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Golden Algae

Prymnesium parvum

Distribution

provided by Harmful Phytoplankton Project
Prymnesium parvum occurs in the Atlantic, Mediterranean and Pacific. It is a brackish/ coastal water species.

Reference

Graneli E. (2006) Kill your enemies and eat them with the help of your toxins: an algal strategy. African Journal of Marine science 28(2):331-336

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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
University of Liverpool
bibliographic citation
Guide to UK Coastal Planktonic Ciliates © 2001 DJS Montagnes, University of Liverpool http://www.liv.ac.uk/ciliate/
author
David J.S. Montagnes

Diagnostic Description

provided by Harmful Phytoplankton Project
P. parvum is a small ovoid haptophyte with two, golden-brown chloroplasts. These are elongate and extend the length of the cell. The haptonema is flexible and non-coiling. Vibrating granules are located in the posterior part of the cell. The cells are covered by two types of scales in two layers. Both types are oval in shape. Scales in the outer layer have a narrow inflexed rim. The slightly larger scale-plates of the inner layer have a wider, strongly inflexed rim. The scales are ornamented with ridges radiating out from the centre of the scale.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
University of Liverpool
bibliographic citation
Guide to UK Coastal Planktonic Ciliates © 2001 DJS Montagnes, University of Liverpool http://www.liv.ac.uk/ciliate/
author
David J.S. Montagnes

Comprehensive Description

provided by Harmful Phytoplankton Project
P. parvum is a small ovoid haptophyte with two, golden-brown chloroplasts. These are elongate and extend the length of the cell.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
University of Liverpool
bibliographic citation
Guide to UK Coastal Planktonic Ciliates © 2001 DJS Montagnes, University of Liverpool http://www.liv.ac.uk/ciliate/
author
David J.S. Montagnes

Trophic Strategy

provided by Harmful Phytoplankton Project
Prymnesium parvum is mixotrophic
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
University of Liverpool
bibliographic citation
Guide to UK Coastal Planktonic Ciliates © 2001 DJS Montagnes, University of Liverpool http://www.liv.ac.uk/ciliate/
author
David J.S. Montagnes

Prymnesium parvum

provided by wikipedia EN

Prymnesium parvum is a species of haptophytes (also collectively called Prymnesiophyta). The species is of concern because of its ability to produce the phycotoxin prymnesin. It is a flagellated alga that is normally found suspended in the water column. It was first identified in North America in 1985, but is not known if it was introduced artificially (e.g., an invasive species or missed in previous surveys). Toxin production mainly kills fish and appears to have little effect on cattle or humans. This distinguishes it from a red tide, which is an algal bloom whose toxins lead to harmful effects in people. Although no harmful effects are known, it is recommended not to consume dead or dying fish exposed to a P. parvum bloom. P. parvum of Haptophyta is sometimes classified as a golden algae or a golden brown algae, as is Chrysophyceae of Heterokontophyta, but the taxonomy of algae is under complex revision, leading to contradictions in terms, especially in non-scholarly texts (such as those from state wildlife departments).

Biology

P. parvum grows in a salinity range of 0.5 - 30 psu (Practical Salinity Unit) with an optimum at 15 psu although strains collected in different places appear to have different salinity tolerances. A strain called LB 2797 (isolated from Colorado River in Texas) shows a biphasic growth pattern namely, maximum cell densities increased as salinity increased from 5 to 15 psu but decreased at higher levels in laboratory culture.[1] The alga produces dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and other unknown polyols, likely as an adaptation to osmoregulation. The environment must be between 2 °C (36 °F) and 30 °C (86 °F) for P. parvum to live. Growth at a pH of as low as 5.8 has been observed, but cells typically prefer higher pH ranges. The organism prefers highly light environments, but growth can be inhibited by excessive light (photoinhibition). The organism is capable of heterotrophic growth in the dark in the presence of glycerol and grazes on bacteria, especially when phosphate is limited. It has therefore been hypothesized that P. parvum satisfies its phosphate needs by consuming bacteria. P. parvum can use a wide range of nitrogen sources, including ammonium, nitrate, amino acids (which ones apparently depends on pH), creatine, but is unable to use urea.

New evidence has shown that the toxins produced by this alga are induced by physiological stresses, such as nitrogen and phosphorus depletion due to competition with the environment.

See also

References

  1. ^ Rashel, Rakib H; Patiño, Reynaldo (2017). "Influence of genetic background, salinity, and inoculum size on growth of the ichthyotoxic golden alga (Prymnesium parvum)". Harmful Algae. 66: 97–104. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2017.05.010. PMID 28602258.

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Prymnesium parvum: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Prymnesium parvum is a species of haptophytes (also collectively called Prymnesiophyta). The species is of concern because of its ability to produce the phycotoxin prymnesin. It is a flagellated alga that is normally found suspended in the water column. It was first identified in North America in 1985, but is not known if it was introduced artificially (e.g., an invasive species or missed in previous surveys). Toxin production mainly kills fish and appears to have little effect on cattle or humans. This distinguishes it from a red tide, which is an algal bloom whose toxins lead to harmful effects in people. Although no harmful effects are known, it is recommended not to consume dead or dying fish exposed to a P. parvum bloom. P. parvum of Haptophyta is sometimes classified as a golden algae or a golden brown algae, as is Chrysophyceae of Heterokontophyta, but the taxonomy of algae is under complex revision, leading to contradictions in terms, especially in non-scholarly texts (such as those from state wildlife departments).

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN