dcsimg

Biology

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This bee's nest architecture is described by Sakagami and Michener (1962): Nest architecture is Type IIIa: Lateral burrows branch off at approximately right angles from the main burrow with a cell at the end of each. Flat ground is the only or typical substrate used for nesting.

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Halictidae LifeDesk

Comprehensive Description

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Lasioglossum leucozonium (Schrank)

Apis leucozonia Schrank, 1781:406.

Halictus similis Smith, 1853:69 [female].—Dalla Torre, 1896:84.—Cockerell, 1905b:352 [taxonomic notes]; 1909:334.

Halictus leucozonius.—Dalla Torre, 1896:66 [World catalog; covers older literature].—Atwood, 1933:449 [biology].—Sandhouse, 1933:78 [taxonomic notes].

Lasioglossum leucozonium.—Michener, 1951:1106 [Nearctic catalog].—Evans and Lin, 1959:127, 130 [predators, Philanthus bilunatus Cresson, P. solivagus Say].—Mitchell, 1960:338, 344 [key, redescription].—Knerer and Atwood, 1962:163 [locality and flower records].—Knerer, 1968:83; 1969:141–144 [biology notes].—Knerer and MacKay, 1969:290–293.—Evans, 1975:891 [predator, Philanthus albopilosus Cresson].—Hurd, 1979:1957 [Nearctic catalog].—Duffield et al., 1981:323 [Dufour's gland chemistry].

TYPE MATERIAL.—The type of Apis leucozonia was not examined. The female holotype of Halictus similis, in the British Museum (Natural History), is labeled

Type H.T. [on circular label with orange-red border]/B.M. TYPE HYM. 17a.995/B.M. TYPE HYM. Halictus similis Smith 1853/similis Sm[ith] Type [handwritten].

The specimen is in fair condition, missing both antennae, the left front leg, the distal tarsomere of the left hind leg, and the tarsus of the right hind leg.

DISTRIBUTION (Figure 491).—Lasioglossum leucozonium is a holarctic species, widespread in Europe. In the New World, L. leucozonium occurs from Cape Breton Island south to New Jersey and west to Wisconsin. An isolated record is one female collected in 1974 from Blount Co., Tennessee (University of Kansas Collection). Future collecting in the Appalachians may produce more Southern records for this species.

DIAGNOSIS.—In the eastern United States, Lasioglossum leucozonium and L. zonulum are the only female Lasioglossum that have a strongly striate to reticulate dorsal propodeal surface (Figures 496, 738; in other species the surface is smooth posteriorly, Figure 358, to completely ruguloso-striolate, Figure 438). The dorsal propodeal surface of both species is nearly unique in being conspicuously short, only slightly longer than the metanotum (L. titusi, a western species, has a similarly short propodeal surface, Figure 636). The first metasomal tergum of L. leucozonium is dull with well-developed punctures separated by 1–1.5 times their width (Figure 139; tergum shiny, punctures very fine and sparse in L. zonulum, Figure 138). The pronotal lateral angle of L. zonulum is more strongly projecting than that of L. leucozonium (Figures 497, 739), and the latter species can be further differentiated from L. zonulum and other Lasioglossum in having conspicuous transverse striations on the vertex behind the ocelli (Figure 140; striations absent or weakly developed in other species).

Males of Lasioglossum leucozonium have a dense patch of hairs on the posterior edge of sternum V and a unique inverted V-shaped hair patch on sternum VI (Figure 204). Other characters helpful in recognizing L. leucozonium males are the rounded clypeus and ventrally narrowed head (Figure 493), the coarsely rugose dorsal propodeal surface, and the yellow basitarsi of the middle and hind legs.

DESCRIPTION.—FEMALE: (1) Length 8.2–10.0 mm (x = 9.0, n = 15); (2) wing length 2.2–2.5 mm (x = 2.4, n = 15); (3) abdominal width 2.8–33. (x = 3.1, n = 15).

Structure: (4) Head elongate (Figure 492; length/width ratio 0.88–0.96, x = 0.92, n = 15). (7) Supraclypeal area evenly rounded, (8) very weakly protuberant. (9) Clypeus projecting approximately 0.86 of its length below lower margin of eyes; (11) surface without median longitudinal sulcation. (14) Distance between lateral ocelli exceeding distance between lateral ocellus and eye. (23) Flagellomere 1 longer than 2 along dorsal surface. Labrum as in Figure 494; (27) distal keel moderately broad in frontal view, gradually narrowing towards apex (similar to L. zonulum); (28) distal lateral projections moderately well developed, weakly projecting; (29) fimbrial setae acutely pointed.

(32) Pronotal lateral angle moderately obtuse (dorsal edge of pronotum well developed); (33) pronotal lateral ridge incomplete, broadly interrupted by oblique lateral sulcus; (34) lower portion of lateral ridge inconspicuous, broadly rounded. (35) Mesoscutal lip rounded, not bilobed, (36) strongly elevated from pronotum. (40) Dorsal surface of propodeum about 0.61 the length of scutellum and subequal in length to metanotum, (41) not depressed centrally, (42) posterior margin indistinctly truncated (lateral angles of dorsal surface gradually sloping from propodeal triangle); (43) propodeal triangle well defined by carinate rim; (44) lateral carinae extending to dorsal surface, becoming indistinct medially. (45) Tibial spur as in Figure 38.

(46) Lateral edge of metasomal tergum II only faintly sinuate, virtually straight.

Sculpture: (47) Face shiny, (48) densely punctate below ocelli, punctures contiguous, becoming larger and less dense near antennae. (51) Supraclypeal area extremely granulate; (52) uniformly and densely punctate, punctures separated by their width or less. (53) Clypeus shiny but obscurely granulate; (54) punctures dense, nearly contiguous basally and medially to apex, slightly less dense apicolaterally. (56) Mesoscutum moderately shiny, surface microscopically patterned; (57) punctation as in Figure 497, punctures coarse, separated by their width or less laterally, obscurely formed anteriorly, separated by 2–3 times their width centrally. (58) Scutellum nearly uniformly punctate, punctation similar to that of mesoscutum. (63) Dorsal surface of propodeum (Figure 496) strongly striate laterally, becoming reticulate medially, striae and rugae reaching posterior margin; (64) surface smooth, not alveolated. (65) Metasomal tergum I moderately shiny, granulate; (66) punctation well defined, punctures deep, separated by 1–1.5 times their width posteriorly, less dense anteriorly, separated by 1–2 times their width.

Coloration: (71) Wing membrane hyaline.

Vestiture: (74) Pubescence of head white to yellowish white. (75) Pubescence of thorax white to yellowish white with some brown hairs on scutellum; (76) mesoscutal hairs moderately dense, conspicuously plumose. (77) Hind tibial hair color weakly differentiated, most hairs pale yellowish brown, dorsal hairs light brown. (78) Anterior hairs of metasomal tergum I and (78) basal hair bands of terga II–IV white. (80) Acarinarium absent, elongate hairs scattered over anterior surface of tergum I.

MALE: Similar to female except as follows: (1) length 7.2–8.8 mm (x = 7.4, n = 15); (2) wing length 1.6–2.1 mm (x = 1.8, n = 15); (3) abdominal width 1.8–2.3 (x = 2.0, n = 15). (4) Head as in Figure 493 (length/width ratio 0.95–1.04, x = 0.98, n = 15). (5) Gena wider than eye, (6) rounded, not produced posteriorly. (10) Clypeal surface broadly rounded, not flattened or depressed. Labrum as in Figure 495; (24) distal process weakly developed, rounded; (25) basal area with small circular median depression, mostly evenly rounded; (26) basal lateral depressions weakly developed. (30) Mandible short, just reaching opposing clypeal angle. (53) Clypeus weakly granulate, shiny; (54) uniformly punctate throughout, punctures separated by less than their width. (68) Clypeal maculation present (Figure 493). (69) Flagellum entirely dark or with ventral surface slightly paler than dorsum. (72) Foretarsi entirely dark; middle and hind basitarsi yellowish white except for dark distal edges, contrasting with tibiae and other tarsal segments; bases of middle, hind, and usually foretibiae with pale basal maculation.

Vestiture: Sternal vestiture as in Figure 204; (82) hairs on sternum IV erect, elongate without noticeable pattern; (83) posterior half of sternum V with dense patch of conspicuous, adpressed hairs; (84) unlike other New World Lasioglossum species except L zonulum, sternum VI with a highly characteristic hair pattern consisting of a unique, inverted V-shaped hair patch.

Terminalia: Sterna VII–VIII as in Figure 502; (85) sternum VII somewhat reduced, slender, similar to that of L. zonulum; sternum VIII without median process; like L. zonulum, sternal disc reduced, narrow. Genitalia as in Figures 498–501; (86) gonobase moderately short; (87) gonostylus large, flat, rounded apically (unlike most species except L. zonulum, gonostylus with only short, inconspicuous setae); (88) retrorse membranous lobe absent; (90) volsella with prominent lateral flange.

FLIGHT RECORDS (Figure 503).—In the New World, Lasioglossum leucozonium females have been collected from late May through October, with most records from early June. Most male records are from late July and August but range from June through October.

FLOWER RECORDS.—Floral label data suggests that L. leucozonium shows a preference for flowers of the Compositae; 89% of the female records and 64% of the male records were from composite genera. Of the 78 females noted to have scopal pollen loads, 74 (95%) were taken from members of this family (the exceptions were one female from Campanula and 3 females from Rosa). Males, unlike females, were also commonly found on Melilotus (80 records).

Summary: Females (212): Compositae 89%; Rosaceae 5%. Males (573): Compositae 64%; Leguminosae 16.4%; Polygonaceae 7%. Total: 785 in 13 familes, 34 genera as follows:

*Achillea 2(2) Anaphalis 12 Arctium 7 Aster 1, 6, Barbarea *Campanula 3(1) 2 *Centaurea 7(2), 8Chrysanthemum 1; *Cichorium 15(6), 5; Cirsium 12; Cornus 2; Cypripedium 1; Daucus 34; Epilobium 2, Erigeron 1, 101; Fagopyrum 1, 40; Helianthus 1; *Hieracium 123(44); Inula 1; *Leontodon 9(7); 75; Lotus 1, 3; Lythrum 1; Malus 3; Medicago 1, 11; Melilotus 1, 80; Ranunculus 1, 5; *Rosa 6(3); Rudbeckia 1, 12; *Solidago 23(13), 128; Sonchus 4, 1; Spiraea 1; Tragopogon 1; Trifolium 2; Verbena 26.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED.—1740 (709, 1031).

CANADA. NEW BRUNSWICK: Fredericton, Fundy National Park, Grey's Mill, Halcomb, Hampton, Kouchibouguac, Nerepis, St. Andrews, St. John, Tracadie. NOVA SCOTIA: Baddeck, Cape Breton National Park, Cheticamp, Clyde River, Hantsport, Ingonish, Kempt Shore, Kentville, Kingport, MacNab's, Mt. Smoky, Pictou, Smith's Cove, Sydney, Truro, Windsor. ONTARIO: Algonquin Park, Bancroft, Boat Lake, Bobcaygeon, Bow Lake, Brown's Bay Provincial Park, Burlington, Calabogie, Caledon, Carnarvon, Cawaja Beach, Coderich, Cooksville, Fonthill, Forks of Credit, Guild, Hepworth, Inverhuron, Keswick, Leaside, Leith, Mallorytown, Marmora, North Bay, Ottawa, Owen Sound, Port Elgin, Queenston, Sauble Falls Provincial Park, St. Catharines, St. Lawrence Island National Park, Thessalon, Thorold, Toronto. PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND: Stanhope, Prince Edward Island National Park. QUEBEC: Gatineau Park, Hudson Heights, Lac Brule, Montreal, Mont Tremblont.

UNITED STATES. CONNECTICUT: Fairfield Co.: New Canaan; Hartford Co.: Chimunac Area Children's Museum (W of Hartford); Middlesex Co.: Killingworth (0.8 mi SE Kroopa Pond); New Haven Co.: New Haven. MAINE: Franklin Co.: Dryden; Hancock Co.: Mt. Desert Island; Lincoln Co.: unspecified locality; Penobscot Co.: Old Town, Orono; Somerset Co.: Skowhegan; Washington Co.: Perry, Moosehead Wildlife Preserve (SE of Calais). MASSACHUSETTS: Bristol Co.: Westport; Middlesex Co.: Bedford, Belmont, Waltham; Nantucket Co.: Nantucket Island. MICHIGAN: Alger Co.: unspecified locality; Barry Co.: Yankee Spring Recreation Area; Berrien Co.: Pipestone Twp.; Chippewa Co.: Sault Ste. Marie, 14 mi S; Clare Co.: Harrison, Ingham Co.: East Lansing; Kalamazoo Co.: Gull Lake Biological Station; Kalkaska Co.: unspecified locality; Luce Co.: Pike Lake, 1 mi N; Mackinac Co.: Cedarville; Marquette Co.: Cranberry Bog, Ives Lake, near Lake Superior, VanRiper State Park; Ontonogan Co.: Silver City, 3 mi W; Oscoda Co.: Luzerne; Presque Isle Co.: Ocqueoc Lake; Van Buren Co.: Van Buren State Park; Wexford Co.: unspecified locality. NEW HAMPSHIRE: Belknap Co.: Meredith; Coos Co.; Grafton Co.: Dixville Notch (White Mts.), Franconia, Littleton. NEW JERSEY: Bergen Co.; Closter, Tenefly; Middlesex Co.: Oldbridge.

NEW YORK: Albany Co.: Colonie, Westerlo, 2 mi NW; Broome Co.: unspecified locality; Cayuga Co.: Fair Haven Beach State Park, Spring Lake; Franklin Co.: Tupper Lake; Jefferson Co.: Westcott Beach State Park; Hamilton Co.: Indian Lake, 6 mi E; Monroe Co.: unspecified locality; Nassau Co.: Bethpage State Park, Hempstead Lake State Park; Niagara Co.: Barker, Ft. Niagara State Park; Orange Co.: Nyack, Tuxedo, 5 mi NW; Oswego Co.: Selkirk Shores State Park; Otsego Co.: unspecified locality; Rensselaer Co.: Brainard; Rockland Co.: Spring Valley; Saratoga Co.: unspecified locality; Schoharie Co.: Cobleskill; Suffolk Co.: Caumsett State Park, Huntington; Tompkins Co.: Ulster Co.: Cherrytown. OHIO: Ashtabula Co.: Crooked Creek Farm (near Hartsgrove). RHODE ISLAND: Newport Co.: Block Island. TENNESSEE: Blount Co.: Maryville, 6.7 mi ENE. VERMONT: Addison Co.: unspecified locality; Essex Co.; unspecified locality; Windsor Co.: unspecified locality. VIRGINIA: Page Co.: Massanutten Mt. WEST VIRGINIA: Hardy Co.: Lost River State Park. WISCONSIN: Bayfield Co.: Ino, 5.5 mi W; Door Co.: N of Baileys Harbor; Oneida Co.: Minocqua, 6 mi SW; Vilas Co.: Lac du Flambeau.
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bibliographic citation
McGinley, R. J. 1986. "Studies of Halictinae (Apoidea: Halictidae), I: Revision of New World Lasioglossum Curtis." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-294. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.429

Lasioglossum leucozonium

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Lasioglossum leucozonium (Schrank, 1781), also known as Lasioglossum similis,[1] is a widespread solitary sweat bee found in North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of northern Africa.[2] While now a common bee in North America, population genetic analysis has shown that it is actually an introduced species in this region.[3] This population was most likely founded by a single female bee.[4]

Taxonomy and phylogeny

L. leucozonium is part of the subfamily Halictinae, of the Hymenoptera family Halictidae.[5] The largest, most diverse and recently diverged of the four halictid subfamilies,[6] Halictinae (sweat bees) is made up of five tribes of which L. leucozonium is part of Halictini, which contains over 2000 species.[7] Genus Lasioglossum is informally divided into two series: the Lasioglossum series and the Hemihalictus.[8] L. leucozonium is a part of the Old World series and is most closely related to L. callizonium, L. zonulum, and L. majus. However, there is genetic variation within the species depending on its location.[9]

Description and identification

While occasionally compared to its close relative, L. zonulum, L. leucozonium has distinct features that separate it from other Lasioglossum species. There are also differences in appearance between females and males.[10] Additionally, its eye has been studied in relation to the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis.[11][12]

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Top view of Lasioglossum leucozonium

Females

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Front of insect head diagram
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Hymenoptera morphology

Female L. leucozonium are recognizable by their rough and relatively short propodeal dorsal areas.[9] The smooth surface of these areas has horizontal stripes which are divided in the middle, which is a unique characteristic of Eastern United States Lasioglossum species, a feature shared only with L. zonulum. Its dull, grainy first metasomal tergum has well-developed punctures separated by 1-1.5 times their width, and its vertex behind the ocelli has stripes. In comparison to L. zonulum, the pronotal angle of L. leucozonium projects out less but is still obtuse. The pronotum has a well-developed dorsal edge and an incomplete lateral ridge, of which the lower part is unnoticeable and broadly rounded, divided by a slanted groove. With a rounded lip on the scutum of their middle thoracic segment raised from the pronotum, it has a propodeal triangle that is well defined by a carinate rim. It has an elongated head, a shiny face, and an evenly rounded, slightly protruding, and extremely grainy supraclypeal area that is uniformly and densely spotted with punctures separated by their width or less. It also has a somewhat granulated and shiny clypeus, protruding below the eyes, with a surface that has a lot of punctures without a groove in the middle. The distance between its lateral ocelli is greater than that between the lateral ocelli and the eye. While the lateral edge of its metasomal tergum II is only slightly wavy, the distal keel of its labrum is somewhat broad in the front and gradually narrows moving back to the tip. Its moderately shiny mesoscutum has a microscopically patterned surface, and its scutellum has nearly uniform punctures like that of the mesoscutum. There is white to yellowish white hair on the head and thorax, though the thorax has some brown hairs on the scutellum. The slightly separated hind tibial hair is mostly pale yellowish brown while the dorsal hairs are light brown. On the metasomal tergum I and terga II-IV, the hair is white with a band of hair on terga II-IV and elongated hairs scattered over the anterior surface of tergum I. Its mesoscutal hairs are moderately dense and seem feathery, and its wing membrane has a glassy, translucent appearance.[10]

Males

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Side view of Lasioglossum leucozonium

A male L. leucozonium is distinguished by its rounded clypeus, its ventrally narrowed head, its yellow back of the tarsus of its middle and hind legs, its wrinkled propodeal dorsal surface, its dense, flattened hair patch on the posterior edge of sternum V, and its inverted V-shaped patch of hair on sternum VI. In general, the males are similar to the females. However, other differences include rounded gena that are wider than the eye; a broadly rounded clypeal surface; a labrum with rounded and slightly developed distal processes, an evenly rounded bottom area with a small circular depression in the middle, and somewhat developed depressions on its sides; and a short mandible. The shiny clypeus is a little grainy with uniform punctures and clypeal spots. The front of the tarsus is entirely dark while the middle and hind back of the tarsus are yellowish white except for the dark distal edges. The hairs on sternum IV are erect and elongated without a noticeable pattern. Its sternum VII is somewhat smaller and slender, its sternum VIII does not have a bulge in the middle, and its sternal disc is small and narrow. With respect to genitalia, the base is moderately short with a gonostylus that is large, flat, and rounded at the tip. There is no membranous lobe that is turned backwards, but there is volsella with prominent lateral ridges.[10]

Eye

L. leucozonium fly relatively fast, meaning they must rely on their compound eyes for orientation and foraging, but only in bright light.[13] Their eyes contain over 3,000 facets with a maximum diameter of 20 µm. With a 41-µm-thick cornea consisting of a convex inner and outer cornea, it has slightly developed and fused corneal bulges.[11] Its lamina has no branching and only its L2 and L4-fiber types are spread laterally.[12]

Distribution and habitat

L. leucozonium is found in open habitats, normally on sandy or chalky soil, though it is also more rarely found on heavy clay.[1] As a holarctic bee, it can be found from Wisconsin to New Jersey up to Cape Breton Island in North America, as well as throughout Europe.[10] Its nests can sometimes be found in aggregations, although it is a solitary bee.[1]

Nest structure

Created by one to two females, the nest of L. leucozonium is made in flat to slightly inclined light soil in conditions that are sparsely vegetated or have short grass. Descending vertically, the main tunnel has cells at the end of short side tunnels. Nests can have 8 to 15 cells per female.[1]

Colony cycle

In North America, females and males are active around the same time; they are typically most active between the beginning of May and mid-August.[11] Females are most active in early June, while males are most active in late July and August.[10]

Development and reproduction

L. leucozonium only produces a single generation per year.[3] The cells of a nest fosters a sexual brood within the same year they are created. After the offspring mature, they mate and then enter hibernation.[1] While there is only a single generation in a year, it has two annual exits of female, one at the beginning where females make the nests and mate, and the other after the brood leaves to mate.[14]

Behavior and ecology

L. leucozonium is a diurnal,[11] ground-nesting bee. It hibernates during the winter, during which it stays underground. Females are singly-mated at this time.[3]

Nesting biology

A mining bee, L. leucozonium digs into the ground to make its nests. One to two females help create the nest, and for each female, 8 to 15 cells are made. Since it is a solitary bee, most likely these females are working communally rather than socially. After the creation of the nest, the offspring leave the nest, mate with others, and then hibernate underground for the winter, most likely in different places from their original nests.[1]

Social organization

As a solitary bee, L. leucozonium generally works by itself. When another female works with it to build a nest, they work communally rather than socially,[1] therefore they double the amount of work they can do rather than declining in efficiency with the added number of females.[15]

Interaction with other species

L. leucozonium, though solitary,[1] interacts with plants and parasites. Plants provide it with pollen and nectar as food for both themselves and their larvae, while parasites and predators affect their survival.[1][10]

Diet

L. leucozonium adults and larvae feed on pollen from various flowers.[1] As a generalist, they are not as picky about which flowers they choose compared to a specialist.[16] They also has been seen visiting apple trees and lowbush blueberries.[17]

Flowers

L. leucozonium most frequently visit yellow-flowered Asteraceae[1] like Hieracium caespitosum, Krigia biflora, Rudbeckia hirta,[18] but have been seen to also visit creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense)[1] and other plants, which include plants from Campanula and Rosa[10] as well as Cornus alternifolia.[18] Males are also commonly found on Melilotus.[10]

Parasitoids

While there are no parasites of the genus Sphecodes that solely parasitize L. leucozonium, S. ephippius has been shown to parasitize it as well as other Lasioglossum.[1]

Predation

Philanthus wasps are common predators of L. leucozonium.[10]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Allen, G W. "Lasioglossum leucozonium | BWARS". www.bwars.com. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
  2. ^ "Discover Life". Lasioglossum leucozonium (Schrank, 1781). 13 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  3. ^ a b c Zayed, Amro; Constantin, Şerban A.; Packer, Laurence (2007-09-12). "Successful Biological Invasion despite a Severe Genetic Load". PLoS ONE. 2 (9): e868. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000868. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 1964518. PMID 17848999.
  4. ^ Barbosa, Pedro; Letourneau, Deborah; Agrawal, Anurag (2012-06-29). Insect Outbreaks Revisited. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118253847.
  5. ^ "Lasioglossum leucozonium". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  6. ^ Schwarz, M. P.; et al. (2007). "Changing Paradigms in Insect Social Evolution: Insights from Halictine and Allodapine Bees". Annual Review of Entomology. 52: 127–150. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.51.110104.150950. hdl:2328/9446. PMID 16866635.
  7. ^ Danforth, B. N.; et al. (2008). "Phylogeny of Halictidae with emphasis on endemic African Halictinae". Apidologie. 39: 86–101. doi:10.1051/apido:2008002.
  8. ^ Michener, C.D. (2000). The Bees of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. 913.
  9. ^ a b Danforth, B. N. (1999). "Phylogeny of the bee genus Lasioglossum (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) based on mitochondrial COI sequence data" (PDF). Systematic Entomology 24, 377-393. Retrieved from [1].
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i McGinley, Ronald (1986). Studies of Halictinae (Apoidea: Halictidae), I: Revision of New World Lasioglossum Curtis (PDF). Washington D.C.: SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ZOOLOGY. pp. 3, 173–176.
  11. ^ a b c d Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi; Warrant, Eric (2004). "Retinal and optical adaptations for nocturnal vision in the halictid bee Megalopta genalis". Cell and Tissue Research. 316 (3): 377–390. doi:10.1007/s00441-004-0883-9. PMID 15064946.
  12. ^ a b Greiner, B; Ribi, W; Wcislo, W; Warrant, E (2004). "Neural organisation in the first optic ganglion of the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis". Cell and Tissue Research. 318 (2): 429–437. doi:10.1007/s00441-004-0945-z. PMID 15365811.
  13. ^ Frederiksen, Rikard; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric (2008). "Visual Reliability and Information Rate in the Retina of a Nocturnal Bee". Current Biology. 18 (5): 349–353. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.01.057. PMID 18328705.
  14. ^ Plateauxquenu, C (1993). "MODES OF SOCIALIZATION AMONG HALICTINAE (HYMENOPTERA, HALICTIDAE) .1. BIOLOGY OF HALICTINAE". Annee Biologique. 32 (4): 183–204.
  15. ^ Wcislo, W. T., Wille, A., Orozco, E. (1993). Nesting biology of tropical solitary and social sweat bees, Lasioglossum (Dialictus) figueresi Wcislo and L. (D.) aeneiventre (Friese) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). 40, 21–40. Retrieved from [2].
  16. ^ Zayed, Amro (2006). "Characterization of microsatellite loci from the solitary sweat bees Lasioglossum leucozonium and Lasioglossum oenotherae (Hymenoptera, Halictidae)" (PDF). Molecular Ecology Notes. 6 (4): 1154–1156. doi:10.1111/j.1471-8286.2006.01469.x.
  17. ^ Sheffield, Cory S.; Kevan, Peter G.; Smith, Robert F. (2003-04-01). "Bee Species of Nova Scotia, Canada, with New Records and Notes on Bionomics and Floral Relations (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 76 (2): 357–384. JSTOR 25086122.
  18. ^ a b "Lasioglossum leucozonia (flowering plants)". www.illinoiswildflowers.info. Retrieved 2015-10-16.

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Lasioglossum leucozonium: Brief Summary

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Lasioglossum leucozonium (Schrank, 1781), also known as Lasioglossum similis, is a widespread solitary sweat bee found in North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of northern Africa. While now a common bee in North America, population genetic analysis has shown that it is actually an introduced species in this region. This population was most likely founded by a single female bee.

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