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Chilghoza Pine

Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D. Don

Description

provided by eFloras
Trees up to 18 m tall spreading at the top and with irregular branches. Bark silvery‑grey, thin. Leaves in clusters of 3, stiff, acicular, 6‑12 cm; sporophylls woody, apex with a recurved beak. Seeds about 20 mm long, ± cylindric, with a short wing.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 182 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
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eFloras

Description

provided by eFloras
Trees; bark white, fissured into irregular, thin plates; 1st-year branchlets pale green-yellow, glabrous, with projected leaf scars. Needles 3 per bundle, triangular-flabellate in cross section, 6-10 cm, stiff, vascular bundle 1, resin canals 5-7, marginal, base with sheath shed. Seed cones shortly pedunculate, almost brown at maturity, oblong or ovoid, 12-20 × 9-11 cm. Seed scales 4-5 cm; apophyses broad, swollen, ± recurved, obviously ridged; umbo dorsal, apex obtuse. Seeds cylindric, ca. 2.5 cm; wing rudimentary, usually adhering to adjacent scale.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Distribution

provided by eFloras
Distribution: Afghanistan, Pakistan and N.W. Himalaya.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 182 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Distribution

provided by eFloras
S Xizang [E Afghanistan, N India, Kashmir, N Pakistan]
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Habitat

provided by eFloras
Found in the inner dry valleys of the Himalaya and in Baluchistan. The seeds are edible and of a good quality. Common name: "Chilgoza Pine". FI. Per.: June‑July.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 182 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Habitat

provided by eFloras
Mountains; circa 2700 m.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Pinus gerardiana

provided by wikipedia EN

Pinus gerardiana, known as the chilgoza pine (Urdu: چلغوزه or چهل‌غوزه, which literally means "forty-nut"), noosa, or neoza نیزہ, is a pine native to the northwestern Himalayas in eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northwest India, growing at elevations between 1800 and 3350 metres. It often occurs in association with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana.

Description

The trees are 10-20(-25) m tall with usually deep, wide and open crowns with long, erect branches. However, crowns are narrower and shallower in dense forests. The bark is very flaky, peeling to reveal light greyish-green patches, similar to the closely related lacebark pine (Pinus bungeana). The branchlets are smooth and olive-green. The leaves are needle-like, in fascicles of 3, 6–10 cm long, spreading stiffly, glossy green on the outer surface, with blue-green stomatal lines on the inner face; the sheaths falling in the first year. The cones are 10–18 cm long, 9–11 cm wide when open, with wrinkled, reflexed apophyses and an umbo curved inward at the base. The seeds (pine nuts) are 17–23 mm long and 5–7 mm broad, with a thin shell and a rudimentary wing.

Ecology

This species is listed as lower risk, near threatened. Overcutting, and intensive grazing causing poor regeneration, may result in the extinction of this pine species. The Himachal Pradesh State Forest Department has tried artificial regeneration of chilgoza pine at many places. However, performance of seedlings was found to be very poor.

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Cones and leaves

The scientific name commemorates Captain Patrick Gerard, a British army officer in India. It was introduced to England in 1839, where it grows well in the warmer drier areas of the southeast, but is very rarely planted.

Uses

Chilgoza pine is well known for its edible pine nuts, rich in carbohydrates and proteins. The seeds are locally called and marketed as "chilgoza", "neja" (singular) or "neje" (plural). Chilgoza is one of the most important cash crops of tribal people residing in the Kinnaur tribal district and the tribal Pangi Valley of Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh, India.[2]. The seed is very expensive and fetches good money to the local people in Kinnaur. Sold at approximately PKR 2500-4500, INR 2000-3600 ($20–$53) per kilogram. Now a days Sold around PKR 8000/= per kilogram

References

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Pinus gerardiana: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Pinus gerardiana, known as the chilgoza pine (Urdu: چلغوزه or چهل‌غوزه, which literally means "forty-nut"), noosa, or neoza نیزہ, is a pine native to the northwestern Himalayas in eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northwest India, growing at elevations between 1800 and 3350 metres. It often occurs in association with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN