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This is a cultivated species with many cultivars.
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Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Comments

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Sorghum bicolor is the important, tropical cereal sorghum. Originating in Africa, its cultivation for both grain and fodder spread throughout the tropics and subtropics of the Old World. It was introduced with the slave trade to America, including warm parts of the United States. It is now cultivated throughout most of China.

There is a multiplicity of forms of cultivated sorghum, derived by human selection and all fully interfertile. Some forms have sweet culms. Many species names have been proposed in the past in an attempt to categorize this variation, but they represent no more than intergrading cultivars within the common species pool.

The name Holcus saccharatus Linnaeus (Sorghum saccharatum (Linnaeus) Moench) has been identified as this species, but its application is uncertain (see Davidse & Turland in Taxon 50: 577–580. 2001) and the name has been formally rejected.

The principal races grown in China are as follows.

‘bicolor’

高粱 gao liang

Panicle loose with long branches, to 40 cm. Sessile spikelets broadly obovate; glumes leathery, glossy. Grain relatively small, enclosed within the glumes or only the top protruding.

Cultivated for grain; a primitive type.

‘cernuum’

弯头高粱 wan tou gao liang

Panicle elliptic or ovate-elliptic, dense, 8–20 cm, curved or erect. Sessile spikelets broadly ovate, whitish; glumes thin, papery, transversely wrinkled, densely white-villous to glabrescent. Grain pale, subrotund to orbicular, usually much flattened, protruding beyond the glumes.

Cultivated in Xinjiang for grain and forage.

‘dochna’

甜高粱 tian gao liang

Culms with sweet juice. Panicle elongate, to 50 cm; branches racemose or corymbose, the lower ones half as long as panicle or more. Sessile spikelets broadly elliptic to obovate; glumes crustaceous, striately veined above middle. Grain elliptic or elliptic-oblong, enclosed by the glumes or only slightly protruding.

Cultivated for grain and forage throughout most of China, including forms used for making brooms.

‘nervosum’

多脉高粱 duo mai gao liang

Panicle elongate, dense, elliptic in outline, to 40 cm. Sessile spikelets elliptic to broadly elliptic; glumes papery, prominently veined ± throughout. Grain broadly elliptic, protruding beyond the glumes.

Cultivated for grain, mainly in N China.

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Flora of China Vol. 22: 600, 601, 602 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Annuals; culms solid, erect, tall, about 2 cm in diameter. Spikelets paired, dimorphic, pedicelled spikelets linear-elliptical, 1/4 the width of the sessile spikelets, deep brown; sessile spikelets about 5 mm long, ovate; glumes coriaceous, midsection glabrous, polished, turning dark brown when mature, upper portion and callus hispid, tessellate nerved; lower glume about 5-6 mm long, 15-nerved; upper glume as long as the lower, 9-nerved; lower lemma membranous, fringed on margins, keeled, 3-nerved, about 5 mm long; upper lemma ovate, membranous, ciliate on the margins, with a geniculate awn about 10 mm long, 3-nerved, 4-4.5 mm long; palea linear, fringed, margins membranous, about 3 mm long; anthers 3, about 3 mm long. Caryopsis 2 mm long; embryo 1/3 the length of the grain.
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Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Annual. Culms erect, robust, 3–5 m tall, 2–5 cm in diam.; nodes glabrous or pubescent. Leaf sheaths glabrous or slightly farinose; leaf blades linear or linear-lanceolate, 40–70 × 3–8 cm, glabrous; ligule subrounded, ciliate. Panicle very variable, lax or dense, cylindrical or pyramidal to obovate in outline, up to 60 cm, main axis elongate to very short; primary branches ascending or spreading, lower branches sometimes almost as long as panicle, stiff or pendulous; racemes tough at maturity, composed of 2–6 spikelet pairs. Sessile spikelet variable, broadly obovate to subglobose, 3.5–5.5 mm; callus hispid; lower glume leathery to papery, glabrous to pilose, pale creamy-green to dark brown or blackish at maturity, upper lemma usually awned; awn 0.4–1.5 cm. Pedicelled spikelet male or barren, linear-lanceolate, persistent or deciduous. Caryopsis large, often exposed between the gaping glumes. Fl. and fr. Jun–Sep. 2n = 20.
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Flora of China Vol. 22: 600, 601, 602 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat & Distribution

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Cultivated in China [native to Africa; widely cultivated in the tropics].
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Flora of China Vol. 22: 600, 601, 602 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Synonym

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Sorghum vulgare (L.) Pers.; Syn. Pl. 1: 101. 1805. Holcus sorghum subsp. japonicus (Hack.) Masamune & Yanagihara, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Form. 31: 326. 1941.
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Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Synonym

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Holcus bicolor Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 2: 301. 1771; Andropogon bicolor (Linnaeus) Roxburgh; A. sorghum (Linnaeus) Brotero; A. sorghum var. technicus Körnicke; Holcus cernuus Arduino; H. dochna Forsskål; H. sorghum Linnaeus; Sorghum cernuum (Arduino) Host; S. dochna (Forsskål) Snowden; S. nervosum Besser ex Schultes; S. technicum (Körnicke) Roshevitz; S. vulgare Persoon, nom. illeg. superfl.
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Flora of China Vol. 22: 600, 601, 602 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Derivation of specific name

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bicolor: 2-coloured
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=108260
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Holcus sorghum I,. Sp. PI. 1047. 1753
Andropogon Sorghum Brot. Fl. Lusit. 1 : 88. 1804. Sorgumvulgare Pers. Syn, PI. 1 : 101. 1805. Andropogon Drummondii SX.t.u&. Syn. Gram. 393. 1854. Sorgum Sorghum Karst. Deuts. Fl. 367. 1881.
Andropogon Sorghum, sativus Dru-mmondii Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6: 507. 1889. Andropogon Sorghum sativus vulgaris Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 : 515. 1889. Sorgum. Drummondii Nees; (Steud. Syn. Gram. 393, as synonym. 1854) Millsp. & Chase, Field Columb, Mus. Publ. Bot. 3 : 21. , 1903.
A tall variable annual, with dense or lax panicle, the rachis of the racemes tardily disarticulating, the pedicellate spikelets usually empty, or very rarely staminate, shorter than the sessile. Stems up to 1.5 m. tall, simple or branched; leaf-sheaths glabrous or pubescent, shorter than the internodes; blades up to 6 dm. long and 1-7 cm. wide, flat, undulate on the margins, drooping at the apex, long-acuminate; panicle up to 3 dm. long, its branches erect or more or less spreading; sessile spikelet ovate-lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, or obovate, 5-6 mm. long, 2.5-3.5 mm. broad, the first scale more or less pubescent, the fourth scale usually 2-lobed or 2-toothed at the apex, bearing a perfect awn 4-10 mm. long; pedicellate spikelet with the pedicel one half as long as the sessile spikelet or less.
Typ,e LOCALITY : India.
Distribution : Widely cultivated in all warm temperate and tropical regions, and often escaping. An extremely variable grass.
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George Valentine Nash. 1912. (POALES); POACEAE (pars). North American flora. vol 17(2). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 2-6 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leav es conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blade with prominently raised or widened midvein, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence a contracted panicle, narrowly paniculate, branches appressed or ascending, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence lax, widely spreading, branches drooping, pendulous, Inflorescence a panicle with narrowly racemose or spicate branches, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Flowers unisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, S pikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets paired at rachis nodes, Spikelets in paired units, 1 sessile, 1 pedicellate, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets unisexual, Inflorescence disarticulating between nodes or joints of rachis, rachis fragmenting, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets not disarticulating, or tardy, Inflorescence branches deciduous, falling intact, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glume equal to or longer than spikelet, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma apex dentate, 2-fid, Lemma awnless, Lemma mucronate, very shortly beaked or awned, less than 1-2 mm, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma margins th in, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea longer than lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Sorghum bicolor

provided by wikipedia EN

Sorghum bicolor, commonly called sorghum[2] (/ˈsɔːrɡəm/) and also known as great millet,[3] durra, jowari / jowar, or milo, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production. Sorghum originated in Africa, and is now cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical regions.[4] Sorghum is the world's fifth-most important cereal crop after rice, wheat, maize, and barley, with 59.34 million metric tons of annual global production in 2018.[5] S. bicolor is typically an annual, but some cultivars are perennial. It grows in clumps that may reach over 4 m high. The grain is small, ranging from 2 to 4 mm in diameter. Sweet sorghums are sorghum cultivars that are primarily grown for forage, syrup production, and ethanol; they are taller than those grown for grain.[6][7]

Sorghum bicolor is the cultivated species of sorghum; its wild relatives make up the botanical genus Sorghum.

Cultivation

 src=
Boiled Chinese sorghum.
two turkey tail brooms made from broom corn
Two 'turkey tail' style brooms made from broom corn
 src=
Seed head of sorghum in India
 src=
Sorghum with a recurved peduncle trait, Turpan basin, Xinjiang, China. In some varieties and in certain conditions, the heavy panicle will make the young soft peduncle bend, which then will lignify in this position. Combined with awned inflorescence, this forms a two-fold defence against birds.

The leading producers of S. bicolor in 2011 were Nigeria (12.6%), India (11.2%), Mexico (11.2%), and the United States (10.0%).[8] Sorghum grows in a wide range of temperatures, high altitudes, and toxic soils, and can recover growth after some drought.[6] It has five features that make it one of the most drought-resistant crops:

  • It has a very large root-to-leaf surface area ratio.
  • In times of drought, it rolls its leaves to lessen water loss by transpiration.
  • If drought continues, it goes into dormancy rather than dying.
  • Its leaves are protected by a waxy cuticle.
  • It uses C4 carbon fixation thus using only a third the amount of water that C3 plants require.

Sorghum grain cannot be consumed unless the indigestible husk is removed. During the transatlantic slave trade, "the only way to remove the husk was by hand, with mortar and pestle."[9] Enslaved women did most of the work in preparing the sorghum and were tasked with cleaning the grain and turning it into flour.[9]

 src=
Sorghum field in Addi Azmera (Ethiopia)

History

The first archaeological remnants of sorghum are at Nabta Playa on the Upper Nile, c. 8000 BC. However, these are wild sorghum, with small grains and a brittle rachis. Sorghum is believed to have been domesticated from the wild Sorghum arundinaceum in perhaps 7000–5000 BC in the Niger River valley.[10][11][12] Botanists divide it into five "races":

  • durra, developed in India
  • guinea, a West African variety requiring high rainfall
  • caudatum, grown by Nilo-Saharan peoples between Lake Chad and Ethiopia
  • kafir, a drought-resistant type grown in Southern Africa
  • bicolor, the most common grain[13]

Sorghum in the United States was first recorded by Ben Franklin in 1757.[14]

Richard Pankhurst reports (citing Augustus B. Wylde) that in 19th-century Ethiopia, durra was "often the first crop sown on newly cultivated land", explaining that this cereal did not require the thorough ploughing other crops did, and its roots not only decomposed into a good fertilizer, but they also helped to break up the soil while not exhausting the subsoil.[15]

In 19th century European accounts, many would use the term "millet" to refer to both pearl millet and sorghum. Milho, in Portuguese references was used to refer to both maize and sorghum, and researchers suspect this is because their vegetative cycle is so similar. Although, when sorghum matures it produces a tassel of exposed grains, which differs from maize which produces a husk. In European accounts, it is hard to tell if they are referring to maize, millet, or sorghum. All of these crops were grown in Africa and sold on slave ships.[9]

Uses

 src=
Red on white sorghum grains

Sorghum is cultivated in many parts of the world today.[8] The grain finds use as human food, and for making liquor, animal feed, or bio-based ethanol. Sorghum grain is gluten free, high in resistant starch, and more abundant and diverse phenolic compounds compared to other major cereal crops[16][17]

Culinary use

In many parts of Asia and Africa, sorghum grain is used to make flat breads that form the staple food of many cultures.[18][19] The grains can also be popped in a fashion similar to popcorn.

In India, where it is commonly called jwaarie, jowar, jola, or jondhalaa, sorghum is one of the staple sources of nutrition in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and the Deccan plateau states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Telangana. An Indian bread called bhakri, jowar roti, or jolada rotti is prepared from this grain.[20][21]

In Tunisia, where it is commonly called droô, a traditional porridge dish is prepared with ground sorghum grains powder, milk and sugar. The dish is a staple breakfast meal consumed in winter months.[22]

In Central America, tortillas are sometimes made using sorghum. Although corn is the preferred grain for making tortillas, sorghum is widely used and is well accepted in Honduras. White sorghum is preferred for making tortillas.[23]

Sweet sorghum syrup is known as molasses in some parts of the U.S., although it is not true molasses.

In Southern African countries, Sorghum, along with milk, sugar and butter, is used to make Maltabella, a variation of millet porridge.

Alcoholic beverage

In China, sorghum is known as gaoliang (高粱), and is fermented and distilled to produce one form of clear spirits known as baijiu (白酒) of which the most famous is Maotai (or Moutai). In Taiwan, on the island called Kinmen, plain sorghum is made into sorghum liquor. In several countries in Africa, including Zimbabwe, Burundi, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Nigeria, sorghum of both the red and white varieties is used to make traditional opaque beer. Red sorghum imparts a pinkish-brown colour to the beer.[24]

Bio-based ethanol

In Australia, South America, and the United States, sorghum grain is used primarily for livestock feed and in a growing number of ethanol plants.[25] In some countries, sweet sorghum stalks are used for producing biofuel by squeezing the juice and then fermenting it into ethanol.[26] Texas A&M University in the United States is currently running trials to find the best varieties for ethanol production from sorghum leaves and stalks in the USA.[27]

Other uses

It is also used for making a traditional corn broom.[28] The reclaimed stalks of the sorghum plant are used to make a decorative millwork material marketed as Kirei board.

Agricultural uses

It is used in feed and pasturage for livestock. Its use is limited, however, because the starch and protein in sorghum is more difficult for animals to digest than the starches and protein in corn. Research is being done to find a process that will predigest the grain. One study on cattle showed that steam-flaked sorghum was preferable to dry-rolled sorghum because it improved daily weight gain.[8] In hogs, sorghum has been shown to be a more efficient feed choice than corn when both grains were processed in the same way.[8]

The introduction of improved varieties, along with improved management practices, has helped to increase sorghum productivity. In India, productivity increases are thought to have freed up six million hectares of land. The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics in collaboration with partners produces improved varieties of crops including sorghum. Some 194 improved cultivars of sorghum from the institute have been released.[29]

As a weed

Weedy races of S. bicolor are known as shattercane.[30]

Research

Research is being conducted to develop a genetic cross that will make the plant more tolerant to colder temperatures and to unravel the drought tolerance mechanisms, since it is native to tropical climates.[31][32] In the United States, this is important because the cost of corn was steadily increasing due to its use in ethanol production for addition to gasoline.

Sorghum silage can be used as a replacement of corn silage in the diet for dairy cattle.[33] More research has found that sorghum has higher nutritional value compared to corn when feeding dairy cattle, and the type of processing is also essential in harvesting the grain's maximum nutrition. Feeding steam-flaked sorghum showed an increase in milk production when compared to dry-rolling.[33]

Additional research is being done on sorghum as a potential food source to meet the increasing global food demand. Sorghum is resistant to drought- and heat-related stress. The genetic diversity between subspecies of sorghum makes it more resistant to pests and pathogens than other less diverse food sources. In addition, it is highly efficient in converting solar energy to chemical energy, and also in use of water.[34] All of these characteristics make it a promising candidate to help meet the increasing global food demand. As such, many groups around the world are pursuing research initiatives around sorghum (specifically Sorghum bicolor): Purdue University,[35] HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology,[34] Danforth Plant Science Center,[34] the University of Nebraska,[36] and the University of Queensland[37] among others. The University of Queensland is involved with pre-breeding activities, which are extremely successful and stillare in progress using crop wild relatives as donors along with popular varieties as recipients to make sorghum more resistant to biotic stresses.

Another research application of sorghum is as a biofuel. Sweet sorghum has a high sugar content in its stalk, which can be turned into ethanol. The biomass can be burned and turned into charcoal, syn-gas, and bio-oil.

Genome

The genome of S. bicolor was sequenced between 2005 and 2007.[38][39] It is diploid and contains 10 chromosomes. The genome size is approximately 800 Mbp.[40]

Pests and parasites

Sorghum is a host of the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica.[41] This parasite is a devastating pest on the crop. The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) was introduced to North America by transport of infested sorghum broom corn.[42]

The following pest species are reported for sorghum crops in northern Mali.[43]

Sitophilus zeamais (maize weevil) and Sitotroga cerealella (Angoumois grain moth) attack stored sorghum and maize.[43]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  2. ^ "Sorghum bicolor". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  3. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  4. ^ Dillon, Sally L.; Shapter, Frances M.; Henry, Robert J.; et al. (1 September 2007). "Domestication to Crop Improvement: Genetic Resources for Sorghum and Saccharum (Andropogoneae)". Annals of Botany. 100 (5): 975–989. doi:10.1093/aob/mcm192. PMC 2759214. PMID 17766842.
  5. ^ "FAOSTAT". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2020-09-27.
  6. ^ a b "Grassland Index: Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench".
  7. ^ "Sweet Sorghum". Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Producers. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d Jeri Stroade; Michael Boland & Mykel Taylor. "AGMRC Sorghum profile".
  9. ^ a b c Carney, Judith (2011-02-01). In the Shadow of Slavery. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-94953-9.
  10. ^ Cumo, Christopher (June 30, 2015). Foods that Changed History: How Foods Shaped Civilization from the Ancient World to the Present: How Foods Shaped Civilization from the Ancient World to the Present. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781440835377 – via Google Books.
  11. ^ Cumo, Christopher Martin (April 25, 2013). Encyclopedia of Cultivated Plants: From Acacia to Zinnia [3 volumes]: From Acacia to Zinnia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598847758 – via Google Books.
  12. ^ Smith, C. Wayne; Frederiksen, Richard A. (December 25, 2000). Sorghum: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471242376 – via Google Books.
  13. ^ Ehleringer, James R.; Cerling, Thure; Dearing, M. Denise (March 30, 2006). A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effects on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780387270487 – via Google Books.
  14. ^ https://www.sorghumcheckoff.com/all-about-sorghum#:~:text=HISTORY%20OF%20SORGHUM&text=The%20earliest%20known%20record%20of,to%20the%20semi%2Darid%20Sahel.
  15. ^ Richard Pankhurst, Economic History of Ethiopia (Addis Ababa: Haile Selassie I University, 1968), p. 193.
  16. ^ Awika, Joseph M.; Rooney, Lloyd W. (2004-05-01). "Sorghum phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health". Phytochemistry. 65 (9): 1199–1221. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.04.001. ISSN 0031-9422. PMID 15184005.
  17. ^ Rooney, Lloyd; Dykes, Linda (2013-10-01). "Utilization of African Grains in Nutritionally Unique Foods". CFW Plexus. doi:10.1094/cplex-2013-1001-24b. ISSN 2168-118X.
  18. ^ O P Sharma (1993). Plant Taxonomy. Tata McGraw-Hill. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-07-460373-4.
  19. ^ National Research Council (1996-02-14). "Sorghum". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume I: Grains. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-04990-0. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
  20. ^ Colleen Taylor Sen (2004). Food Culture in India. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-313-32487-1.
  21. ^ Rais Akhtar; Andrew Thomas Amos Learmonth (1985). Geographical Aspects of Health and Disease in India. Concept Publishing Company. p. 251. GGKEY:HH184Y8TYNS.
  22. ^ "Le sorgho " Droô ", la collation hivernale". wepostmag. May 28, 2012. Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  23. ^ "Sorghum and millets in human nutrition". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2017-04-05.
  24. ^ "Sweet Sorghum : A New "Smart Biofuel Crop". agribusinessweek.com. 30 June 2008. Archived from the original on 27 May 2015.
  25. ^ "United Sorghum Checkoff Program | Investing in Sorghum Profitability". United Sorghum Checkoff.
  26. ^ "Sweet Sorghum : A New "Smart Biofuel Crop". agribusinessweek.com. 30 June 2008. Archived from the original on 2015-05-27.
  27. ^ "Ceres and Texas A&M to Develop and Market High-Biomass Sorghum for Biofuels (Texas A&M University System Agriculture Program)". gnewsarchive.tamu.edu. 1 October 2007. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008.
  28. ^ "How to make a broom". Ogden Publications, Inc. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  29. ^ Sorghum, a crop of substance Archived 2016-01-20 at the Wayback Machine. Downloaded 16 March 2014.
  30. ^ "Shattercane". Mizzou WeedID // Weed ID Guide // University of Missouri. Retrieved 2021-07-08.
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Sorghum bicolor: Brief Summary

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Sorghum bicolor, commonly called sorghum (/ˈsɔːrɡəm/) and also known as great millet, durra, jowari / jowar, or milo, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production. Sorghum originated in Africa, and is now cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical regions. Sorghum is the world's fifth-most important cereal crop after rice, wheat, maize, and barley, with 59.34 million metric tons of annual global production in 2018. S. bicolor is typically an annual, but some cultivars are perennial. It grows in clumps that may reach over 4 m high. The grain is small, ranging from 2 to 4 mm in diameter. Sweet sorghums are sorghum cultivars that are primarily grown for forage, syrup production, and ethanol; they are taller than those grown for grain.

Sorghum bicolor is the cultivated species of sorghum; its wild relatives make up the botanical genus Sorghum.

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