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Mycoplasmataceae

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Mycoplasmataceae is a family of bacteria[1] in the order Mycoplasmatales. This family consists of the genera Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma.

In 1967, the order Mycoplasmatales was incorporated into the class Mollicutes.[2] Many species are sexually transmitted and cause pelvic inflammatory disease.[3]

Genera

Mycoplasma

Mycoplasma refers to a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall and possess a three-layered cellular membrane.[4] They can be parasitic or saprotrophic. Several species are sexually transmitted and pathogenic in humans. Others are found on cats, dogs, and barnyard fowl.

Ureaplasma

Ureaplasma is the second of two genera of bacteria belonging to the family Mycoplasmataceae. As the name implies, ureaplasma is urease positive. This genera is distinct from other genera in Mollicutes in that it hydrolyses urea for generation of ATP.

It includes the species:

Ureaplasma spp. as human pathogens

Both Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum have been identified as important human pathogens, causing infection in the urogenital tract and, rarely, at distal sites.[5][6][7] Their role in neonatal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been well established, and semantic classifications are changing to reflect the nature of the detrimental outcomes these infections are associated with.[8] In the 2010s, Mycoplasma genitalium has been re-classified as an STI, and it is likely that with more research, Ureaplasma spp. will follow this trend.[9] Similar to other pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis, infection with Ureaplasma spp. is associated with adverse fertility outcomes in both men and women.[10][11][12][13][14] Both cause non-gonococcal urethritis. Ureaplasma spp. were implicated in conditions such as prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome as early as the 1980s.[15][16][17] Research in women has lagged several decades behind, but it is now becoming more clear how Ureaplasma spp. contribute to etiologies such as interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.[18][19][20] Ureaplasma spp. are associated with alterations in host environment that increase susceptibility to other infections such as bacterial vaginosis and vaginal candidiasis.[21][22] Ureaplasma spp. can cause reactive arthritis as well as directly infect the synovium.[23][7] Some case studies have suggested a causative role in complex regional pain syndrome/reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome.[24]

References

  1. ^ E.A. Freundt The classification of the pleuropneumonia group of organisms (Borrelomycetales) International Bulletin of Bacteriological Nomenclature and Taxonomy, 1955, 5, 67-78.] (See page 73)
  2. ^ Edward DG, Freundt EA (1967). "Proposal for Mollicutes as name of the class established for the order Mycoplasmatales" (PDF). Int J Syst Bacteriol. 17 (3): 269–272. doi:10.1099/00207713-17-3-267.
  3. ^ Ljubin-Sternak S, Meštrović T (2014). "Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health". Journal of Pathogens. 2014 (183167): 183167. doi:10.1155/2014/183167. PMC 4295611. PMID 25614838.
  4. ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 409–12. ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0.
  5. ^ Waites, Ken B.; Xiao, Li (2015-01-01). "Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas of Humans". Molecular Medical Microbiology: 1587–1609. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-397169-2.00089-5. ISBN 9780123971692.
  6. ^ Deetjen P, Maurer C, Rank A, Berlis A, Schubert S, Hoffmann R (February 2014). "Brain abscess caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum in an adult patient". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 52 (2): 695–8. doi:10.1128/JCM.02990-13. PMC 3911303. PMID 24478517.
  7. ^ a b Vittecoq O, Schaeverbeke T, Favre S, Daragon A, Biga N, Cambon-Michot C, et al. (November 1997). "Molecular diagnosis of Ureaplasma urealyticum in an immunocompetent patient with destructive reactive polyarthritis". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 40 (11): 2084–9. doi:10.1002/art.1780401122. PMID 9365099.
  8. ^ Viscardi RM (January 2014). "Ureaplasma species: role in neonatal morbidities and outcomes". Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 99 (1): F87-92. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2012-303351. PMC 4239122. PMID 23960141.
  9. ^ Horner P, Blee K, Adams E (February 2014). "Time to manage Mycoplasma genitalium as an STI: but not with azithromycin 1 g!". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 27 (1): 68–74. doi:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000030. PMID 24322592. S2CID 10367939.
  10. ^ Zeighami H, Peerayeh SN, Yazdi RS, Sorouri R (June 2009). "Prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum in semen of infertile and healthy men". International Journal of STD & AIDS. 20 (6): 387–90. doi:10.1258/ijsa.2008.008334. PMID 19451322. S2CID 29253206.
  11. ^ Zhou YH, Ma HX, Shi XX, Liu Y (December 2018). "Ureaplasma spp. in male infertility and its relationship with semen quality and seminal plasma components". Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection = Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran Za Zhi. 51 (6): 778–783. doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2016.09.004. PMID 28739435.
  12. ^ Haggerty CL, Totten PA, Tang G, Astete SG, Ferris MJ, Norori J, et al. (September 2016). "Identification of novel microbes associated with pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility". Sexually Transmitted Infections. 92 (6): 441–6. doi:10.1136/sextrans-2015-052285. PMC 5013099. PMID 26825087.
  13. ^ Abele-Horn M, Wolff C, Dressel P, Pfaff F, Zimmermann A (May 1997). "Association of Ureaplasma urealyticum biovars with clinical outcome for neonates, obstetric patients, and gynecological patients with pelvic inflammatory disease". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 35 (5): 1199–202. doi:10.1128/JCM.35.5.1199-1202.1997. PMC 232729. PMID 9114407.
  14. ^ Piscopo RC, Guimarães RV, Ueno J, Ikeda F, Bella ZI, Girão MJ, Samama M (May 2020). "Increased prevalence of endocervical Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma colonization in infertile women with tubal factor". JBRA Assisted Reproduction. 24 (2): 152–157. doi:10.5935/1518-0557.20190078. PMC 7169909. PMID 32031768.
  15. ^ Weidner W, Brunner H, Krause W (1980-11-01). "Quantitative Culture of Ureaplasma Urealyticum In Patients with Chronic Prostatitis Or Prostatosis". Journal of Urology. 124 (5): 622–625. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(17)55586-X. PMID 7452788.
  16. ^ Magri V, Perletti G, Stamatiou K, Montanari E, Trinchieri A (2021). "Lithogenic Potential of Ureaplasma in Chronic Prostatitis". Urologia Internationalis. 105 (3–4): 328–333. doi:10.1159/000511653. PMID 33264795. S2CID 227261093.
  17. ^ Park H, Lee G (September 2019). "Roles of Ureaplasma Species in Idiopathic Chronic Prostatitis: A Case-Control Study". The World Journal of Men's Health. 37 (3): 355–363. doi:10.5534/wjmh.180081. PMC 6704302. PMID 30799562.
  18. ^ Potts JM, Ward AM, Rackley RR (2000-04-01). "Association of chronic urinary symptoms in women and Ureaplasma urealyticum". Urology. 55 (4): 486–489. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(99)00555-5. ISSN 0090-4295. PMID 10736488.
  19. ^ Combaz-Söhnchen N, Kuhn A (December 2017). "A Systematic Review of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma in Urogynaecology". Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde. 77 (12): 1299–1303. doi:10.1055/s-0043-119687. PMC 5734936. PMID 29269957.
  20. ^ Kim MS, Lee DH, Kim TJ, Oh JJ, Rhee SR, Park DS, Yu YD (January 2021). "The role of Ureaplasma parvum serovar-3 or serovar-14 infection in female patients with chronic micturition urethral pain and recurrent microscopic hematuria". Translational Andrology and Urology. 10 (1): 96–108. doi:10.21037/tau-20-920. PMC 7844479. PMID 33532300.
  21. ^ Rumyantseva T, Khayrullina G, Guschin A, Donders G (March 2019). "Prevalence of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis in healthy women and patients with flora alterations". Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 93 (3): 227–231. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.10.001. hdl:10067/1585870151162165141. PMID 30344067.
  22. ^ Payne MS, Ireland DJ, Watts R, Nathan EA, Furfaro LL, Kemp MW, et al. (October 2016). "Ureaplasma parvum genotype, combined vaginal colonisation with Candida albicans, and spontaneous preterm birth in an Australian cohort of pregnant women". BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 16 (1): 312. doi:10.1186/s12884-016-1110-x. PMC 5070304. PMID 27756249.
  23. ^ Hannu T (June 2011). "Reactive arthritis". Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology. 25 (3): 347–57. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2011.01.018. PMID 22100285.
  24. ^ Palazzi C, D'Amico E, Izzo F, Pace-Palitti V, Petricca A (2002-01-01). "Ureaplasma urealyticum as a possible cause of reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome". Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology. 31 (2): 97–9. doi:10.1080/03009740252937621. PMID 12109655. S2CID 35964460.

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Mycoplasmataceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Mycoplasmataceae is a family of bacteria in the order Mycoplasmatales. This family consists of the genera Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma.

In 1967, the order Mycoplasmatales was incorporated into the class Mollicutes. Many species are sexually transmitted and cause pelvic inflammatory disease.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN