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Carolina Hemlock

Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.

Comments

provided by eFloras
Tsuga caroliniana is valuable as an attractive ornamental; a number of cultivars have been developed. The wood is of little commercial importance because of the combination of mediocre quality and the relative rarity of the species in nature.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

provided by eFloras
Trees to 30m; trunk to 2m diam.; crown conic. Bark brown, scaly and fissured. Twigs light brown, thinly covered with short, dark hairs. Buds oblong, 2--3mm. Leaves 10--20mm, mostly spreading in all directions from twigs, flat but slightly revolute; abaxial surface glaucous, with 2 broad, conspicuous stomatal bands, adaxial surface shiny green; margins entire. Seed cones ovoid to oblong, 2.5--4 ´ 1.5--2.5cm; scales oblong, 12--18 ´ 8--12mm, bases clawed, apex rounded. 2 n =24.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Habitat & Distribution

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Rocky montane slopes; 700--1200m; Ga., N.C., S.C., Tenn., Va.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Carolina hemlock
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Conservation Status

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: natural

Carolina hemlock is listed as rare in its natural range [11].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Cover Value

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Carolina hemlock and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) stands are
considered essential for shelter and bedding of white-tailed deer during
the winter [6].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: tree

Carolina hemlock is a native, slow-growing, coniferous, evergreen tree
usually 40 to 70 feet (12-21 m) tall and 8 to 12 inches (20-30 cm) in
d.b.h. [4,8,15]. Heights of 150 to 180 feet (46-55 m) and diameters of
5 to 6 feet (1.5-1.8 m) have been reported [8].

Carolina hemlock has a long slender trunk and a narrow crown of slightly
drooping branches. The leaf blades spread from the twig in all
directions. The cones are 1.0 to 1.5 inches (2.5-3.8 cm) long, and the
seeds are the longest of any of the native hemlocks [18]. The bark on
younger trees is flaky and scaly and on older trees, deeply furrowed.
The root system is shallow and spreading [2,6,8].
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Carolina hemlock has a very limited distribution. It occurs along the
slopes of the Appalachian Mountains from southwestern Virginia and
western North Carolina into South Carolina and northern Georgia
[6,8,22].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Ecology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: fire regime

Currently, very little information on the fire ecology of Carolina
hemlock is available in the literature. Starker [19,20] lists other
species of hemlock as having an intermediate resistance to fire.

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: fire suppression

Carolina hemlock is favored by fire suppression. Humphrey [7] reports
that the slow-growing Carolina hemlock will have time to develop a
mature population only on sites where fire is infrequent.
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte
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bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cover, cover type, litter

Carolina hemlock is common on rocky slopes and ridges of the Appalachian
Mountains at elevations between 2,100 and 4,000 feet (400-1,220 m)
[7,8]. Typically, most soils are very acidic (between 3.5-4.5 pH), but
some are near neutral. The heavy, slowly decomposing litter fosters
podzolization as the stand increases in age [7,8].

Other associates of Carolina hemlock in addition to the cover type
species are eastern hemlock (T. canadensis), Carolina silverbell
(Halesia carolina), American holly (Ilex opaca), mountain rosebay
(Rhododendron catawbiense), mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia), and oak
(Quercus spp.) [7,8,9].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

44 Chestnut oak
58 Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock
59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak
78 Virginia pine - oak
87 Sweet gum - yellow-poplar
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: forest

K104 Appalachian oak forest
K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Presumably, seedlings and saplings of Carolina hemlock are killed by
fire.
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The seeds of Carolina hemlock are an important food for a number of
birds and mammals. Beaver, and occasionally porcupine and rabbit, eat
the bark [6,18]. The foliage is occasionally browsed by white-tailed
deer in the winter [1].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: tree

Tree
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Information concerning management practices for Carolina hemlock is
lacking. However, management practices for the very similair species
eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) have been outlined [6].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
GA NC SC TN VA
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Other uses and values

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Carolina hemlock is often planted as an ornamental. Tannin from the
bark of Carolina hemlock was formerly extracted for use in processing
leather [7,16].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

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More info on this topic.

More info for the term: seed

Carolina hemlock pollination occurs from March to the end of April. The
cones ripen from late August to late September of the next year; the
seed is dispersed from September through the winter [18].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: root crown, secondary colonizer

Tree without adventitious-bud root crown
Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regeneration Processes

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: seed

Seed production and dissemination: Carolina hemlock begins producing
seed at about age 20, but good crops do not occur until the trees are
are 25 and 30 years. The lightweight seed are wind dispersed. Carolina
hemlock seed averages of 187,000 seeds per pound (415,000/kg) [14,16].

Vegetative Reproduction: Like other hemlocks Carolina hemlock does not
sprout and only rarely layers. Vegetative propagation by cuttings and
grafting are limited to ornamental production [6].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Successional Status

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: climax, succession

Obligate Climax Species

Carolina hemlock is very shade tolerant. It will gradually replace
earlier established species and become dominant in very late stages of
succession. Carolina hemlock can be considered a climax species because
it is difficult for other species to invade and grow under its canopy [7].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The currently accepted scientific name of Carolina hemlock is Tsuga
caroliniana Engelm. [12]. There are no recognized subspecies,
varieties, or forms.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Wood Products Value

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The wood of Carolina hemlock can be used for lumber or pulpwood, but the
species is so limited in extent that it is not considered commercially
important [6,16].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds not resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins entire (use magnification), Leaf apex obtuse, Leaves < 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves not blue-green, Needle-like leaves flat, Needle-like leaves not twisted, Needle-like leaf habit erect, Needle-like leaf habit drooping, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 1, Needle-like leaf sheath early deciduous, Needle-like leaf sheath persistent, Twigs pubescent, Twigs not viscid, Twigs with peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones < 5 cm long, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds brown, Seeds winged, Seeds unequally winged, Seed wings prominent, Seed wings equal to or broader than body.
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Aaron Liston
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USDA PLANTS text

Tsuga caroliniana

provided by wikipedia EN

Tsuga caroliniana, the Carolina hemlock,[2] is a species of Tsuga, native to the Appalachian Mountains in southwest Virginia, western North Carolina, extreme northeast Georgia, northwest South Carolina, and eastern Tennessee.[3] Its habitat is on rocky mountain slopes at elevations of 700–1,200 m (2,300–3,900 ft). The optimal growing condition is a partly shady area with moist but well-drained soil in a cool climate.[4]

It is an evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 30 m (exceptionally 34 m) tall and 110 cm in trunk diameter under forest conditions. The crown is compact and pyramidal, growing up to 8 m wide. The bark is thick and reddish-brown, and becomes fissured between scaly ridges. The branches are stout and usually horizontal, but often slightly drooping. The shoots are red-brown to orange-brown, and finely hairy. The leaves are 5–20 mm long and 1.8–2 mm (0.071–0.079 in) broad, flattened, not tapering toward their ends, with a rounded or slightly notched apex; they radiate outward in all directions from the twigs, and smell of tangerine if crushed. They are glossy dark green above and paler on the underside, with two white stomatal bands. The cones are 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) long, green, maturing light to mid-brown 6–7 months after pollination. When fully open, their scales are positioned at a right angle or reflexed to the central axis.[4][5][6]

The hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae, an adelgid introduced to the United States from Asia in 1924, threatens Carolina hemlock, which is as susceptible as the related eastern hemlock.[5]

Carolina hemlock is used more often as an ornamental tree than for timber production, due to its overall rarity.[6] In landscaping, it is similar in appearance to eastern hemlock, but the Carolina hemlock has a deep taproot, compared with the shallow, aggressive roots of eastern hemlock. This means shrubs and other plants can be grown more easily under Carolina hemlock.[7]

"
Foliage, Rogów Arboretum, Poland

References

  1. ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Tsuga caroliniana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T34200A2850654. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T34200A2850654.en.
  2. ^ "Tsuga caroliniana". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  3. ^ Geographic Distribution Map: Tsuga caroliniana (Carolina Hemlock)
  4. ^ a b Farjon, A. (1990). Pinaceae. Drawings and Descriptions of the Genera. Koeltz Scientific Books. ISBN 3-87429-298-3.
  5. ^ a b Gymnosperm Database: Tsuga caroliniana Archived 2006-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ a b Flora of North America: Tsuga Caroliniana
  7. ^ Richard E. Bir (1992). Growing and Propagating Showy Native Woody Plants. University of North Carolina Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-8078-4366-0.
"
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Tsuga caroliniana: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Tsuga caroliniana, the Carolina hemlock, is a species of Tsuga, native to the Appalachian Mountains in southwest Virginia, western North Carolina, extreme northeast Georgia, northwest South Carolina, and eastern Tennessee. Its habitat is on rocky mountain slopes at elevations of 700–1,200 m (2,300–3,900 ft). The optimal growing condition is a partly shady area with moist but well-drained soil in a cool climate.

It is an evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 30 m (exceptionally 34 m) tall and 110 cm in trunk diameter under forest conditions. The crown is compact and pyramidal, growing up to 8 m wide. The bark is thick and reddish-brown, and becomes fissured between scaly ridges. The branches are stout and usually horizontal, but often slightly drooping. The shoots are red-brown to orange-brown, and finely hairy. The leaves are 5–20 mm long and 1.8–2 mm (0.071–0.079 in) broad, flattened, not tapering toward their ends, with a rounded or slightly notched apex; they radiate outward in all directions from the twigs, and smell of tangerine if crushed. They are glossy dark green above and paler on the underside, with two white stomatal bands. The cones are 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) long, green, maturing light to mid-brown 6–7 months after pollination. When fully open, their scales are positioned at a right angle or reflexed to the central axis.

The hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae, an adelgid introduced to the United States from Asia in 1924, threatens Carolina hemlock, which is as susceptible as the related eastern hemlock.

Carolina hemlock is used more often as an ornamental tree than for timber production, due to its overall rarity. In landscaping, it is similar in appearance to eastern hemlock, but the Carolina hemlock has a deep taproot, compared with the shallow, aggressive roots of eastern hemlock. This means shrubs and other plants can be grown more easily under Carolina hemlock.

" Foliage, Rogów Arboretum, Poland
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