dcsimg

Toxicity

provided by Harmful Phytoplankton Project
This species is unique in that it is the only organism to produce karlotoxin (Mooney et al. 2009).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
University of Liverpool
bibliographic citation
Guide to UK Coastal Planktonic Ciliates © 2001 DJS Montagnes, University of Liverpool http://www.liv.ac.uk/ciliate/
author
David J.S. Montagnes

Diagnostic Description

provided by Harmful Phytoplankton Project
This species lacks thecal plates (i.e. It?s athecate). Cells are ovoid and lack dorso-ventral compression. A well-defined apical groove is present ventrally on the anterior of the cell. The epitheca and hypotheca are equal in size, The deep cingulum is displaced in a descending spiral up to 3 times its length. Sulcus slightly invades epitheca.

References

  • Mooney, B.D., de Salas, M, Hallegraeff, G.M. & Place, A.R. (2009). Survey for Karlotoxin production in 15 species of Gymnodinioid dinoflagellates (Kareniaceae, dinophyta). J. Phycol. 45, 164?175
  • Tomas C ed. (1997). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo and J. Larsen (1995). Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Larsen, J. and O. Moestrup 1989. Guide to Toxic and Potentially Toxic Marine Algae. The Fish Inspection Service, Ministry of Fisheries, Copenhagen. 61 pp.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
University of Liverpool
bibliographic citation
Guide to UK Coastal Planktonic Ciliates © 2001 DJS Montagnes, University of Liverpool http://www.liv.ac.uk/ciliate/
author
David J.S. Montagnes

Comprehensive Description

provided by Harmful Phytoplankton Project
This species lacks thecal plates (i.e. It is athecate). Cells are ovoid and lack dorso-ventral compression. A well-defined apical groove is present ventrally on the anterior of the cell. It is usually photosynthetic and contains several chloroplasts, it may occasionally resort to feeding on smaller species (Li et al. 2000).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
University of Liverpool
bibliographic citation
Guide to UK Coastal Planktonic Ciliates © 2001 DJS Montagnes, University of Liverpool http://www.liv.ac.uk/ciliate/
author
David J.S. Montagnes

Reproduction

provided by Harmful Phytoplankton Project
This species reproduces asexually by binary fission.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
University of Liverpool
bibliographic citation
Guide to UK Coastal Planktonic Ciliates © 2001 DJS Montagnes, University of Liverpool http://www.liv.ac.uk/ciliate/
author
David J.S. Montagnes

Distribution

provided by Harmful Phytoplankton Project
This species tends to inhabit colder waters, it has been found in the Atlantic, the North Sea and waters round the British Isles (Larsen & Moestrup 1989). The species is usually photosynthetic although may feed on smaller organisms when nutrient/ light stressed (Li et al. 2000).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
University of Liverpool
bibliographic citation
Guide to UK Coastal Planktonic Ciliates © 2001 DJS Montagnes, University of Liverpool http://www.liv.ac.uk/ciliate/
author
David J.S. Montagnes