Description

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Trees, 6-20 m tall. Branchlets grayish white when dry, terete. Petiole 1-2 cm; leaf blade broadly elliptic to narrowly elliptic, 6-12 × 3.5-7 cm, leathery, abaxially slightly pale when dry, adaxially brownish green to blackish brown and slightly glossy when dry, both surfaces with small glands, secondary veins numerous, 1-2 mm apart, and gradually extending into margin, intramarginal veins ca. 1 mm from margin, base broadly cuneate to rarely rounded, apex rounded to obtuse and with a short cusp. Inflorescences axillary on flowering branches or occasionally terminal, paniculate cymes, to 11 cm. Hypanthium obconic or long pyriform, ca. 4 mm or 7-8 mm. Calyx lobes inconspicuous, 0.3-0.7 mm. Petals 4, white or light purple, coherent, ovate and slightly rounded, ca. 2.5 mm. Stamens 3-4 mm. Style as long as stamens. Fruit red to black, ellipsoid to pot-shaped, 1-2 cm, 1-seeded; persistent calyx tube 1-1.5 mm. Fl. Feb-Mar or Apr-May, fr. Jun-Sep.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 13: 336, 340, 343, 355 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Distribution

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Subtropical Himalaya, India, Ceylon, Malaysia, Australia.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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Distribution

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Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia].
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 13: 336, 340, 343, 355 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Elevation Range

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300-1200 m
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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Habitat

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Secondary forests on level areas, wastelands, streamsides; below 100 to 1200 m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 13: 336, 340, 343, 355 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Brief Summary

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Syzygium cumini (family Myrtaceae) is an evergreen tropical tree native to tropical countries from Pakistan throughout Southeast Asia.It is fast growing, reaches up to 30 meters (100 feet) tall and lives up to 100 years.The tree is known as the Java plum tree, for the dark purple, oblong edible fruits it produces (and by many other common names in the various regions in which it grows, including jambul and black plum). The fruit reaches about 2 cm (0.8 in) long and has white or purple flesh.

Java plum trees form dense shady canopies and the trees are grown for their ornamental value. It does well in a range of soil types and environmental conditions. Buddhists and Hindus consider the sacred and worship using the leaves and fruit.Indian emigrants brought it overseas from India and it is common in former tropical British colonies.It has been introduced in Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawai‘i, Florida, New Caledonia, Niue, Palau, Tonga, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Christmas Island, Australia, Africa, India, Caribbean, and South America. However, the canopy shades out young native trees and prevents re-establishment of native forests.It was introduced to Florida in the 1920s, and is now on the Category I listing of the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's (FLEPPC) 2013 List of Invasive Plant Species.It also is highly invasive in the Cook Islands, French Polynesia, and Hawaii.

Syzygium cumini is used for many purposes.It is planted for shade and as a windbreak.The wood is water resistant and very hard, so used for building railway cars, beams, bridges, posts, sometimes furniture.The tannin rich bark is used for dyes and leather tanning. Fruits are made into drinks, vinegars, and wines and the leaves are used as food for livestock and silkworms, as they have good nutritional value. The leaves, stems, flowerbuds, opened blossoms, root and tree bark are used for a wide array of alternative/folk medicinal purposes, including skin and digestive system ailments, controlling blood pressure and blood glucose levels, and show antibiotic activity.

(Binggeli 2006; Morton 1987; PIER 2011; Wikipedia 2014)

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Syzygium cumini

provided by wikipedia EN

Syzygium cumini, commonly known as Malabar plum,[3] Java plum,[3] black plum, jamun or jambolan,[4][5] is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant family Myrtaceae, and favored for its fruit, timber, and ornamental value.[5] It is native to the Indian Subcontinent, adjoining regions of Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and the Andaman Islands.[4][2] It can reach heights of up to 30 metres (98 ft) and can live more than 100 years.[4] A rapidly growing plant, it is considered an invasive species in many world regions.[5]

The name of the fruit, black plum, is sometimes mistranslated as blackberry, which is a different fruit in an unrelated order. Syzygium cumini has been introduced to areas including islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore.[6]

The tree was introduced to Florida in 1911 by the United States Department of Agriculture, and is commonly grown in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide.[5] Its fruits are eaten by various native birds and small mammals, such as jackals, civets, and fruit bats.[5]

Description

 src=
Syzygium cumini fruit color changing from green to pink to blood red to black as it matures

As a rapidly growing species, it can reach heights of up to 30 m and can live more than 100 years.[4] Its dense foliage provides shade and is grown just for its ornamental value. At the base of the tree, the bark is rough and dark grey, becoming lighter grey and smoother higher up. The wood is water resistant after being kiln-dried.[4] Because of this, it is used in railway sleepers and to install motors in wells. It is sometimes used to make cheap furniture and village dwellings, though it is relatively hard for carpentry.[4]

The leaves which have an aroma similar to turpentine, are pinkish when young, changing to a leathery, glossy dark green with a yellow midrib as they mature. The leaves are used as food for livestock, as they have good nutritional value.[7]

Syzygium cumini trees start flowering from March to April. The flowers are fragrant and small, about 5 mm in diameter. The fruits develop by May or June and resemble large berries; the fruit of Syzygium species is described as "drupaceous".[8] The fruit is oblong, ovoid. Unripe fruit looks green. As it matures, its color changes to pink, then to shining crimson red and finally to black color. A variant of the tree produces white coloured fruit. The fruit has a combination of sweet, mildly sour and astringent flavour and tends to colour the tongue purple.[4]

Invasive species

This species is considered invasive in Florida, South Africa, parts of the Caribbean, several islands of Oceania, and Hawaii.[5][6]

Culinary uses

Jambolan fruits have a sweet or slightly acidic flavor, are eaten raw, and may be made into sauces or jam.[4] Inferior fruits may be made into juice, jelly, sorbet, syrup, or fruit salad.[4]

Nutrition

Raw fruit is 83% water, 16% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and contains negligible fat. In a 100 gram reference amount, the raw fruit provides 60 calories, a moderate content of vitamin C, and no other micronutrients in appreciable amounts (table).

History

The 1889 book 'The Useful Native Plants of Australia’ records that the plant was referred to as "durobbi" by Indigenous Australians, and that "The fruit is much eaten by the natives of India; in appearance it resembles a damson, has a harsh but sweetish flavour, somewhat astringent and acid. It is eaten by birds, and is a favourite food of the flying fox (Brandis)."[9] The fruit has been used in traditional medicine.[4][5]

Cultural and religious significance in India

Krishna is also known to have four symbols of the jambu fruit on his right foot as mentioned in the Srimad Bhagavatam commentary (verse 10.30.25), "Sri Rupa Chintamani" and "Ananda Candrika" by Srila Visvanatha Chakravarti Thakura.[10]

In Maharashtra, S. cumini leaves are used in marriage pandal decorations. A song from the 1977 film Jait Re Jait mentions the fruit in the song "Jambhul Piklya Zaadakhali".

Besides the fruits, wood from neredu tree (as it is called in the region's language, Telugu) is used in Andhra Pradesh to make bullock cart wheels and other agricultural equipment. The timber of neredu is used to construct doors and windows.

Legend in Tamil Nadu speaks of Avvaiyar (also Auvaiyar or Auvayar) of the Sangam period and the jamun fruit, called naval pazham in Tamil. Avvaiyar, believing to have achieved everything that is to be achieved, is said to have been pondering over her retirement from Tamil literary work while resting under naval pazham tree. There she was met with and was wittily jousted by a disguised Murugan, regarded as one of the guardian deities of Tamil language, who later revealed himself and made her realize that there is still a lot more to be done and learnt.[11] Following this awakening, Avvaiyar is believed to have undertaken a fresh set of literary works, targeted at children.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) & IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group (2019). "Syzygium cumini". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T49487196A145821979. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  2. ^ a b c "Syzygium cumini". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Syzygium cumini". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Julia F Morton (1987). "Jambolan, Syzygium cumini Skeels". In: Fruits of Warm Climates, p. 375–378; NewCROP, New Crop Resource Online Program, Center for New Crops and Plant Products, Purdue University. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Syzygium cumini (black plum)". CABI. 21 November 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Syzygium cumini". Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk. 30 December 2011.
  7. ^ The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts, By Jules Janick, Robert E. Paull, p. 552
  8. ^ Chen, Jie & Craven, Lyn A., "Syzygium", in Wu, Zhengyi; Raven, Peter H. & Hong, Deyuan (eds.), Flora of China (online), eFloras.org, retrieved 2015-08-13
  9. ^ J. H. Maiden (1889). The useful native plants of Australia : Including Tasmania. Turner and Henderson, Sydney.
  10. ^ Vishvanatha, Cakravarti Thakura (2011). Sarartha-darsini (Bhanu Swami ed.). Sri Vaikunta Enterprises. p. 790. ISBN 978-81-89564-13-1.
  11. ^ Ramadevi, B. (3 March 2014). "The saint of the masses". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 1 May 2021.
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Syzygium cumini: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Syzygium cumini, commonly known as Malabar plum, Java plum, black plum, jamun or jambolan, is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant family Myrtaceae, and favored for its fruit, timber, and ornamental value. It is native to the Indian Subcontinent, adjoining regions of Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and the Andaman Islands. It can reach heights of up to 30 metres (98 ft) and can live more than 100 years. A rapidly growing plant, it is considered an invasive species in many world regions.

The name of the fruit, black plum, is sometimes mistranslated as blackberry, which is a different fruit in an unrelated order. Syzygium cumini has been introduced to areas including islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore.

The tree was introduced to Florida in 1911 by the United States Department of Agriculture, and is commonly grown in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Its fruits are eaten by various native birds and small mammals, such as jackals, civets, and fruit bats.

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