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Arrowroot

Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze

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A source of starch.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 24: 275 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Description

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Tubers globose to broadly ellipsoid-globose; cork dark gray to brown; transverse section white. Leaf blade broadly obovate, ovate, or oblong-ovate, palmately 3-lobed; lobes pinnately lobed. Involucral bracts 4--12; umbel 20--40 flowered. Bracteoles to 25 cm. Perianth pale yellow, pale yellowish green, or dark purplish green; outer lobes elliptic to ovoid, inner ones broadly to narrowly ovate. Berry drooping, globose, ellipsoid-globose, or ovoid-globose. Seeds many, flattened globose; testa spongy.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 24: 275 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Habitat & Distribution

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Cultivated. Taiwan [native to Africa, S and SE Asia, N Australia, and S Pacific Islands].
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 24: 275 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Synonym

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Leontice leontopetaloides Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 313. 1753; Tacca gaogao Blanco; T. hawaiiensis H. Limpricht; T. involucrata Schumacher & Thonning; T. pinnatifida J. R. Forster & G. Forster.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 24: 275 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Erect herb up to 2 m tall, with annual leaves and flowers growing from a fleshy tuber. Leaves usually 1-3; petiole erect up to c. 1.5 m tall; lamina compound, up to c. 90 × 60 cm, broadly 3-lobed, the lobes deeply pinnately and sometimes palmately divided into variable secondary lobes. Inflorescence usually 1, rarely 2 on an erect hollow scape, up to 1.7 m tall. Flowers 10-40 in an umbel, pale green to white, yellowish or brown, usually variably tinged purple. The whole inflorescence subtended by an involucre of 4-8 bract up to c. 4 × 3 cm, green with purple margins and numerous more or less pendent floral bracts, filiform, dark purple, up to 25 cm long. Fruit berry-like, globose to ovoid, 2-3 cm long, pendent, green to orange, dark brown when dry, normally only 2-7 flowers per umbel developing fruit.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=115350
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Frequency

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Locally frequent
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cc-by-nc
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=115350
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Worldwide distribution

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Widespread in Subsaharan Africa from Senegal to Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Also in Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, Seychelles and tropical Asia to the Pacific.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=115350
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
partner site
Flora of Zimbabwe

Tacca leontopetaloides

provided by wikipedia EN

Tacca leontopetaloides is a species of flowering plant in the yam family Dioscoreaceae. It is native to Island Southeast Asia but have been introduced as canoe plants throughout the Indo-Pacific tropics by Austronesian peoples during prehistoric times. They have become naturalized to tropical Africa, South Asia, northern Australia, and Oceania.[1] Common names include Polynesian arrowroot, Fiji arrowroot, East Indies arrowroot, and pia.[3]

History of cultivation

Polynesian arrowroot is an ancient Austronesian root crop closely related to yams. It is originally native to Island Southeast Asia. It was introduced throughout the entire range of the Austronesian expansion during prehistoric times (c. 5,000 BP), including Micronesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar. Polynesian arrowroot have been identified as among the cultivated crops in Lapita sites in Palau, dating back to 3,000 to 2,000 BP.[4] It was also introduced to Sri Lanka, southern India, and possibly also Australia through trade and contact.[5]

Polynesian arrowroot was a minor staple among Austronesians. The roots are bitter if not prepared properly, thus it was only cultivated as a secondary crop to staples like Dioscorea alata and Colocasia esculenta. Its importance increased for settlers in the Pacific Islands, where food plants were scarcer, and it was introduced to virtually all the inhabited islands. They were valued for their ability to grow in low islands and atolls, and were often the staple crops in islands with these conditions. In larger islands, they were usually allowed to grow feral and were useful only as famine food. Several cultivars have been developed in Polynesia due to the centuries of artificial selection. The starch extracted from the root with traditional methods can last for a very long time, and thus can be stored or traded.[4] The starch can be cooked in leaves to make starchy puddings, similar to the use of starch extracted from sago palms (Metroxylon sagu).[6] Due to the introduction of modern crops, it is rarely cultivated today.[4]

Description

Several petioles 17–150 cm (6.7–59.1 in) in length extend from the center of the plant, on which the large leaves (30–70 cm or 12–28 in long and up to 120 cm or 47 in wide) are attached. The leaf's upper surface has depressed veins, and the under surface is shiny with bold yellow veins. Flowers are borne on tall stalks in greenish-purple clusters, with long trailing bracts. The plant is usually dormant for part of the year and dies down to the ground. Later, new leaves will arise from the round underground tuber. The tubers are hard and potato-like, with a brown skin and white interior.[3]

Uses

The tubers of Polynesian arrowroot contain starch, making it an important food source for many Pacific Island cultures, primarily for the inhabitants of low islands and atolls. Polynesian arrowroot was prepared into a flour to make a variety of puddings. The tubers were first grated and then allowed to soak in fresh water. The settled starch was rinsed repeatedly to remove the bitterness and then dried. The flour was mixed with mashed taro, breadfruit, or Pandanus fruit extract and mixed with coconut cream to prepare puddings. In Hawaii, a local favorite is haupia, which was originally made with pia flour, coconut cream and kō (cane sugar).[7] Today, Polynesian arrowroot has been largely replaced by cornstarch.

The starch was additionally used to stiffen fabrics, and on some islands, the stem's bast fibres were woven into mats.

In traditional Hawaiian medicine the raw tubers were eaten to treat stomach ailments. Mixed with water and red clay, the plant was consumed to treat diarrhea and dysentery. This combination was also used to stop internal hemorrhaging in the stomach and colon and applied to wounds to stop bleeding.[3]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Tacca leontopetaloides". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2009-11-17.
  2. ^ The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 17 November 2015
  3. ^ a b c "Tacca leontopetaloides (Dioscoreaceae)". Meet the Plants. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-11-17.
  4. ^ a b c Farley, Gina; Schneider, Larissa; Clark, Geoffrey; Haberle, Simon G. (December 2018). "A Late Holocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Ulong Island, Palau, from starch grain, charcoal, and geochemistry analyses". Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 22: 248–256. doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.09.024.
  5. ^ Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994). "Traditional Arrowroot Production and Utilization in the Marshall Islands". Journal of Ethnobiology. 14 (2): 211–234.
  6. ^ Thaman, R.R. (1994). "Ethnobotany of the Pacific Island Coastal Plains". In Morrison, John; Geraghty, Paul; Crowl, Linda (eds.). Fauna, Flora, Food and Medicine: Science of Pacific Island Peoples. 3. Institute of Pacific Studies. pp. 147–184. ISBN 9789820201064.
  7. ^ Brennan 2000, pp. 252–267

References

  • Brennan, Jennifer (2000). Tradewinds & Coconuts: A Reminiscence & Recipes from the Pacific Islands. Periplus. ISBN 962-593-819-2..

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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Tacca leontopetaloides: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Tacca leontopetaloides is a species of flowering plant in the yam family Dioscoreaceae. It is native to Island Southeast Asia but have been introduced as canoe plants throughout the Indo-Pacific tropics by Austronesian peoples during prehistoric times. They have become naturalized to tropical Africa, South Asia, northern Australia, and Oceania. Common names include Polynesian arrowroot, Fiji arrowroot, East Indies arrowroot, and pia.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN