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Brief Summary

provided by Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico
This suborder includes a vast and diverse assemblage of species-level taxa, and many more genus- and family-level taxa than does the suborder Symphyta. Other names used in the past for the suborder include Petioliventres or Petiolata, Clistogastra and Heterophaga. Common names applied to the major groups of Apocrita include braconid and ichneumonid wasps, chalcid flies or wasps, gall wasps, ants, true wasps and bees. The first three groups are sometimes placed in the Division Parasitica or Terebrantia, and the latter three in the Division Aculeata. More detailed information is included under the divisional headings. ~There are several important characters separating the Apocrita from the Symphyta. The apparent thorax is separated from the apparent abdomen by a constriction. What appears to be the thorax actually consists of the true thorax to which is fused the first abdominal segment (propodeum); the apparent thorax is sometimes termed the mesosoma or alitrunk. What appears to be the entire abdomen is termed the gaster or metasoma. The venation, especially that of the hind wing, is reduced in size and has fewer veins and cells than in Symphyta. The larvae are maggot-like and apodous; some have fleshy pseudopods on the thorax or abdomen which assist in very limited locomotion but which are not homologous with the thoracic prolegs found in most sawflies. ~The majority of larval Apocrita, including the most primitive, are entomophagous. However, phytophagy has developed independently in many higher groups such as some Chalcidoidea, most Cynipoidea, a few Vespoidea and the Apoidea. ~There are some fifteen times as many Apocrita recorded from North America as Symphyta. However, it is virtually certain that this ratio will be substantially increased in the future when the smaller Parasitica are more thoroughly collected and studied.
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Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. 1979. Prepared cooperatively by specialists on the various groups of Hymenoptera under the direction of Karl V. Krombein and Paul D. Hurd, Jr., Smithsonian Institution, and David R. Smith and B. D. Burks, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Insect Identification and Beneficial Insect Introduction Institute. Science and Education Administration, United States Department of Agriculture.

Apocrita

provided by wikipedia EN

The Apocrita are a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera. It includes wasps, bees, and ants, and consists of many families. It contains the most advanced hymenopterans and is distinguished from Symphyta by the narrow "waist" (petiole) formed between the first two segments of the actual abdomen; the first abdominal segment is fused to the thorax, and is called the propodeum. Therefore, it is general practice, when discussing the body of an apocritan in a technical sense, to refer to the mesosoma and metasoma (or "gaster") rather than the "thorax" and "abdomen", respectively. The evolution of a constricted waist was an important adaption for the parasitoid lifestyle of the ancestral apocritan, allowing more maneuverability of the female's ovipositor.[1] The ovipositor either extends freely or is retracted, and may be developed into a stinger for both defense and paralyzing prey. Larvae are legless and blind, and either feed inside a host (plant or animal) or in a nest cell provisioned by their mothers.

"
Apis dorsata, the giant honeybee, from family Apidae on Tribulus terrestris flower in Hyderabad, India

The Apocrita have historically been split into two groups, "Parasitica" and Aculeata, but these are rankless groupings in present classifications, if they appear at all. The term Parasitica is an artificial (paraphyletic) group comprising the majority of hymenopteran insects, with respective members living as parasitoids on what amounts to nearly half of all insects, and many noninsects.[2][3] Most species are small, with the ovipositor adapted for piercing. In some hosts, the parasitoids induce metamorphosis prematurely, and in others it is prolonged. There are even species that are hyperparasites, parasitoids on other parasitoids.[4] The Parasitica lay their eggs inside or on another insect (egg, larva or pupa) and their larvae grow and develop within or on that host. The host is nearly always killed. Many parasitic hymenopterans are used as biological control agents to control pests, such as caterpillars, true bugs and hoppers, flies, and weevils.[5]

The Aculeata are a monophyletic group that includes those species in which the female's ovipositor is modified into a stinger to inject venom. Groups include the familiar ants, bees, and various types of parasitic and predatory wasps; it also includes all of the social hymenopterans.[6]

Among the nonparasitic and nonsocial Aculeata, larvae are fed with captured prey (typically alive and paralyzed) or may be fed pollen and nectar. The social Aculeata feed their young prey (paper wasps and hornets), or pollen and nectar (bees), or perhaps seeds, fungi, or nonviable eggs (ants).

Extant families and superfamilies

The Apocrita contains a large number of families. Some traditional taxa such as the Parasitica (containing many families of parasitoid wasps) have been found on molecular analysis to be paraphyletic. Parasitoidism evolved once, and it is found today across most Apocritan families, though it has been secondarily lost several times. The phylogenetic tree gives a condensed overview of the phylogeny, illustrated with major groups. The tree is not fully resolved.[6][7][8][2]

Hymenoptera

Sawflies "Xyelapusilla.jpg"

parasitoidism

Orussoidea (parasitoid wood wasps) "Orussus

Apocrita

Stephanoidea "Stephanus

     

Ichneumonoidea "Atanycolus

       

Cynipoidea "Cynips

     

Proctotrupoidea plus Diaprioidea "Codrus

   

Platygastroidea "Platygastrid

   

Chalcidoidea "Chalcid

     

other superfamilies

    Aculeata

Chrysididae (jewel wasps) "Chrysididae

     

Vespidae (wasps, hornets) "European

       

Mutillidae (velvet ants) "Velvet

   

Pompilidae (spider wasps) "Spider

   

other families

       

other families

     

Scoliidae "Black-Flower-Wasp.jpg"

     

Formicidae (ants) "Meat

Apoidea

Sphecidae "Specimen

     

Bembicinae "Bembix

     

other families

       

Pemphredoninae (aphid wasps) "Pemphredon

   

Philanthinae "Dorsal

     

Anthophila (bees) "Apis

                    stinging     wasp waist evolved once

References

  1. ^ Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. p. 414. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0.
  2. ^ a b Peters, Ralph S.; Krogmann, Lars; Mayer, Christoph; Donath, Alexander; Gunkel, Simon; Meusemann, Karen; Kozlov, Alexey; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Petersen, Malte (2017). "Evolutionary History of the Hymenoptera". Current Biology. 27 (7): 1013–1018. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.01.027. PMID 28343967.
  3. ^ Heraty, John; Ronquist, Fredrik; Carpenter, James M.; Hawks, David; Schulmeister, Susanne; Dowling, Ashley P.; Murray, Debra; Munro, James; Wheeler, Ward C. (2011). "Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 60 (1): 73–88. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.04.003. PMID 21540117.
  4. ^ Sullivan, Daniel J. (2009). "Hyperparasitism". Encyclopedia of Insects. Elsevier. pp. 486–488. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-374144-8.00138-7. ISBN 978-0-12-374144-8.
  5. ^ "Parasitoid Wasps (Hymenoptera)". University of Maryland. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  6. ^ a b Branstetter, Michael G.; Danforth, Bryan N.; Pitts, James P.; Faircloth, Brant C.; Ward, Philip S.; Buffington, Matthew L.; Gates, Michael W.; Kula, Robert R.; Brady, Seán G. (2017). "Phylogenomic Insights into the Evolution of Stinging Wasps and the Origins of Ants and Bees". Current Biology. 27 (7): 1019–1025. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.03.027. PMID 28376325.
  7. ^ Schulmeister, S. (2003). "Simultaneous analysis of basal Hymenoptera (Insecta), introducing robust-choice sensitivity analysis". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 79 (2): 245–275. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2003.00233.x.
  8. ^ Schulmeister, S. "Symphyta". Retrieved 28 November 2016.

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Apocrita: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Apocrita are a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera. It includes wasps, bees, and ants, and consists of many families. It contains the most advanced hymenopterans and is distinguished from Symphyta by the narrow "waist" (petiole) formed between the first two segments of the actual abdomen; the first abdominal segment is fused to the thorax, and is called the propodeum. Therefore, it is general practice, when discussing the body of an apocritan in a technical sense, to refer to the mesosoma and metasoma (or "gaster") rather than the "thorax" and "abdomen", respectively. The evolution of a constricted waist was an important adaption for the parasitoid lifestyle of the ancestral apocritan, allowing more maneuverability of the female's ovipositor. The ovipositor either extends freely or is retracted, and may be developed into a stinger for both defense and paralyzing prey. Larvae are legless and blind, and either feed inside a host (plant or animal) or in a nest cell provisioned by their mothers.

" Apis dorsata, the giant honeybee, from family Apidae on Tribulus terrestris flower in Hyderabad, India

The Apocrita have historically been split into two groups, "Parasitica" and Aculeata, but these are rankless groupings in present classifications, if they appear at all. The term Parasitica is an artificial (paraphyletic) group comprising the majority of hymenopteran insects, with respective members living as parasitoids on what amounts to nearly half of all insects, and many noninsects. Most species are small, with the ovipositor adapted for piercing. In some hosts, the parasitoids induce metamorphosis prematurely, and in others it is prolonged. There are even species that are hyperparasites, parasitoids on other parasitoids. The Parasitica lay their eggs inside or on another insect (egg, larva or pupa) and their larvae grow and develop within or on that host. The host is nearly always killed. Many parasitic hymenopterans are used as biological control agents to control pests, such as caterpillars, true bugs and hoppers, flies, and weevils.

The Aculeata are a monophyletic group that includes those species in which the female's ovipositor is modified into a stinger to inject venom. Groups include the familiar ants, bees, and various types of parasitic and predatory wasps; it also includes all of the social hymenopterans.

Among the nonparasitic and nonsocial Aculeata, larvae are fed with captured prey (typically alive and paralyzed) or may be fed pollen and nectar. The social Aculeata feed their young prey (paper wasps and hornets), or pollen and nectar (bees), or perhaps seeds, fungi, or nonviable eggs (ants).

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