:411.

Dryxo ornata—Bezzi, 1908a: 194 [generic combination],—Wirth, 1955:53 [list, Tanzania (Ngaruka)]; 1956:388 [list, Mozambique, South Africa (Natal, Transvaal), Zimbabwe]; 1960:393 [list. Namibia],—Giordani Soika, 1956b:490 [list, Zaire].—Cogan, 1968:359–360 [revision]; 1980:661 [Afrotropical catalog]; 1984:144 [Palearctic catalog].—Canzoneri and Meneghini, 1969:163 [list, Zaire].—Canzoneri and Rampini, 1994:245 [list, Sierra Leone],—Mathis and Zatwarnicki, 1995:116 [world catalog].

Dryxo ornatus—Becker, 1926:93 [review, list, Canary Islands].

DIAGNOSIS.—This species is distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: inner vertical seta subequal or slightly longer than outer vertical seta; postpronotal seta present, well developed; R stem vein bearing 2 or 3 long, thin setulae along posterior margin basad of humeral crossvein; male hindbasitarsus with several long, slender setae toward base, setae becoming shorter and much sparser toward apex; male hindtarsomere 2 bearing long, slender setae on dorsal surface; katepisternal seta well developed, length subequal to notopleural seta; tergites 3 and 4 with dark band along posterior margin, at least in middle, band sometimes connected laterally with anterolateral spot, or spot separate; and tergite 1 with medial patch of short, dorsally erect setulae.

DESCRIPTION.—Moderately large to very large shore flies, body length 4.75–8.85 mm; generally blackish brown dorsally but with considerable areas gray.

Head (Figures 45, 46): Generally densely microtomentose. Frons mostly to almost entirely gray to tan, sometimes with some blackish brown maculation, especially posteriorly as 1 or 2 short, anteriorly directed stripes of variable shape laterad of ocelli and from vertex; inner vertical seta subequal or slightly longer than outer vertical seta; ocelli arranged in equilateral triangle. Antenna blackish brown, usually with some gray to tan microtomentum dorsally; arista white to tannish white basally, bearing 11–13 dorsal rays. Face, parafacial, gena, and microtomentose-covered portion of clypeus concolorous, whitish gray, contrasting with darker-colored frons; face bare except for series of setulae paralleling frontal suture; parafacial with transverse, golden brown to blackish brown stripe or maculation at level of antennal base, thereafter ventrally concolorous with face. Eye slightly higher than wide. Gena high, height slightly more than eye height, anterior portion concolorous with face and parafacial, becoming whiter posteriorly; gena-to-eye ratio 0.52–0.56. Clypeus with dorsal of medial portion bare.

Thorax (Figure 47): Mesonotum generally mottled, partially to mostly dark brown, with some gray to tannish gray areas, especially peripherally and along setal tracks, bases of setae blackish brown; scutum with anterior extensively gray with brown to blackish brown maculation, latter becoming much darker with some gray areas sometimes evident, usually as short stripes along acrostichal and dorsocentral tracks; scutellum generally and extensively blackish brown, only mediobasal, somewhat triangular area whitish gray; anepisternum generally concolorous with rest of pleural area, sometimes slightly darker, lacking maculation in middle. Postsutural supra-alar seta well developed but slightly shorter than postalar seta; anepistemal setae 1–3, thinly developed; katepisternal seta well developed, length subequal to notopleural seta. Wing hyaline; R stem vein bearing 5–7 short, thin, pale setulae dorsally; vein R1, with short, sparse setulae along length; costalvein ratio 0.32–0.36; M-vein ratio 0.56–0.58. Leg coloration variable; femora and tibiae generally concolorous, blackish brown with moderately dense whitish gray microtomentum; tarsi blackish brown dorsally, yellowish orange to orange ventrally, apical tarsomeres becoming blackish gray; forebasitarsomere of male normally developed, not swollen, similar to basitarsomeres of mid- and hindlegs; foretarsomeres 2–5 of male normally developed, not greatly expanded apically, width much less than length; lateroapical setae of foretarsi of male tapered; hindbasitarsus of male bearing sparse patch of long, slender setae posterodorsally; hindtarsomere 2 of male bearing some long setae along dorsum; tarsomeres of midleg bearing long setae lateroapically, aligned with plane of leg, length of setae subequal to width of tarsomere at apex.

Abdomen: Tergites 3 and 4 with dark band along posterior margin, at least in middle, band sometimes connected laterally with anterolateral spot or spot separate; 1st tergite with medial patch of short, dorsally erect setulae. Male terminalia (Figures 48–50): epandrium in posterior view (Figure 48) like a broadly pointed arch, narrow dorsally and slightly angulate, arms wider at dorsolateral level, ventrally becoming narrower; cercus ovoid, wider subventrally; presurstylus in posterior view (Figure 48) broadly triangular, length about 1.5 times basal width, dorsomedial angle broadly produced, short, medial margin with shallow lobe at midlength, ventral apex broadly rounded, lateral margin very shallowly arched; postsurstylus in lateral view (Figure 50) narrow, pointed basally, bearing very shallow, setulose lobe just beyond midlength, both lobes of bilobed apex about equal in size, inner lobe essentially bare of setulae; aedeagus in lateral view (Figure 50) about equally wide throughout length, inner surface irregularly convex, external surface irregularly concave with angulate indentation, apex truncate; aedeagal apodeme in lateral view (Figure 50) with keel shallow, ridge-like, with long, narrow extension toward attachment with hypandrium, bifurcate arms at attachment with hypandrium long; hypandrium somewhat narrow and shallow.

TYPE MATERIAL.—The syntypes of Blepharitarsis ornatus, which were collected at “D'Afrique, Shubar” (=Sierra Leone?), were not located and may well not exist. The second author and Volker Hollmann, who visited MNHN in 1995, were unable to find any specimen(s) (pers. comm., 1995). Lacking a primary type, we have followed Cogan's concept of this species, as he was the last revisor. Cogan's concept was and is generally recognized (see references in species synonymy), and the species is easily identified. Thus, we have not deemed it necessary to designate a neotype. This is a common and widespread Afrotropical species and is the only species of Dryxo known thus far from Sierra Leone.

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED.—Afrotropical, ANGOLA. Cuanza Sul: Cachoeiras (20 mi SW Gabela), 18–19 Mar 1972 (5, 11; BMNH). Cunene: Rocadas, Cunene (River), 19–22 Feb 1972 (6, 6; BMNH, TZ). Namibe: Rio Giraul (16.1 km NE Moçâmedes), 27–29 Feb 1972 (1; BMNH); Moçâmedes (3.2 km N), 29 Feb 1972 (1, 2; BMNH); Tundavala (12.9–16.1 km NW Sä da Bandeira, 27–29 Mar 1972 (1; BMNH). Bruco, 26 Feb-2 Mar 1972 (1; BMNH). Landana (=Cacongo; 5°14′S, 12°8′E), Port Congo (1; AMNH).

BOTSWANA. River Nata (20°12′S, 26°11′E), 23 Apr 1972 (1; BMNH).

BURUNDI. Burburi (2000 m), 10 Oct 1948, F.J. Francois (1, 1; IRSN). Lestrade (2, 2; MRAC). Rumonge (sur la rive du Lac Tanganyika; 780 m), 13 Feb 1934, 1949, A. Lestrade, F.J. Francois (8 7; IRSN, MRAC). Rumongi River, Lac Tanganyika, 16 Sep 1948, F.J. Francois (10, 3; IRSN). Usumbura (780 m), 19 Apr 1953, F. Francois (6, 3; IRSN).

CAMEROON. Kribi (route N7, beach), 28–29 Nov 1987, A. Freidberg, F. Kaplan (10 17; USNM).

CHAD. Ouli Bangala, Logone, 1 Mar 1966, J.C. Hitchcock, Jr. (l, 2; USNM). West Goulem, 8–9 Aug 1958, G.B. Popov (1; BMNH).

ETHIOPIA. Dire-Dana, 19 Feb 1911, Kovâcs (1; HNHM). Ever, 30 Oct 1968, R. Kano (3, 3; BMNH). Lake Langano, 13 Dec 1989, A. Freidberg, F. Kaplan (2; TZ, USNM). Lake Langano (7°27′N, 39°11′E), 27 Jul 1973, R. Baker (1; BMNH). Urso (=Hurso; 9°36′N, 41°38′E), Mar 1911, Kovâcs (3, 2; HNHM).

GHANA. Capital District: Accra, 3 Aug 1942, F.M. Snyder (1; AMNH). Eastern: Koforidua, Apr 1921, J.F. Corson (1, 1; BMNH). Northern: Yapi, Mar 1916, J.J. Simpson (4, 3; BMNH). Without Further Locality: Kpong, Apr 1922, J.W.S. Macfie (1; BMNH).

KENYA. Coast: Bura (3°30′S, 38°18′E; 1060 m), Mar 1911, Ch. Alluard, R. Jannel (1; MNHN); Lusinga Island (Victoria-Ntanzam NE), 1904, Ch. Alluard (1; MNHN); Vall. Dierrer (=Dierra; 2°35′S, 39°57′E), Jun 1911, Kovâcs (8 32; HNHM); Voi (3°23′S, 38°34′E; 600 m), Mar 1911, Ch. Alluard, R. Jannel (2; MNHN). Eastern: Tsavo National Park (East), 4–7 Apr 1968, B. Cogan, A. Hutson (1; BMNH). Without Further Locality: Tana Bridge (sand bank), 1–2 Jul 1948, Van Someren (4, 5; BMNH).

LIBERIA. Bendu, Robertsport, 26 Feb-5 Mar 1943, F.M. Snyder (2; AMNH).

MADAGASCAR. Toamasina: Fenerive (lagoon shore), Dec 1955, B.R. Stuckenberg (1, 1; NMSA). Toliara: Ranohira (860 m), 26 Jan-4 Feb 1958, B.R. Stuckenberg (1; NMSA).

MALAWI. Chisi, near Nkhata Bay, 15 Oct 1908, J.B. Davey (1; BMNH). Central Angoniland, R. Limpembe (2, 2; BMNH). Cholo, R.C. Wood (2; ANSP). Deep Bay, 3 Oct 1909, J.B. Davey (1; ANSP). Kasungu National Park, Lifupa Camp (1000 m), 9–10 Dec 1980, J.G.H. Londt, B.R. Stuckenberg (1; NMSA). Kota Kota, 13 Sep 1919, W.A. Lamborn (1; BMNH). Lake Shore, 4 Aug 1909, J.B. Davey (1; ANSP).

MOZAMBIQUE. Amont de Tambara Alfiate (rail station), 1929, P. Lesne (1; MNHN). Env. de Chemba, Bas Sangadze, 1929, P. Lesne (1; MNHN). Env. de Vila Pery Cabeca de Velho, bords du Mzingaze, 1929, P. Lesne (1; MNHN).

NAMIBIA. Huans River (river bed), 31 Jan 1969, B. Lamoral (1; NMSA). Kamanjab (43.5 km ESE), Otjitambi Farm, 13–15 Feb 1972 (19, 18; BMNH). Naukluft Park, Naukluft spring (24°15′78″S, 16°14′08″E; Malaise trap), 28–30 Nov 1997, Kirk-Spriggs and Marais (1; NNIC). Swakop River, (4.8 km S Okahandja), 7 Apr 1972 (2; BMNH). Satanplatz (1300 m), 17–18 Dec 1933, K. Jordan (1; BMNH).

NIGERIA. Kwara: Ilorin, 21 Feb 1912, J.W.S. Macfie (2, 2; ANSP, BMNH). Agundele, 5 May 1912, J.W.S. Macfie (1; ANSP). Between Ilorin and Bude Egba, 24 May 1912, J.W.S. Macfie (1; ANSP).

NIGER. Zungeru, 1 Feb–15 Mar, 1911, 1912, J.W.S. Macfie (8, 5; AMNH, BMNH). Alagua, 1912, J.W.S. Macfie (1; BMNH). Shao, 14 Mar 1912, J.W.S. Macfie (1; BMNH).

RWANDA. Kisenyi (près emb. river Sebeya), 4 Apr 1953, J. Verbeke (5, 6; IRSN). River Sange, 10 Feb 1904 (1; IRSN).

SIERRA LEONE. Kaniki, 22 May 1912, J. Simpson (1, 1; ANSP, BMNH). Kayima, 29 Jul 1919, J.J. Simpson (1; BMNH). Lungi, 14 Jul 1959, C.P. Hoyt (1; BMNH).

SOMALIA. Hargeisa, Mar 1949, K.M. Guithard (1, 1; BMNH).

SOUTH AFRICA. Cape Province: Clanwilliam (3 mi W; Olifantes River), 6 Jan 1972 (3, 1; BMNH); Cogman's Kloof, Ashton–Montagu Road (along river), 11 Jan 1983, R. Miller, P. Stabbins (1; NMSA); Dohne, 11 May 1925, H.K. Munro (5, 2; ANSP, DEI, NMSA); Dwyka R. Merweville–Koup Road, 2 Jan 1972 (3; BMNH); Groblershoop (12 km E; banks of Orange River), 19 Mar 1982, J. Londt, L. Schoeman (1; NMSA); Muizenberg, 3 Apr 1935, M. Bequaert (1; IRSN); Port Shepstone (30°45′N, 30°27′E), 27 Aug 1920, H.K. Munro (1; NMSA). Natal: Durban, 13 May 1919, C.N. Barker (1; ANSP); Illovo, 8 Jun 1919, W.H. (8, 4; ANSP, DEI, NMSA); F Toppin Umsindasi Ubombo, Sep 1910 (4; NMSA); Muden, 1 Oct 1956, B.R. Stuckenberg (1; NMSA); Nagel Dam, 19 May 1955, B.R. Stuckenberg (1; NMSA); Pietermaritzburg, Town Bush, 31 May 1957, T. Schofield (4, 1; NMSA); Ramsgate, 6–16 Jan 1983, J.G.H. Londt (2, 1; NMSA); Umvoti River (mouth), 13 Mar 1963, T.W. Schofield (1, 1; NMSA). Transvaal: Barberton, 12 Aug 1916, H.K. Munro (5, 2; ANSP, DEI, NMSA); Kruger Park (Timbetene Twiri waterholes; savanna woodland near Skukuza), 9 Dec 1972, B.R. and P. Stuckenberg (6, 5; NMSA); N.E. Zoutpansberg District, Jul–Aug 1916, H.G. Breyer (2; NMSA); River Magalakwena (23°26′S, 28°37′E), 26 Apr 1972 (1; BMNH).

SUDAN. Darfur: Jebel Marra, Karanga (2012 m), 23 Apr 1932, M. Steele (4, 3; ANSP, BMNH).

SWAZILAND. Mbuluzone River, 28 Mar 1984, P. Kelly, J. Cory (1, 3; BMNH).

TANZANIA. Arusha: Tarangiri National Park (1158 m), 23 Jan 1970, M.E. Irwin, E.S. Ross (2, 1; USNM). Kagera: Bukoba (1°20′S, 31°49′E), 10 Jun 1912, C.C. Gowdey (3, 3; ANSP, BMNH). Kigoma: Kigoma, Sep–Dec 1918, R. Mayné (4; MRAC). Mara: Katona, Shirati (1°08′S, 33°59′E), Feb–May 1909, L. Oldenberg (64, 18; ANSP, DEI, HNHM). Zanzibar: Chukusani, 12 Oct 1911, W.M. Adero (1; BMNH). Without Further Locality: Old Shinyanga, 29 Oct 1952, E. Burtt (1, 3; BMNH).

UGANDA. Entebbe, 16 Jul 1912, C.C. Gowdey (3, 10; BMNH). Ruwenzori Range, Kilembe (1311 m), Dec 1934 (1; BMNH).

YEMEN. Jebel Harir (1585 m), 26 Oct–6 Nov 1937, F.B. Brit-tin, H. Scott (2, 2; BMNH).

ZAIRE. Kivu: Kasongo, Lualaba River, Jul 1959, P.L.G. Benoit (1, 1; MRAC); Kasongo, Pongo River, Oct 1959, P.L.G. Benoit (3 ex; MRAC); Lake Tanganyika, Lueba near Baraka, 19 Aug 1927, R. Bois (9, 12; BMNH); Rutshuru (Miss. Prophylactique), 30 Jul 1937 (2; MRAC); Uvira, 16 Mar–30 Nov 1927, 1953, 1954, 1958, P. Basilewsky, N. Lelup, G. Marlier, C. Seydel (1, 1, 9ex; MRAC); Kolembalembe, Baraka, Jul 1918, R. Mayné (13 ex; MRAC). Shaba: Mpala (780 m), Aug 1953, H. Bomans (8 ex; MRAC). Without Further Locality: Albert National Park (=Virunga National Park): Bitshumbi (925 m), 15 Apr 1936, L. Lippens (1, 1; MRAC); Ishango, 11–14 Dec 1935, H. Damas (3, 1; MRAC); Kamande (925 m), 8 Apr 1935, 4 May–18 Nov 1935, H. Damas (91, 130 ; MRAC); Kamande Lemera (925 m), 20 Nov 1935, H. Damas (5 , 13; MRAC); Kitembo (925 m), 4 Apr 1936, L. Lippens (1, 7; MRAC); Embouch, Rutshuru, 18 Jan 1936, H. Damas (1; MRAC); Rwindi River (1000 m), 9 Feb–25 Apr 1936, L. Lippens (1; MRAC); Talia (925 m), 7 Apr 1936, L. Lippens (3 ex (abdomens missing); MRAC); Mabwe (r. E lac Upemba; 585 m), 12 Jan–15 Aug 1947, 1949, G.F. de Witte (2; MRAC). Beni (1200 m), 17 Sep 1953, F.J. Francois (1, 3; IRSN). Ituri Kasenyi (Lac Albert), 2–5 Jul 1953, J. Verbeke (4, 1; IRSN). Kivu Ile Idjwi, Shashi-Busibu, 15 Apr 1953, J. Verbeke (1, 2; IRSN). Kongold (25°25′S, 23°E), 8 Feb 1974, R. Baker (1, 1; BMNH). Lomami-Loputa, 1935, Bouvier (2; MRAC). L.S.T.M., 1904 (1; BMNH). Matadi, 18 Nov 1903, Dutton, Todd, Christy (1; BMNH).

ZAMBIA. Kaful N.W.R. (945 m; on mud by river bank), 1 Sep 1913 (1; BMNH). Luangwa Valley, Mvuvia (at waterhole), 17 Sep 1910 (1; BMNH).

ZIMBABWE. Balla-Balla, Mar 1931, A. Cutherbertson (1, 1; AMNH). Loagundi (on wet sand), 6 Oct 1931, J.H. Bath (1; AMNH). Sunny Bank, Golden Valley, 14 Feb 1931, W.L. Williams (1; AMNH). Lower Lundi River (Chipinda Pools), 22 Oct 1960, R. Goodier (3, 6; BMNH). Triangle, 21 Oct 1963, A.L. Moore (1; USNM). Wankie, 26 Jan 1926, R.H.R. Stevenson (2; NMSA). Umtali (=Mutatre): Mutambara, 26 Dec 1952, N.S. Myers (2; NMSA).

Palearctic. CANARY ISLANDS. Gomera, 1889, Simony (5 , 3; ANSP, ZMHU).

IRAN. Chashmeh-ye Sargaz (1650 m), 20–21 May 1977 (1; NMSAC). Minab (40 km SE), 21 May 1973 (14, 15 ; NMSAC). Rudan (17 km N, road tunnel no. 7), 15 May 1977 (3, 7; NMSAC).

MOROCCO. Aoulouz, 9 May 1992, M. Hradsky (1; BAR).

DISTRIBUTION.—Afrotropical: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone (Northern Province: Bumbuna; Western Area: Sussex), Somalia, South Africa (Cape Province, Natal, Transvaal), Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Palearctic: Canary Islands, Iran, Morocco.
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bibliographic citation
Mathis, Wayne Neilsen and Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz. 2002. "A phylogenetic study of the tribe Dryxini Zatwarnicki (Diptera:Ephydridae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-101. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.617