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Santa Maria Feverfew

Parthenium hysterophorus L.

Comments

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In some places, especially in Old World, Parthenium hysterophorus causes serious contact dermatitis in humans. The plants should be handled with caution.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 21: 21, 22, 23 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Description

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Annuals, (10–)30–120+ cm. Leaf blades ovate to elliptic, 30–180+ × 10–50(–90+) mm, (1–)2-pinnately lobed (ultimate lobes lanceolate to linear, 3–50 × 2–15 mm), faces sparsely to densely scabrellous and gland-dotted (seldom with additional erect hairs 1–2 mm). Heads obscurely radiate, borne in open, paniculiform arrays. Peduncles 1–8(–15+) mm. Phyllaries: outer 5(–6), lance-elliptic, 2–4 mm, inner 5(–6) ovate to ± orbiculate, 2.5–4 mm. Pistillate florets 5(–6); corolla laminae reniform or orbiculate to oblong, 0.3–1 mm. Disc florets 12–30[–60]. Cypselae obovoid, 1.5–2(–3.5) mm; pappus-like enations erect, deltate to ovate, 0.5–1 mm (sometimes a third, subulate spur near apex adaxially). 2n = 34.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 21: 21, 22, 23 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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A pantropical weed, native of America.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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eFloras.org
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Elevation Range

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600 m
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
author
K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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eFloras.org
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Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Bushy much-branched annual herb to 1 m. Leaves sessile, up to 10 × 5 cm, deeply 2-pinnately lobed with obtuse ultimate segments, densely puberulent below, less so above. Panicle large and lax. Capitula c.3 mm in diameter, hemispheric. Phyllaries in 2 series, 2-3 mm. Rays c.0.5 mm, white, ± circular, 5 per capitulum. Fertile achenes black, c.2 mm, broadly obovoid, flattened, pubescent near apex.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Parthenium hysterophorus L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=160290
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Frequency

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Local
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Parthenium hysterophorus L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=160290
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Worldwide distribution

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Native of South and Central America; naturalised elsewhere in the tropics
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cc-by-nc
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Parthenium hysterophorus L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=160290
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Parthenium hysterophorus

provided by wikipedia EN

Parthenium hysterophorus is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae. It is native to the American tropics.[1] Common names include Santa-Maria,[2] Santa Maria feverfew,[3] whitetop weed,[4] and famine weed.[5] In India, it is locally known as carrot grass, congress grass or Gajar Ghans.[6] It is a common invasive species[7] in India,[8] Australia, and parts of Africa. The pollen grains of Parthenium hysterophorus

"
The pollen grains of Parthenium hysterophorus.

[5]

Parthenium hysterophorus invades disturbed land, including roadsides. It infests pastures and farmland, causing often disastrous loss of yield, as reflected in common names such as famine weed.[9][10][11][12][13] In some areas, heavy outbreaks have been ubiquitous, affecting livestock and crop production, and human health.[14][15] As an invader it first appeared as a contaminant in imported wheat.[16]

The plant produces allelopathic chemicals that suppress crop and pasture plants, and allergens that affect humans and livestock. It also frequently causes pollen allergies.[17]

It is being investigated as a means of removing heavy metals and dyes from the environment, control of aquatic weeds, commercial enzyme production, an additive in manure for biogas production, as a biopesticide, and as green manure and compost.[18]

Toxicity

"
Parthenin is a major toxic chemical in Parthenium hysterophorus

Contact with the plant causes dermatitis and respiratory malfunction in humans, and dermatitis in cattle and domestic animals. The main substance responsible is parthenin, which is dangerously toxic.[19][20][21] It also is responsible for bitter milk disease in livestock when their fodder is polluted with Parthenium leaves.[22]

Among other allelopathic effects of the species, the presence of Parthenium pollen grains inhibits fruit set in tomato, brinjal, beans, and a number of other crop plants.

Control

"
Parthenium in Achanakmar Tiger Reserve
"
Parthenium hysterophorus on open land in Hawaii

Light infestations of Parthenium hysterophorus in cultivated fields may be hoed or weeded by hand if labour is available at acceptable cost.

Generally the application of herbicides is expensive and often harmful; Paraquat sprays may be applied while the weeds are young. Glyphosate is not effective against this species.

The most satisfactory and promising means of practical long-term control are biological. Several species that feed on the weed are variously in use or on trial in various countries. The best-established control organism so far is a beetle native to Mexico, Zygogramma bicolorata, which was first introduced to India in 1984. It since has become widespread and well-established on the subcontinent. It defoliates and often kills the weed, and its damage to the young flowering tops reduces seed production.

In various countries, such as Australia and South Africa, several other biocontrol agents have been released or are under evaluation. These include at least two more species of beetles that have been released in South Africa, a stem boring weevil Listronotus setosipennis, and a seed weevil Smicronyx lutulentus.[23]

Also in South Africa, rust fungi have been of some use: the winter rust Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola plus the summer rust Puccinia xanthii[23]

In Australia, apart from the foregoing, yet other biocontrol agents have been employed or evaluated on Parthenium hysterophorus, to a total of 11 species since 1980. Of those eleven, nine appear to have established in various regions. The two with the greatest effect seem to be the beetle Zygogramma bicolorata and a stem-galling moth Epiblema strenuana. However, other species that appear to have established usefully include a leaf-mining moth, Bucculatrix parthenica; a stem-galling weevil, Conotrachelus albocinereus; and a root-boring moth Carmenta ithacae.[24]

References

  1. ^ a b "Parthenium hysterophorus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-10-29.
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  3. ^ "Parthenium hysterophorus". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  4. ^ "Parthenium hysterophorus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2010-10-29.
  5. ^ a b McConnachie AJ, Strathie LW, et al. Current and potential geographical distribution of the invasive plant Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in eastern and southern Africa. Weed Research. 2011 51(1) From http://www.farmersweekly.co.za 27 December 2013
  6. ^ Oudhia, P., Tripathi, R. S., Choubey, N. K., & Lal, B. (2000). Parthenium hysterophorus: a curse for the bio-diversity of Chhattisgarh plains of MP. Crop Research (Hisar), 19(2), 221-224.
  7. ^ "Parthenium hysterophorus (herb)". Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species Specialist Group. Retrieved 2010-10-29.
  8. ^ Oudhia, P. (2000). Parthenium hysterophorus : a new weed in upland rice fields of the Chhattisgarh Plains (India).International Rice Research Notes (IRRN).25.1:34.
  9. ^ Oudhia, P (2000). "Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus and Ageratum conyzoides on wheat var.Sujata". Crop Research. 20 (3): 563–566.
  10. ^ Oudhia, P (2000). "Positive (inhibitory) allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus leaves on germination and seedling vigour of sunflower". Crop Research. 20 (3): 560–562.
  11. ^ Oudhia, P (2001). "Allelopathic effects of leachates and extracts of different parts of an obnoxious weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. on germination and seedling vigour of selected crops". Ecol. Env. And Cons. 7 (4): 427–434.
  12. ^ Oudhia, P. and Tripathi, R.S. (1998). Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on Kodo, Mustard and problematic weeds. Proc. First International Conference on Parthenium Management (Vol. II) UAS, Dharwad 6-8 Oct. 1997: 136-139.
  13. ^ Oudhia, P.; Kolhe, S.S.; Tripathi, R.S. (1997). "Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on germination of Linseed". Indian J. Plant Physiol. 2 (4): 327–329.
  14. ^ Gebeyehu, Adane Kebede (2008). The distributions of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L. Asteraceae) and some of its socio-economic and ecological impacts in the Central Rift Valley, Adami Tulu-Jido Kombolcha Woreda; Ethiopia (PDF) (M.Sc. thesis). Addis Ababa University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-07. Retrieved 2009-03-13.
  15. ^ "Deadly weed invaded Uganda". 2009-03-13. Archived from the original on 2009-03-16. Retrieved 2009-03-13.
  16. ^ Dipankar De; Rashmi Jindal and Amrinder J Kanwar (2010). "Contact dermatitis to parthenium simulating lichen nitidus". Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. 76 (3): 286–287. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.62978. PMID 20445305.
  17. ^ Kher, Prateek (2008-09-25). "Transforming an obnoxious weed into gold!". Merinews.
  18. ^ Patel, S (2011). "Harmful and beneficial aspects of Parthenium hysterophorus: an update". 3 Biotech. 1 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1007/s13205-011-0007-7. PMC 3339593. PMID 22558530.
  19. ^ CID 442288 from PubChem
  20. ^ Parthenium
  21. ^ "Integrated weed management for parthenium". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2003-12-04.
  22. ^ "Campaign launched for biological control of a dangerous weed". The Hindu. September 4, 2005.
  23. ^ a b ARC-PPRI Fact Sheets on Invasive Alien Plants and their Control in South Africa|[1]
  24. ^ CRC for Australian Weed Management: Best Practice Guide. Impact evaluation of weed biological control agents 2008|[2]
"
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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN

Parthenium hysterophorus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Parthenium hysterophorus is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae. It is native to the American tropics. Common names include Santa-Maria, Santa Maria feverfew, whitetop weed, and famine weed. In India, it is locally known as carrot grass, congress grass or Gajar Ghans. It is a common invasive species in India, Australia, and parts of Africa. The pollen grains of Parthenium hysterophorus

" The pollen grains of Parthenium hysterophorus.

Parthenium hysterophorus invades disturbed land, including roadsides. It infests pastures and farmland, causing often disastrous loss of yield, as reflected in common names such as famine weed. In some areas, heavy outbreaks have been ubiquitous, affecting livestock and crop production, and human health. As an invader it first appeared as a contaminant in imported wheat.

The plant produces allelopathic chemicals that suppress crop and pasture plants, and allergens that affect humans and livestock. It also frequently causes pollen allergies.

It is being investigated as a means of removing heavy metals and dyes from the environment, control of aquatic weeds, commercial enzyme production, an additive in manure for biogas production, as a biopesticide, and as green manure and compost.

license
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Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN