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Philornis downsi

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Philornis downsi is a species of fly (Diptera, Muscidae) that was first recorded in Trinidad and Brazil in the 1990s.[2] It has been accidentally introduced to the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Adult P. downsi feed on fruit. Eggs are laid in bird nests and hatch into parasitic larvae which reside in the nest material and emerge at night to feed both internally and externally on the blood and flesh of developing nestlings.[3] The parasite is causing significant mortality in Darwin's finch nestlings and threaten the survival of some rarer species such as the mangrove finch (Camarhynchus heliobates) and the medium tree finch (C. pauper).[4][5] [6][7] In order to protect the threatened finch populations, insecticide-laced cotton has been supplied as nesting material for the finches, with the results being highly successful in combating P. downsi infestations.[8]

References

  1. ^ a b Dodge, H. Rodney; Aitken, Thomas H. G. (1968). "Philornis Flies from Trinidad (Diptera: Muscidae)". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. Kansas (Central States) Entomological Society. 41 (1): 134–154. JSTOR 25083688..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Dudaniec RY, Fessl B & Kleindorfer S. (2007) Interannual and interspecific variation on intensity of the parasitic fly, Philornis downsi, in Darwin's finches. Biological Conservation, 139, 325-332.
  3. ^ O’Connor JA, Dudaniec RY, Kleindorfer S (2010) Parasite infestation in Galapagos birds: contrasting two elevational habitats between islands. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 26: 285-292. doi:10.1017/S0266467409990678
  4. ^ O’Connor JA, Sulloway FJ, Robertson J, Kleindorfer S (2010) Philornis downsi parasitism is the primary cause of nestling mortality in the critically endangered Darwin’s medium tree finch (Camarhynchus pauper). Biodiversity and Conservation. 19:853-866. doi:10.1007/s10531-009-9740-1
  5. ^ Dudaniec, R. Y.; Gardner, M. G.; Donellan, S.; Kleindorfer, S. "Genetic variation in the invasive avian parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae) on the Galápagos archipelago". BMC Ecology. 8: 13. doi:10.1186/1472-6785-8-13.
  6. ^ Dudaniec, R. Y.; Hallas, G.; Kleindorfer, S. (2005). "Blood and intestinal parasitism in Darwin's finches: negative and positive findings". Acta Zoologica Sinica. 51: 507–512.
  7. ^ Dudaniec, R. Y.; Kleindorfer (2006). "The effects of the parasitic flies Philornis (Diptera, Muscidae) on birds". Emu. 106: 13–20. doi:10.1071/mu04040.
  8. ^ "Darwin's Finches, Threatened by Blood-Sucking Maggots, Get a Helping Hand". Nature World News. 2014-05-05. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
  • Dudaniec R Y, Kleindorfer S & Fessl B (2006) Effects of the introduced ectoparasite Philornis downsi on haemoglobin level and nestling survival in Darwin's small ground finch (Geospiza fuliginosa). Austral Ecology, 31, 88-94.
  • Fessl B, Couri M. & Tebbich S. (2001) Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, new to the Galápagos Islands, (Diptera, Muscidae). Studia Dipterologica, 8, 317-322.
  • Fessl B, Kleindorfer S & Tebbich S. (2006a) An experimental study on the effects of an introduced parasite in Darwin's finches. Biological Conservation, 127, 55-61.
  • Fessl B, Sinclair BJ & Kleindorfer S (2006b) The life cycle of Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) parasitizing Darwin's finches and its impacts on nestling survival. Parasitology, 133, 739-747.
  • Huber S K (2008) Effects of the introduced parasite Philornis downsi on nestling growth and mortality in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis). Biological Conservation, 141, 601-609.
  • Huber SK, Owen JP, Koop, JAH, King MO, Grant PR, Grant BR, Clayton DH (2010) Ecoimmunity in Darwin’s Finches: Invasive Parasites Trigger Acquired Immunity in the Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis). PLoS One. 5(1):e8605
  • O'Connor JA, Robertson, J, & Kleindorfer, S (2010) Video analysis of host-parasite interactions in Darwin's finch nests. Oryx, 44, 588-594.

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Philornis downsi: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Philornis downsi is a species of fly (Diptera, Muscidae) that was first recorded in Trinidad and Brazil in the 1990s. It has been accidentally introduced to the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Adult P. downsi feed on fruit. Eggs are laid in bird nests and hatch into parasitic larvae which reside in the nest material and emerge at night to feed both internally and externally on the blood and flesh of developing nestlings. The parasite is causing significant mortality in Darwin's finch nestlings and threaten the survival of some rarer species such as the mangrove finch (Camarhynchus heliobates) and the medium tree finch (C. pauper). In order to protect the threatened finch populations, insecticide-laced cotton has been supplied as nesting material for the finches, with the results being highly successful in combating P. downsi infestations.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN